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The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine
Board on Science Education
Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education


Commissioned Papers

Science Learning, Kindergarten through Eighth Grade


Informal Science Learning Environments: A Review of Research to Inform K-8 Schooling


Kirsten M. Ellenbogen and Reed Stevens


Sociocultural Approaches to Learning Science in Classrooms 


Ellice Forman and Wendy Sink


Formative Assessment in K-8 Science Education: A Conceptual Review


Erin Marie Furtak


The Development of Scientific Reasoning Skills: What Psychologist Contribute to an Understanding of Elementary Science Learning


Corinne Zimmerman



These papers were commissioned for the Committee Science Learning: Kindergarten through Eight Grade through support from the Merck Institute for Science Education, the National Science Foundation and the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. These papers were presented at committee meetings between November 2004 and January 2006. Opinions and statements included in the paper are solely those of the individual author, and are not necessarily adopted or endorsed or verified as accurate by the Board on Science Education or the National Academy of Sciences, including the National Academy of Engineering, Institute of Medicine, or National Research Council.


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