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The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine
Committee on Law and Justice
Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education
Catalog of Federal Funding Sources
Youth with, At-Risk of, Juvenile Justice Involvement (ages 10-24 years)
 
 
Prepared by Cheryl D. Hayes, The Finance Project
  
May 18, 2014

Overview
This catalog of federal funding sources for youth with or at-risk of juvenile justice involvement programs and services -- including research and data collection -- presents information on 110 federal programs located in nine cabinet level departments and two independent agencies. These programs can be used to fund state and local initiatives for primary prevention, diversion, community supervision, placement (including detention, incarceration, institutionalization, and group care), as well as aftercare.
 
The catalog is intended to help policy makers, program developers and managers, service providers, community leaders, advocates and researchers identify sources of funding for a wide array of state and local initiatives for youth ages 10 through 24. To facilitate this process, the catalog is indexed in seven broad domains. Within each domain, programs are further categorized to identify specific program purposes and activities that can be supported. Many of the federal programs described here have broad statements of purpose and can fund a variety of programs, supportive services, systems-building, research and data collection.
 
The information contained in the catalog is presented in multiple formats to facilitate its use. These include:
  • "At-a-glance" matrix of federal programs by domain and category
  • One-page program descriptions, arranged alphabetically, that present the following information:
    • Name of the funding source or program
    • Responsible federal funding agency
    • Authorizing legislation
    • Funding type (e.g., entitlement, formula grant, discretionary program or direct payment)
    • Brief description of the program's purpose
    • Brief description of how funds may be used
    • Brief description of entities eligible to apply for these funds
    • Application process
    • Funding award procedure
    • Funding history, including current and past allocation amounts
    • Matching requirements, if any
    • Potential partners
  • List of programs by federal agency
 
Most programs can support more than one functional or expenditure category. This means that many program sources are targeted broadly and, consequently, multiple funding streams will often be applicable to the purposes of a variety of programs, supportive services and system-building aimed at addressing the needs of youth who are in or at-risk of juvenile justice involvement. Similarly, it is important to recognize that the functional and expenditure categories indentified for any particular funding program are based on program intent and that some programs may support activities beyond those that are described here.
 
Methodology
This catalog is based on the established format and presentation of federal program information in Finding Funding: A Guide to Federal Sources for Youth Programs, developed by The Finance Project in its Finding Funding Series. Information used to develop this catalog was obtained from several sources, including the Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance (http://www.cdfa.gov), agency websites, available research and literature and phone conversations with federal agency personnel. For each funding source identified, The Finance Project staff prepared a description based on the available information and tailored the program descriptions for audiences interested in finding funding for programs, supportive services, systems-building, research and data collection related to youth ages 10 through 24, who are in, or at risk of, juvenile justice involvement. 
Every effort was made to ensure that all program entries are complete and correct as of the date of the delivery of this paper to the National Academies (May 19, 2014). Where information is not provided it is because information was not available from the Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance or other federal agency sources. Information concerning funding history presents federal obligated amounts for FY 2013 and 2014.  In some cases, current funding information was not available. In others, programs are authorized, but funds were not obligated in one or both of the relevant fiscal years. Additionally, some programs may not be funded in the coming fiscal years. For this reason, it is important for policy makers, program developers and managers, service providers, community leaders, advocates and researchers to track changes in the political and legislative environment and the outcome of annual authorization and appropriations processes that may have an impact on federal programming for this target population.
 
Categorization of Federal Funding Programs
As shown in Figure 1.1, information on federal funding programs is organized under seven broad domains and an array of relevant program categories within each domain. 
  • Prevention and treatment of fetal alcohol syndrome, child abuse or neglect, trauma
  • Medical and dental care
  • Nutrition
  • Substance abuse treatment
  • Mental health and behavioral services (including anger management)
  • Recreation and fitness
  • Reproductive health services
  • Academic support
  • School discipline
  • Other: Arts/culture, family literacy
  • Bullying prevention
  • Dropout prevention and recovery
  • Alternative schooling, GED
  • Special education supports
  • Transition planning
  • Character building
  • Civic engagement
  • Community service
  • Mentoring
  • Career exposure/vocational/occupational training and work experience
  • Job placement and work experience
  • Summer employment
  • Family support services
  • Family literacy
  • Family counseling
  • Peer interventions
  • Violence reduction
  • Gang awareness and diversion
  • Financial literacy
  • Law enforcement and policing practices (related to youth)
  • School resource officers
  • Teen courts/specialty courts
  • Indigent defense
  • Risk assessment
  • Day or evening reporting centers
  • Financial Literacy
  • Housing
  • Transportation
  • Multi-system service centers
  • Alternatives to detention
  • Professional development (for practitioners serving youth/discipline)
  • Case management
  • Planning, coordination, collaboration
  • Evaluation
  • Technical assistance and training
  • Data collection and information technology 
Additionally, within each domain and program category, The Finance Project staff designated the applicable stages of youth involvement in the juvenile justice system. These include:
  • Primary Prevention (PP)
  • Diversion (D)
  • Community supervision (CS)
  • Placement (including detention, incarceration, institutionalization, group care) (P)
  • Aftercare (A)
 
Figure 1.1: Youth with, or At-Risk of, Juvenile Justice Involvement (ages 10-24 years)
Prevention and
Treatment of fetal alcohol syndrome, child abuse or neglect, trauma
Academic Support PP, D, CS, P, A
 
Character Building PP, D, CS, P, A
Family Support Services PP, D, CS, P,A
Law Enforcement and Policing Practices (youth-related) PP, D, CS, P, A
Professional development (for practitioners providing discipline/services to youth) PP, D,CS, P, A
Professional development (for practitioners providing discipline/services to youth)
Medical and Dental Care PP,D, CS, P, A
School Discipline D, CS, A
Civic Engagement PP, D, CS, P, A
Family Literacy PP, D, CS, P,A
School Resource Officers PP, D, CS, A
Housing PP
Case management
Nutrition PP, D, CS, P, A
Other: Arts/Culture
Family Literacy
ESLPP
Community Service PP, D, CS, A
Family Counseling PP, CS, P,A
Teen courts / Specialty courts PP, D, CS, A
Transportation PP
Planning coordination and collaboration
Substance Abuse Treatment D, CS, P, A
Bullying Prevention D, CS, P, A
Mentoring PP, CS, D, P, A
Peer Interventions PP, D, CS, P,A
Indigent Defense D, CS, P, A
Collaborations – community agencies PP, D, CS, P, A
Evaluation
Mental Health and Behavioral Services (incl Anger Management) D, CS, P, A
Dropout prevention and recovery PP,D, CS, A
Vocational and Occupational Training
Work Experience PP,D, CS, P, A
Violence ReductionPP
Risk Assessment PP, D, CS, A
Short Term Crisis Placements D, CS, A
Technical Assistance and Training
Recreation and Fitness PP, CS ,P, A
Alternative schooling, GED D, CS, P, A
Job Placement PP, D, CS, P, A
Gang Awareness and Diversion PP, D, CS, P, A
Day Or Evening Reporting Centers D, CS, P, A
Alternatives to Detention D, CS, A
Data and Information Technology
Reproductive Services PP, D, CS, P, A
Special Education Supports PP,D, CS,P, A
Summer Employment PP, D, CS, P, A
Financial Literacy PP, D, CS, P
 
Multi-System Service Centers PP, D,CS, P
Facilities Improvement
 
Transition planningA
 
 
 
 
Management systems improvement
Stage of Involvement: Primary Prevention (PP), Diversion (D), Community Supervision (CS), Placement (including Detention, Incarceration, Institution, Group Care) – (P), Aftercare (A)
 
Analysis of Federal Programs
The Finance Project staff identified 110 federal programs that can help support programs and initiatives to serve youth who are involved in or at risk of involvement in the juvenile justice system. As noted above, these programs are managed by nine federal cabinet level departments and two independent agencies. More than two thirds of these federal programs are in the Department of Education and the Department of Health and Human Services. The remaining third are distributed across the remaining seven departments and two independent agencies. Only 13 of the identified programs are operated by the federal Department of Justice. In terms of the number of relevant programs and the amount of federal funding, the Department of Justice plays a less significant role in operating programs to prevent and address the causes and consequences of juvenile justice involvement than do other federal agencies.
 
Federal programs can fund a wide array of activities to prevent juvenile justice involvement, provide diversionary programs, serve youth who are in community supervision, placement and aftercare. However, the vast majority fund activities to serve youth living in their communities, not those who are in detention or who are incarcerated in youth or adult penal facilities. Services for these youth are funded primarily by state funding for juvenile and adult justice.
 
Several observations about the characteristics of federal programs for youth who are in or at risk of involvement in juvenile justice are worth note:
  • Nearly half of federal programs are aimed at providing exposure to career and employment options, vocational education and work preparedness. (54)
  • Approximately 40 percent of programs provide academic support, services to prevent school dropout or support dropout recovery (48);
  • More than a third of the identified programs cover substance abuse prevention and treatment as well as mental and behavioral health treatment (37), which is closely linked with juvenile delinquency;
  • Fewer than 20 programs serve families as well as vulnerable youth -- for example by funding family support services and/or family literacy;
  • Juvenile delinquency prevention is an explicit purpose of only 27 identified programs. Most focus on boosting educational performance and opportunity, ensuring employment preparedness and experience, reducing violence and risky behaviors, and supporting physical and mental health.


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