Committee on Proactive Policing—Effects on Crime, Communities, and Civil Liberties
David Weisburd (Chair) is a distinguished professor of criminology, law and society and director of the Center for Evidence-Based Crime Policy at George Mason University. He also holds an appointment as the Walter E. Meyer professor of law and criminal justice at the Hebrew University Faculty of Law in Jerusalem. He serves as a senior fellow at the Police Foundation in Washington DC and is chair of its Research Advisory Committee. Dr. Weisburd is an elected fellow of the American Society of Criminology and of the Academy of Experimental Criminology, and is a member of the OJP Science Advisory Board, the Campbell Collaboration Crime and Justice Group and the National Institute of Justice/Harvard University Executive Session in Policing. He is also a member of the Committee on Law and Justice of the National Research Council, the NRC Roundtable on Crime Trends, and served on the NRC working group on Evaluating AntiCrime Programs and its panel on Police Practices and Policies. Dr. Weisburd is author or editor of more than twenty books and over one hundred scientific articles that cover a wide range of criminal justice research topics, including crime at place, white collar crime, policing, and criminal justice statistics and social deviance. He is the 2010 recipient of the Stockholm Prize in Criminology, the 2014 recipient of the Campbell Collaboration’s Boruch Award for Distinctive Research Contributions to Policy, and he was recently awarded the Israel Prize in Social Work and Criminological Research. Dr. Weisburd received his Ph.D. in sociology from Yale University.
Hassan Aden has over 28 years of law enforcement service and proudly serves as the Director of Research and Programs at the International Association of Chiefs of Police. He previously served as the Chief of Police with the Greenville (NC) Police Department. He has extensive experience in the administrative, investigative and operational aspects of policing, and has demonstrable success in working with questions such as crime control policies and strategic planning. While Chief of Police at the Greenville Police Department, he and all of the Greenville Police staff were deeply committed to community partnerships aimed at reducing crime and improving the quality of life in the City of Greenville. Prior to his appointment as Chief of Police for the Greenville Police Department, he served in the Alexandria (VA) Police Department for 26 years rising to the rank of deputy chief of police. Due to his commitment to the continued professionalization of policing, he serves as Commissioner for the Commission on Accreditation for Law Enforcement Agencies (CALEA). He is also an active member of the Police Executive Research Forum and serves as a Senior Executive Fellow with the Police Foundation in Washington, DC. He is a graduate of American University’s Institute for the Study of Public Policy Implementation (ISPPI) from which he earned a Master of Public Administration Certificate in 2007. In December 2009, Mr. Aden graduated from American University’s School of Public Affairs earning a Master of Public Administration (MPA) degree.
Anthony Braga is the Don M. Gottfredson Professor of Evidence-Based Criminology in the School of Criminal Justice at Rutgers University and a Senior Research Fellow in the Program in Criminal Justice Policy and Management at Harvard University. He is also a member of the University of Chicago Crime Lab. He is the immediate Past President and an elected Fellow of the Academy of Experimental Criminology. Dr. Braga’s research involves collaborating with criminal justice, social service, and community-based organizations to address illegal access to firearms, reduce gang and group-involved violence, and control crime hot spots. His work with the Boston Police Department on its Safe Street Teams program was recently recognized by the International Association of Chiefs of Police with its Community Policing Award (2011) and Excellence in Law Enforcement Research Award (2011). Dr. Braga has served as a consultant on controlling and preventing violent crime problems to many Federal, State, and local criminal justice agencies including the U.S. Department of Justice; U.S. Department of the Treasury; Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives; Massachusetts Executive Office of Public Safety and Security; Massachusetts State Police; Baltimore Police Department; and many others. Dr. Braga’s work on controlling and preventing violent crime has received numerous awards. He was a recipient of the United States Attorney General’s Award for Outstanding Contributions to Community Partnerships for Public Safety (2009) and the U.S. Department of Justice Project Safe Neighborhoods’ Distinguished Service by a Research Partner Award (2010). Dr. Braga has published numerous scholarly papers and his work has been published in top criminology and criminal justice journals such as Criminology, Journal of Quantitative Criminology, Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, and Criminology & Public Policy. His work has also appeared in top medical and public health journals such as New England Journal of Medicine, Journal of the American Medical Association, and the American Journal of Public Health. With colleagues, he has authored and edited several books such as Policing Problem Places: Crime Hot Spots and Effective Prevention (Oxford University Press, 2010), Problem-Oriented Policing and Crime Prevention (Criminal Justice Press, 2008), Legitimacy and Criminal Justice: A Comparative Perspective (Russell Sage Foundation Press, 2007), and Police Innovation: Contrasting Perspectives (Cambridge University Press, 2006). Dr. Braga received his M.P.A. from Harvard University and his Ph.D. in Criminal Justice from Rutgers University.
Jim Bueermann is the president of the Police Foundation, a national, nonpartisan, nonprofit organization dedicated to supporting innovation and improvement in policing through its research, technical assistance, training, professional services, and communication programs. As president, he directs all foundation operations and is a voting member of the board of directors. Mr. Bueermann worked for the Redlands Police Department for 33 years, serving in every unit within the department. He was appointed chief of police and director of Housing, Recreation and Senior Services in 1998. He retired in June 2011. As chief, he developed a holistic approach to community policing and problem solving that consolidated housing and recreation services into the police department and was based on risk and protective factor research into adolescent problem prevention. This strategy was recognized as one of the country’s 25 most innovative programs in the 2000 Innovations in American Government program sponsored by Harvard’s Kennedy School. He was the first police chief to be inducted as an honorary fellow in the Academy of Experimental Criminology and into the halls of fame at George Mason University’s Center for Evidence Based Crime Policy and the School of Behavioral Science at California State University, San Bernardino. He is on policing advisory boards at Cambridge University, George Mason University, John Jay College, and the Council for State Governments and works extensively in the field of evidence-based policing, innovative technologies, and prisoner reentry. Prior to coming to the Police Foundation, he was an executive fellow with the US Department of Justice’s National Institute of Justice and a senior fellow at George Mason University.
Mr. Bueermann is a graduate of California State University, San Bernardino, the University of Redlands, the FBI National Academy, and the California Command College.
Philip J. Cook (NAM) is ITT/Sanford professor of public policy and professor of economics and sociology at Duke University. He has conducted research on various aspects of public health policy, social policy, and crime and criminal justice, with a sustained focus on gun violence and gun policy. He serves as co-organizer of the Workshop on the Economics of Crime of the National Bureau of Economic Research. His current work is in the areas of truancy prevention, school crime prevention, school trajectories, prisoner reentry, economics of crime prevention, and alcohol control policy. He is a member of the Institute of Medicine and an honorary fellow of the American Society of Criminology and of the Academy of Experimental Criminology.
Dr. Cook has a Ph.D. in economics from the University of California at Berkeley.
Phillip A. Goff is an Associate Professor of Social Psychology at the University of California, Los Angeles, currently on leave as a Visiting Scholar at the Harvard Kennedy School. He is the co-founder and president of the Center for Policing Equity, and an expert in contemporary forms of racial bias and discrimination, as well as the intersections of race and gender. Dr. Goff has conducted work exploring the ways in which racial prejudice is not a necessary precondition for racial discrimination. That is, despite the normative conceptualization of racial discrimination—that it stems naturally from prejudiced explicit or implicit attitudes—his research demonstrates that contextual factors can facilitate racially unequal outcomes. Most recently, Dr. Goff led the CPE in becoming one of three Principal Investigators for the U.S. Department of Justice's National Initiative for Building Community Trust and Justice. The National Initiative will contribute information to another major project by the CPE, the National Justice Database, the first national database on racial disparities in police stops and use of force. Dr. Goff’s model of evidence-based approaches to fairness has been supported by the National Science Foundation, Department of Justice, Russell Sage Foundation, W.K. Kellogg Foundation, Open Society Foundations, Open Society Institute-Baltimore, Atlantic Philanthropies, William T. Grant Foundation, the COPS Office, the Major Cities Chiefs Association, the NAACP LDF, NIMH, SPSSI, the Woodrow Wilson Foundation, the Ford Foundation, and the Mellon Foundation among others. Dr. Goff was a witness for the President’s Task Force on 21st Century Policing and has presented before Members of Congress and Congressional Panels, Senate Press Briefings, and White House Advisory Councils.
Rachel A. Harmon is the Sullivan & Cromwell professor of law at the University of Virginia. Her research focuses on the legal regulation of law enforcement. She serves as associate reporter on the American Law Institute’s recently announced project on police investigations.
From 1998 to 2006, Harmon served as a prosecutor at the U.S. Department of Justice. After a brief stint at the U.S. Attorney’s Office in the Eastern District of Virginia, Harmon worked in the Civil Rights Division, Criminal Section, prosecuting hate crimes and official misconduct cases, many of which involved excessive force or sexual abuse by police officers. Prior to that position, she clerked for Judge Guido Calabresi of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit and Justice Stephen Breyer of the U.S. Supreme Court. Ms. Harmon has an M.Sc. in political theory and an M.Sc. in political sociology, both with distinction, from the London School of Economics, and a J.D. from Yale Law School.
Amelia Haviland is as an Associate Professor with the Heinz College. Prior to this position she was a Senior Statistician at the RAND Corporation. She is the recipient of the Anna Loomis McCandless Chair, a Thomas Lord Distinguished Scholar Award (Institute for Civil Justice, RAND), a MacArthur Fellowship for Younger Scholars (MacArthur Research Network on Social Interactions and Economic Inequality), and a Wray Jackson Smith Scholarship (Section on Government Statistics, American Statistical Association). Dr. Haviland’s research focuses on causal analysis with observational data and analysis of longitudinal and complex survey data applied to policy issues in health and criminology. For example, she recently led a team of researchers assessing the effects of high deductible account-based health insurance plans on health care costs, use, and disparities in the most comprehensive study on the topic to date. Other health policy work involves assessing mechanisms for health disparities for Medicare recipients and exploring connections between patient safety and recent reductions in medical malpractice claims. An example of her work in criminology is methodological work extending group-based trajectory modeling (semi-parametric longitudinal mixture models) to address causal questions with application to assessing the effect of gang membership on violent delinquency. She served on the National Research Council panel tasked with assessing the research evidence on whether there is a deterrent effect of the death penalty. This and other work of Dr. Haviland’s has been published in journals such as Psychometrika, Psychological Methods, Review of Economics and Statistics, Journal of Human Resources, Survey Methodology, Criminology, Health Affairs, Health Services Research, Medical Care, and the Forum for Health Economics and Policy.
Dr. Haviland received a joint Ph.D. in statistics and public policy from Carnegie Mellon University.
Cynthia Lum is associate professor in the Department of Criminology, Law and Society and director of the Center for Evidence-Based Crime Policy. She researches primarily in the area of policing, security, and evidence-based crime policy. Her works in this area have included evaluations of policing interventions and police technology, understanding the translation and receptivity of research in policing, and assessing security efforts of federal agencies. With Drs. Christopher Koper and Cody Telep she has developed the Evidence-Based Policing Matrix and its associated demonstration projects, which are translation tools designed to help police practitioners incorporate research into their strategic and tactical portfolio. She is a member of the Research Advisory Committee of the IACP, the International Advisory Committee of the Scottish Institute for Police Research, the Board of Trustees for the Pretrial Justice Institute, and a Fulbright Specialist. She is the North American editor for Policing: A Journal of Policy and Practice (Oxford), and the founding editor of Translational Criminology Magazine and the Springer Series on Translational Criminology. Dr. Lum holds a Ph.D in criminology and criminal justice from the University of Maryland at College Park.
Charles F. Manski has been Board of Trustees professor in economics at Northwestern University since 1997. He previously was a faculty member at the University of Wisconsin-Madison (1983-98), the Hebrew University of Jerusalem (1979-83), and Carnegie Mellon University (1973-80). Dr. Manski’s research spans econometrics, judgment and decision, and the analysis of public policy. He is author of Public Policy in an Uncertain World (Harvard, 2013), Identification for Prediction and Decision (Harvard 2007), Social Choice with Partial Knowledge of Treatment Response (Princeton 2005), Partial Identification of Probability Distributions (Springer, 2003), Identification Problems in the Social Sciences(Harvard 1995), and Analog Estimation Methods in Econometrics (Chapman & Hall, 1988), co-author of College Choice in America (Harvard 1983), and co-editor of Evaluating Welfare and Training Programs (Harvard 1992) and Structural Analysis of Discrete Data with Econometric Applications (MIT 1981). He has been editor of the Journal of Human Resources (1991-94), co-editor of the Econometric Society Monograph Series (1983-88), member of the Editorial Board of the Annual Review of Economics (2007-13), and associate editor of the Annals of Applied Statistics (2006-10), Journal of Economic Perspectives (1986-89), Econometrica, (1980-88), the Journal of the American Statistical Association (1983-85, 2002- 04), and Transportation Science (1978-84). He has served as director of the Institute for Research on Poverty (1988-91) and as chair of the Board of Overseers of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (1994-98). At the National Research Council, he has been chair of the Committee on Data and Research for Policy on Illegal Drugs (1998-2001) and a member of the Board on Mathematical Sciences and their Applications (2004-2007), the Committee on National Statistics (1996-2000), and the Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education (1992-98), and the Report Review Committee (2010). Dr. Manski is an elected fellow of the Econometric Society, The American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and the British Academy. He was elected a member of the National Academy of Sciences in 2009. He received his B.S. and Ph.D. in economics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Stephen Mastrofski is University Professor in the Department of Criminology, Law and Society and Director of the Center for Justice Leadership and Management at George Mason University. His research interests include police discretion, police organizations and their reform, and systematic field observation methods in criminology. He has published extensively on the application of systematic observation methods to street-level police work. For several years Dr. Mastrofski led a large team of researchers supporting and evaluating the transformation of the Trinidad and Tobago Police Service. He is currently engaged in research projects on measuring the quality of street-level policing, assessing the role of first-line police supervisors, and measuring police organization development and change. He is a co-principal investigator on the NIJ-funded National Police Research Platform project. He has served on the editorial boards of seven criminology and criminal justice journals, currently serving on the boards of two international policing journals. Dr. Mastrofski has been a Visiting Fellow at the National Institute of Justice and the Office of Community Oriented Policing and has consulted for a variety of public and private organizations. In 2000, he received the O.W. Wilson Award from the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences for education, research, and service on policing. He served on the National Academy of Sciences panel on Police Services and Practices that published the 2004 book, Fairness and Effectiveness in Policing: The Evidence. In 2008, he and his coauthors received the Law and Society Association’s article prize for their article using different organizational theories to explain Compstat’s implementation as a police reform. In 2010, he was elected a Fellow of the American Society of Criminology. Dr. Mastrofski holds a Ph.D. in political science from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
Tracey L. Meares is the Walton Hale Hamilton Professor of Law at Yale University. Before arriving at Yale, she was Max Pam Professor of Law and Director of the Center for Studies in Criminal Justice at the University of Chicago Law School. She was, at both The University of Chicago and Yale Law Schools, the first African American woman to be granted tenure. Before going into academia, Ms. Meares held positions clerking for the Honorable Harlington Wood, Jr., of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit and as an Honors Program Trial Attorney in the Antitrust Division of the United States Department of Justice. She has worked extensively with the federal government, having served on the Committee on Law and Justice of the National Academy of Sciences from 2004–2011. Additionally, she has served on two National Research Council committees: one to review research on police policy and practices, which produced the book, Fairness and Effectiveness in Policing: The Evidence (2004, Skogan and Frydl, eds.) and another to review the National Institute of Justice, Strengthening the National Institute of Justice, (2010, Welford, Chemers and Schuck, eds). In November of 2010, Ms. Meares was named by Attorney General Eric Holder to sit on the Department of Justice’s newly-created Science Advisory Board. And in December 2014, President Obama named her as a member of his Task Force on 21st Century Policing. Ms. Meares’s teaching and research interests focus on criminal procedure and criminal law policy, with a particular emphasis on empirical investigation of these subjects. She has written widely on these topics in both the academic and trade press. To this end, Ms. Meares has been engaged in a number of action-oriented research projects in Chicago, Northern California, and several sites across New York State focused on violence reduction through legitimacy-enhancing strategies. Together with Tom Tyler, she directs the Justice Collaboratory at Yale Law School, which plays a central role, along with John Jay University and the Center for Policing Equity at UCLA in a new federal initiative to build trust and confidence in the criminal justice system. Ms. Meares has a B.S. in general engineering from the University of Illinois and a J.D. from the University of Chicago Law School.
Daniel S. Nagin is Teresa and H. John Heinz III University professor of public policy and statistics in the Heinz College, Carnegie Mellon University. He is an elected fellow of the American Society of Criminology and of the American Society for the Advancement of Science and is the 2006 recipient of the American Society of Criminology’s Edwin H Sutherland Award. His research focuses on the evolution of criminal and antisocial behaviors over the life course, the deterrent effect of criminal and non-criminal penalties on illegal behaviors, and the development of statistical methods for analyzing longitudinal data. Dr. Nagin’s work has appeared in such diverse outlets as the American Economic Review, American Sociological Review, Journal of the American Statistical Association, American Journal of Sociology, Archives of General Psychiatry, Criminology, Child Development, Psychological Methodology, Law & Society Review, Crime and Justice Annual Review, Operations Research, and Stanford Law Review. He is also the author of Group-based Modeling of Development (Harvard University Press, 2005). Dr. Nagin received his Ph.D. in 1976 from the now H. John Heinz III School of Public Policy and Management, Carnegie Mellon University.
Emily Owens is an associate professor of criminology at the University of Pennsylvania. She studies a wide range of topics in the economics of crime, including policing, sentencing, and the impact of local public policies on criminal behavior. She focuses primarily on the effect of government regulations on crime, which includes studying how government policies affect the prevalence of criminal activity as well as the structure and response of the criminal justice system. Her current work includes research projects on police training and performance, alcohol regulation, immigration policy, and economic development programs. Previously, she was at Cornell University in policy and management. Dr. Owens has a B.S. in applied math and economics from Brown University and an M.A. and a Ph.D. in economics from the University of Maryland.
Steven Raphael is Professor of Public Policy at UC Berkeley. His research focuses on the economics of low-wage labor markets, housing, and the economics of crime and corrections. His most recent research focuses on the social consequences of the large increases in U.S. incarceration rates. Dr. Raphael also works on immigration policy, research questions pertaining to various aspects of racial inequality, the economics of labor unions, social insurance policies, homelessness, and low-income housing. Dr. Raphael is the author (with Michael Stoll) of Why are so Many Americans in Prison? (published by the Russell Sage Foundation Press) and The New Scarlet Letter? Negotiating the U.S. Labor Market with a Criminal Record (published by the W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research). He is also editor in chief of Industrial Relations and a research fellow at the University of Michigan National Poverty Center, the University of Chicago Crime Lab, IZA, Bonn Germany, and the Pubic Policy Institute of California. Dr. Raphael holds a Ph.D. in economics from UC Berkeley.
Jerry Ratcliffe is a Professor and the chair of the Department of Criminal Justice at Temple University, Philadelphia, PA. He also directs the university’s Center for Security and Crime Science, and is a member of the Science Advisory Board for the Office of Justice Programs in the U.S. Department of Justice. Prior to coming to Philadelphia, he was a police officer with London’s Metropolitan Police for over a decade, and a senior research analyst with the Australian Institute of Criminology. Dr. Ratcliffe’s current research projects include a SMART Policing Initiative collaboration with the Philadelphia Police Department (funded by the Bureau of Justice Assistance); and with colleague Ralph Taylor he is running the NIJ-funded Philadelphia Predictive Policing Experiment, the largest randomized field experiment in predictive policing ever undertaken. He is a research adviser to the Philadelphia Police Commissioner and is currently working with the Criminal Investigative Division of the FBI.
Dr. Ratcliffe has twice received the Professional Service Award from the International Association of Law Enforcement Intelligence Analysts (IALEIA), and in 2010 he was awarded the LEIU Distinguished Service Award for continued dedication and outstanding contributions to the law enforcement community. He has published over 60 research articles and four books: Intelligence-Led Policing, Strategic Thinking in Criminal Intelligence, GIS and Crime Mapping and Policing Illegal Drug Markets. Dr. Ratcliffe completed a first class B.Sc. with honors in Geography at the University of Nottingham (UK) and has a Ph.D. from the same institution.
Tom Tyler is the Macklin Fleming Professor of Law and Professor of Psychology at Yale Law School. He is also a professor at the Yale School of Management. He joined the Yale Law faculty in January 2012 as a professor of law and psychology. He was previously a university professor at New York University, where he taught in both the psychology department and the law school. Prior to joining NYU in 1997, he taught at the University of California, Berkeley and at Northwestern University. Dr. Tyler’s research explores the role of justice in shaping people’s relationships with groups, organizations, communities, and societies. In particular, he examines the role of judgments about the justice or injustice of group procedures in shaping legitimacy, compliance, and cooperation. Dr. Tyler is the author of several books, including Why People Cooperate (2011); Legitimacy and Criminal Justice (2007); Why People Obey the Law (2006); Trust in the Law (2002); and Cooperation in Groups (2000). He was awarded the Harry Kalven prize for “paradigm shifting scholarship in the study of law and society” by the Law and Society Association in 2000, and in 2012, was honored by the International Society for Justice Research with its Lifetime Achievement Award for innovative research on social justice. Dr. Tyler holds a B.A. in psychology from Columbia University and an M.A. and Ph.D. in social psychology from the University of California at Los Angeles.