DBASSE Advisory Committee
Kenneth Prewitt (chair) is the Carnegie Professor at Columbia University. He taught for fifteen years at the University of Chicago, and for shorter periods at Stanford, Washington University, and in Kenya and Uganda. His other positions include: Director of the Census Bureau, of the National Opinion Research Center, President of the Social Science Research Council, senior vice president of the Rockefeller Foundation, and Dean at the New School University. He is a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the American Academy of Political and Social Science, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the Center for the Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences, and the Russell-Sage Foundation, and member of other professional associations including the Council on Foreign Relations. Dr. Prewitt has received numerous awards including: Guggenheim fellowship; honorary degrees from Carnegie Mellon and SMU; Lifetime Career Award from the American Political Science Association. He has authored and coauthored a dozen books and more than 100 articles and book chapters, most recently What is Your Race? The Census and Our Flawed Efforts to Classify Americans. For the National Research Council, he is currently chair of the advisory committee for the Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education and the Committee on Civic Health, and formerly served on the Committee on National Statistics. He has a B.A. from Southern Methodist University, an M.A. from Washington University, and a Ph.D. in political science from Stanford University.
The Honorable Brian Baird served six terms, 12 years, in the United States House of Representatives, representing Washington State’s 3rd Congressional District. In Congress, Dr. Baird focused on science and technology, sales tax deductibility, energy, mental health, oceans, education, science diplomacy, fiscal discipline and Congressional integrity. Congressman Baird was known and respected for taking principled stands, careful study of issues, and the ability to build bipartisan relationships. In addition to his work in Congress, Dr. Baird holds a Ph.D. in Clinical Psychology and has served as President of Antioch University Seattle. His clinical experience spans more than two decades and encompasses a wide variety of settings and patient groups. Dr. Baird has authored three books and previously chaired the Department of Psychology at Pacific Lutheran University, where he served on the faculty for twelve years. Dr. Baird has taught courses at the University of Washington, been Senior Vice President for Government Affairs at Vigor Industrial, and provided continuing education training in communication skills. He chaired the Washington State Student Achievement Council, a 9 member council created by the Legislature to offer policy guidance and analysis for all higher education in Washington State. Dr. Baird serves on a number of advisory boards, including the National Research Council Division of Behavioral Social Sciences and Education. He is married to Rachel Nugent, an economist specializing in global health. Together with their 8 year old twin boys the family enjoys skiing, sea kayaking, diving, camping and travel.
Cynthia Beall (NAS) is the S. Idell Pyle professor of anthropology at Case Western Reserve University. She joined the faculty of Case Western Reserve University in 1976. Dr. Beall has performed groundbreaking research on human evolution and adaptation to the environment, particularly in places where there is little air to breathe. She is known for her analyses of differences in oxygen delivery traits among indigenous populations of the Tibetan, Andean, and East African plateaus. Dr. Beall's biological and cultural research among the native populations of the Andes and Himalayas has provided the first firm evidence that these populations have adapted to the harsh thin-air environments by evolving genetic and developmental responses that enhance their bodies' capabilities in those environments. Another area of her research is the influence of the sociocultural environment, which can either create or buffer stress and can have beneficial or detrimental effects on human biology. She earned a degree in biology from the University of Pennsylvania and a doctorate in anthropology from Pennsylvania State University.
Karen S. Cook (NAS) is the Ray Lyman Wilbur Professor of Sociology; Director of the Institute for Research in the Social Sciences (IRiSS); and Vice-Provost for Faculty Development and Diversity at Stanford University. Dr. Cook conducts research on social exchange networks, power and influence dynamics, inter-group relations, negotiation strategies, social justice, and trust in social relations. Her research underscores the importance of trust in facilitating exchange relationships and of networks in creating social capital; for example, in physician-patient interactions and its effect on health outcomes. She has edited and co-edited a number of books in the Russell Sage Foundation Trust Series including Trust in Society (2001), Trust and Distrust in Organizations: Emerging Perspectives (2004), and eTrust: Forming Relations in the Online World and Whom Can Your Trust? (2009). She is co-author of Cooperation without Trust? (2005) and she co-edited Sociological Perspectives on Social Psychology (1995). In 1996, she was elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and in 2007 to the National Academy of Sciences. In 2004 she received the ASA Social Psychology Section Cooley Mead Award for Career Contributions to Social Psychology. Dr. Cook received her M.A. and Ph.D. in sociology from Stanford University.
Christopher T. Cross is chairman of the education policy consulting firm of Cross and Joftus. Mr. Cross also serves as a consultant to the Broad Foundation and the Charles Stewart Mott Foundation. Previously, he was a senior fellow with the Center for Education Policy and a distinguished senior fellow with the Education Commission of the States. He also served as the former assistant secretary for Educational Research and Improvement at the U.S. Department of Education and former president of the Maryland State Board of Education. He works with clients such as the Aspen Institute, California Department of Education, and Education Commission of the States to disseminate promising practices and connect policymaking to critical research. Mr. Cross is a noted author and expert on the federal role in education and serves on numerous high-profile advisory boards. His book, Political Education: National Policy Comes of Age, is on the people and events shaping federal K-12 education policy from the time of the Eisenhower Administration through the passage of the 2001 amendments to the Elementary and Secondary Education Act. Mr. Cross is also the co-editor of Minority Students in Special and Gifted Education, published in 2002 by the National Academies Press. He has served on numerous National Research Council Committees including the Committee on National Statistics and the Committee on Population. Mr. Cross earned a B.A. from Whittier College and a M.A. in government from California State University, Los Angeles.
Julie DaVanzo is an economic demographer affiliated with the RAND Corporation --for many years as Senior Economist, now as adjunct staff. At RAND, Dr. DaVanzo directed several post-doctoral training programs (funded by NIA, NICHD, and the Hewlett Foundation) and the Population Matters project, which seeks to communicate the policy-relevant results of population research to policymakers, the media, and general audiences. She has presented Population Matters and other research to the staffs of a number of Congressional offices, at briefings on Capitol Hill, in a number of radio and television interviews (including on National Public Radio, the BBC, and ABC World News), and has briefed current and former Cabinet members, including Henry Kissinger, Donald Rumsfeld, and Paul O’Neill. Dr. DaVanzo has done research on a wide variety of demographic issues in many different countries, including Malaysia, Bangladesh, Guatemala, Cameroon, Kosovo, Albania, Russia, China, India, and the U.S. Her current research focuses on reproductive health issues in Bangladesh. Recent publications include: Influences on Pregnancy-Termination Decisions in Matlab, Bangladesh; How long after a miscarriage should women wait before becoming pregnant again?; and Multivariate analysis of cohort data from Matlab, Dusk, Dawn, and High Noon: Demographic Trends Forecast Next Phases for China, India, and the United States. Dr. DaVanzo has taught at UCLA and UC Irvine, including a course to graduate students on how to make presentations on research. Dr. DaVanzo has been a visiting fellow at the Australian National University and at the University of Bologna. Dr. DaVanzo holds a Ph.D. in economics from the University of California, Los Angeles.
Greg Duncan (NAS) is distinguished professor of education at the University of California, Irvine. Duncan spent the first 25 years of his career at the University of Michigan, working on and ultimately directing the Panel Study of Income Dynamics project. He held a faculty appointment at Northwestern University between 1995 and 2008. Dr. Duncan’s recent work has focused on assessing the role of school-entry skills and behaviors on later school achievement and attainment and the effects of increasing income inequality on schools and children’s life chances. Dr. Duncan was President of the Population Association of America in 2008 and the Society for Research in Child Development between 2009 and 2011. He was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 2010. Dr. Duncan earned a B.A. in economics from Grinnell College and a Ph.D. in economics from the University of Michigan. He has an honorary doctorate from the University of Essex.
Susan Hanson (NAS) Distinguished University Professor Emerita and longtime Professor of Geography at Clark University, is an urban geographer with interests in urban transportation, urban labor markets, and gender issues. Her research has focused on the relationship between the urban built environment and people’s everyday travels within cities; within this context, questions of people’s access to opportunity, and how gender affects access, have been paramount. Her current research examines how gender, geographic opportunity structures, and geographic rootedness affect entrepreneurship in cities, as well as on understanding the emergence of sustainable versus unsustainable practices in urban areas. She has been the editor of several journals including Economic Geography, The Annals of the Association of American Geographers, and Urban Geography. In the mid-1990s she led a discipline-wide project that involved faculty and students in developing active learning modules on the human dimensions of global change for use in introductory university-level geography courses. She has led the School of Geography at Clark and is a past president of the Association of American Geographers (AAG), a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, a former Guggenheim Fellow, and a recipient of the Honors Award and of the Lifetime Achievement Award from the AAG and of the Van Cleef Medal from the American Geographic Society. In 2000 she was elected to the National Academy of Sciences and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Hanson has served on many national and international committees in geography, transportation, and the social sciences. She has a B.A. from Middlebury College and a Ph.D. in geography from Northwestern University.
Robert M. Groves (NAS/IOM) is Provost at Georgetown University and Gerard Campbell Professor at the Department of Mathematics and Statistics and the Department of Sociology at Georgetown University. He studies the impact of social cognitive and behavioral influences on the quality of statistical information. His research has focused on the impact of mode of data collection on responses in sample surveys, the social and political influences on survey participation, the use of adaptive research designs to improve the cost and error properties of statistics, and public concerns about privacy affecting attitudes toward statistical agencies. Prior to joining Georgetown as provost he was director of the US Census Bureau, a position he assumed after being director of the University of Michigan Survey Research Center, professor of sociology, and research professor at the Joint Program in Survey Methodology at the University of Maryland. He is an elected fellow of the American Statistical Association, elected member of the International Statistical Institute, and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and the Institute of Medicine, has served on numerous NRC and IOM committees, and is currently a member of the Steering Committee on Revisions to the Common Rule for the Protection of Human Subjects in Research in the Behavioral and Social Sciences. He received a Ph.D. in sociology from the University of Michigan.
Robert L. Johnson (IOM) is The Sharon and Joseph L. Muscarelle Endowed Dean, and Director of Adolescent and Young Adult Medicine at Rutgers New Jersey Medical School. He also holds appointments in the Departments of Pediatrics and Psychiatry. His research focuses on adolescent physical and mental health, adolescent HIV, adolescent violence, adolescent fatherhood and risk prevention/reduction programs with specific emphasis on substance and alcohol abuse, sexuality and sexual dysfunction, male sexual abuse, suicide, and AIDS. He serves as a member of the Community Prevention Task Force of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. He is a past member of the National Institute of Mental Health National Advisory Council, the Board of the Violence Institute of New Jersey, and the Pediatric Residency Review Committee of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. He has previously been a member of the Advisory Committee on Adolescent Health of the Office of Technology Assessment, Chair of the Board of Advocates for Youth, and president of the New Jersey State Board of Medical Examiners. He also has served on several Institute of Medicine committees, including the Board on Health Care Services, and has been a member of Institute of Medicine committees such as the Committee on Unintended Pregnancy. Dr. Johnson earned his M.D. from CMDNJ New Jersey Medical School.
Arthur Lupia is Hal R. Varian Professor of political science and Research Professor at the Institute for Social Research at the University of Michigan. His research explores how information and institutions affect policy and politics with a focus on how people make decisions when they lack information. He is the recipient of many honors and awards including: The 2013 Ithiel de Sola Pool Award from the American Political Science Association, the 2007 Warren Mitovsky Innovators Award from the American Association of Public Opinion Research and The 1998 NAS Award for Initiatives in Research from the National Academy of Sciences. He has been a Guggenheim Fellow and a fellow at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences. He is an elected Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and an elected Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. He is now Chair of the Social, Behavioral, and Political Sciences section at AAAS. He has co-founded and served as a Principal Investigator of the TESS (Time-sharing Experiments for the Social Sciences) and EITM (Empirical Implications of Theoretical Models) infrastructure projects. He has also served as Principal Investigator of the American National Election Studies. His books include The Democratic Dilemma: Can Citizens Learn What They Need to Know; Elements of Reason: Cognition, Choice, and the Bounds of Rationality; and The Cambridge Handbook of Experimental Political Science. Dr. Lupia received his B.A. in Economics from the University of Rochester and his M.S. and Ph.D. from the California Institute of Technology.
William S. Marras (NAE) is a professor and holds the Honda Endowed Chair in the Department of Integrated Systems Engineering at the Ohio State University. He is also the director of the Biodynamics Laboratory and holds adjunct appointments in the Department of Orthopedic Surgery and the Department of Physical Medicine, and Biomedical Engineering. Professor Marras is the executive director of the Ohio State University Institute for Ergonomics and serves as director of the Center for Occupational Health in Automotive Manufacturing (COHAM). His research applies quantitative engineering techniques to occupational surveillance, laboratory studies, and mathematical modeling where he explores the occupational causality of low back pain as well as techniques for the clinical assessment and treatment of low back pain. Professor Marras’ findings have been published in over 210 peer reviewed journal articles and numerous book chapters. Professor Marras has published a book entitled The Working Back: A systems view. He serves as Editor in Chief for the journal Human Factors as well as Deputy Editor for Spine. He has been elected fellow to six professional societies including the American Association for the Advancement of Science. He received his B.S. in Systems Engineering from Wright State University. He earned his M.S. in Industrial Engineering and Ph.D. in Bioengineering & Ergonomics from Wayne State University. Dr. Marras received D.Sc. Honoris Causa from the University of Waterloo.
Emilio F. Moran (NAS) is John A. Hannah Distinguished Professor of Global Change Science and Geography, Michigan State University, since January 2013. Until the end of 2012 he was Distinguished Professor and James H. Rudy professor of anthropology, Indiana University, Bloomington. Dr. Moran’s current interests hinge on the notion that contemporary society problems cannot be understood with methods that have remained largely unchanged since the 1960's and that new-forms of gathering and using data to understand contemporary societies need to be found. His research has focused on the study of populations in the Amazon Basin experiencing a number of changes which lead to shifts in their use of resources. His work has in recent times expanded to include populations in Asia and in other parts of Brazil, such as Sao Paulo. Current research combines remote sensing methods and ground-level methods of data gathering and analysis that permit a continual checking of macro and micro levels of analysis. Dr. Moran was elected to the National Academy of Science in 2010. Dr. Moran holds an appointed position with the National Science Foundation Advisory Committee for the Social, Behavioral, and Economic Sciences Directorate. He currently serves on editorial boards for a number of publications: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences; Latin American Studies, An International Journal (Japan); Human Ecology, An Interdisciplinary Journal; Journal of Ecological Anthropology; Human Dimensions Review; Population and Environment, Journal of Land Use Science; Ecological and Environmental Anthropology. His professional memberships include American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) (fellow); American Anthropological Association (fellow); Society for Applied Anthropology (fellow); Society for Economic Anthropology; Association of American Geographers; American Society for Photogrammetry; and Latin American Studies Association. He is the author of ten books, 15 edited volumes, and over 160 journal articles. His most recent book, Environmental Social Science: Human Environment Interactions and Sustainability was published by Wiley-Blackwell in 2010. Dr. Moran earned a B.A. with honors in Spanish American literature from the Spring Hill College, and an M.A. in Latin American history and a Ph.D. in social anthropology from University of Florida.
John Edward Porter (IOM) is a partner in the international law firm of Hogan Lovells US LLP, formerly Hogan & Hartson. He served 21 years as U.S. Congressman from the 10th district in Illinois, where he served on the Appropriations Committee, and as chair of the subcommittee on Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education. Under his subcommittee's jurisdiction were all the health programs and agencies (including NIH and CDC, but excepting FDA) and all of the education programs and agencies of the federal government. He was founder and co-chairman of the Congressional Human Rights Caucus. He co-authored the legislation creating Radio Free Asia and served as chair of the Global Legislators Organized for a Balanced Environment. Porter chairs Research! America and is vice-chair of the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health. He is a member of the boards of the PBS Foundation, the First Focus Campaign for Children, and the Council on Foreign Relations. Previously, he was chairman of PBS, a trustee of the Brookings Institution and served on the boards of the RAND Corporation, the American Heart Association, and the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts. His NRC service includes the Committee on Childhood Obesity Prevention; the Planning Committee for a Workshop on Perspectives from United Kingdom and United States Policymakers on Obesity Prevention; the Planning Committee for a Workshop on Environmental Health Sciences, Research, and Medicine: Looking Forward to the Next Decade; the Committee on Science and Technology in the National Interest: Ensuring the Best Presidential Appointments (Chair); the Committee on Ensuring the Best S & T Presidential and Advisory Committee Appointments (Chair); and the Committee on Roles of Academic Health Centers in the 21st Century (Chair). He is a graduate of Northwestern University, and, with distinction, of the University of Michigan Law School.
Valerie Reyna is professor of Human Development and Psychology at Cornell University and co-director of the Center for Behavioral Economics and Decision Research. Her research encompasses human judgment and decision making, numeracy and quantitative reasoning, risk and uncertainty, medical decision making, social judgment, and false memory. Dr. Reyna’s current research program is focused on risky decision making in adolescents, on risk communication in genetics, cancer, and AIDS prevention, and on criteria for rationality in decision making. She is a developer of fuzzy-trace theory, a model of the relation between mental representations and decision making that has been widely applied in law, medicine, and public health. Dr. Reyna has been elected a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and is also a Fellow of the American Psychological Society. Dr. Reyna holds a B.A. in psychology from Clark University (Summa Cum Laude) and Ph.D. in experimental psychology from Rockefeller University.
Eugenie C. Scott is the former Executive Director of the National Center for Science Education (NCSE) and currently serves as chair of its Advisory Council. As director of NCSE, she and colleagues worked to ensure the inclusion of evolution and climate change in K-14 schools and colleges. Her publications and presentations address many components of the creationism/evolution controversy, science denialism, and the public understanding of science. She is frequently consulted by the press regarding controversies over teaching evolution and climate change. Scientist associations, educator associations, and humanist groups have recognized her for her NCSE activities. She holds nine honorary degrees, as well as being the 2010 recipient of the NAS public Welfare Medal. She is a Fellow of AAAS, and has chaired both the Anthropology Section and Education Sections of that organization. In 2005, the National Association of Biology Teachers made her a Life Member, its highest honor. She served as President and Treasurer of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists. Scott is the author of Evolution vs. Creationism and co-editor, with Glenn Branch, of Not in Our Classrooms: Why Intelligent Design is Wrong for Our Schools. Dr. Scott received her M.S. in physical anthropology from the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee and her Ph.D. in physical anthropology from the University of Missouri.
Beth A. Simmons (NAS) is Clarence Dillon Professor of International Affairs and Director of the Weatherhead Center for International Affairs at Harvard University. Dr. Simmons has taught international relations, international law, and international political economy at Duke University, the University of California at Berkeley, and Harvard. Her book, Who Adjusts? Domestic Sources of Foreign Economic Policy During the Interwar Years, 1924-1939, was recognized by the American Political Science Association in 1995 as the best book published in 1994 in government, politics, or international relations. She has worked at the International Monetary Fund with the support of a Council on Foreign Relations Fellowship (1995-1996), has spent a year as a senior fellow at the United States Institute of Peace (1996-1997), spent a year in residence at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences at Stanford (2002-2003), and was a Fellow at the Straus Institute for the Advanced Study of Law and Justice at New York University 2009-2010. Her new book, Mobilizing for Human Rights: International Law in Domestic Politics (Cambridge University Press, 2009) won the 2010 American Society for International Law’s Certificate of Merit for a Preeminent Contribution to Creative Scholarship, the American Political Science Association’s Woodrow Wilson Award for best book published in government, politics or international relations, and the International social Science Council’s Stein Rokkan Award for a very substantial and original contribution to social science research. Simmons was elected in April 2009 to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Her current areas of research interest are the development of international rules for the protection and promotion of foreign direct investment, international legal cooperation to address transnational crime, and the diffusion of human rights through international and domestic law and politics. She received her Ph.D. from Harvard University in the Department of Government.
Shelley E. Taylor (NAS/IOM) holds the title of distinguished research professor at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). After a visiting professorship at Yale and assistant and associate professorships at Harvard University, she joined the faculty of UCLA in 1979. Her research interests, which are detailed in this website, include the psychological and social origins and moderators of biological responses to stress. Professor Taylor is the recipient of a number of awards, most notably election to the National Academy of Sciences, the Institute of Medicine, and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. She received the American Psychological Association's Distinguished Scientific Contribution to Psychology Award, the William James Fellow Award of the Association of Psychological Science, the Donald Campbell Award in Social Psychology, a 10-year Research Scientist Development Award from the National Institute of Mental Health, an Outstanding Scientific Contribution Award in Health Psychology, and the Lifetime Achievement Award from the American Psychological Association. She is the author of more than 350 publications in journals and books and is the author of Social Cognition, Positive Illusions, The Tending Instinct, and Health Psychology. Dr. Taylor received her Ph.D. in psychology from Yale University.
Marta Tienda is Maurice P. During ’22 Professor of Demographic Studies, and Professor of Sociology and Public Affairs at Princeton University. She directed the Office of Population Research from 1998 – 2002. Prior to joining the Princeton faculty in 1997, Dr. Tienda held appointments at the University of Chicago, where she served as chair of the Department of Sociology and editor of the American Journal of Sociology, and the University of Wisconsin at Madison. Dr. Tienda is past president of the Population Association of America, and chaired the National Academy of Science panel on Hispanics from 2004 – 2006. Currently, Dr. Tienda is an independent trustee of the Teachers Insurance Annuity Association (TIAA) and the Jacobs Foundation of Switzerland, and she serves on the Visitors Committee of Harvard University’s Kennedy School of Government. Professor Tienda was recently appointed to the Commission on Key National Indicators and The President’s Commission on Educational Excellence for Hispanics. Previously, she has served on the boards of Brown University, the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, the W.T. Grant Foundation, the Carnegie Corporation of New York, the Kaiser Family Foundation and the Russell Sage Foundation. Professor Tienda’s research has focused on the demography of racial and ethnic inequality, social policy, and international migration. She recently completed a decade-long study on equity and access to higher education, and is undertaking new research about migration of children and seniors. Dr. Tienda received a B.A. in Spanish from Michigan State University and a Ph.D. in sociology from the University of Texas at Austin.
Barbara Boyle Torrey is a guest researcher at the National Institute of Aging, Division of Behavioral and Social Research and a recent visiting scholar at the Population Reference Bureau. She was previously the Executive Director of the Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education at the National Research Council from 1993 to 2002. Prior to her work at the NRC, Ms. Torrey was President of the Population Reference Bureau, Chief of the Center for International Research at the Bureau of the Census, Deputy Assistant Secretary of Income Security Policy at the Department of Health and Human Services, fiscal economist at the Office of Management and Budget, and a Peace Corps Volunteer in Africa. She has published a number of articles on the microeconomics of aging, global population and environmental issues in developing countries, and income and poverty trends in industrial countries. She has edited 3 books on vulnerable populations in the U. S., on population and land use in developing countries and on Canadian and U.S. social differences. She is a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and has served on the boards of the Luxembourg Income Study, the Population Association of America and IIASA’s Scientific Committee. She received her B.A. and M.A. from Stanford University.
Robert B. Wallace (IOM) is the Irene Ensminger Stecher professor of epidemiology and internal medicine at the University of Iowa Colleges of Public Health and Medicine. He was formerly Head of the department of preventive medicine at the University of Iowa College of Medicine and Director of the University of Iowa Cancer Center. He is currently the Director of the University of Iowa Center on Aging. Dr. Wallace’s research interests include cancer epidemiology and prevention; the causes and prevention of chronic, disabling diseases among older persons; women’s health issues; and risk factors for cardiovascular disease. He is a Principal or Co-Investigator of several research projects on the health of older persons. He was elected a member of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) in 2001 and has been the chair of two IOM boards. He received his M.S. in epidemiology from the State University of New York at Buffalo and his M.D. from the Northwestern University School of Medicine.