|Dr. Fred Schneider, Chair, NAE|
Samuel B. Eckert Professor of Computer Science
Department of Computer Science
Dr. Anita Allen, NAM
Henry R. Silverman Professor of Law and Professor of Philosophy
University of Pennsylvania
Dr. Bob Blakley
Global Head of Information Security Innovation
Distinguished Professor and C. Ben Dutton Professor of Law
Maurer School of Law
Dr. David Clark, NAE
Senior Research Scientist
Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Lab
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Hon. Richard Danzig
Center for a New American Security
Dr. Eric Grosse
David A. Hoffman
Director of Security Policy & Global Privacy Officer
Paul Kocher, NAE
President and Chief Scientist
Cryptography Research, Inc.
Dr. Tadayoshi Kohno
Short-Dooley Professor, Department of Computer Science and Engineering;
Adjunct Associate Professor, Information School
University of Washington
Dr. Butler Lampson, NAS, NAE
Dr. Susan LandauProfessor of Cybersecurity Policy
Worcester Polytechnic Institute
Steven B. Lipner, NAE
Deirdre K. Mulligan
Associate Professor, School of Information
University of California, Berkeley
Senior Vice President
Center for Internet Security
Dr. William H. Sanders
and Donald Biggar Willett Professor of Engineering
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Nancy J. and Lawrence P. Huang Professor of Law and Ethics,
Scheller College of Business
Georgia Institute of Technology
David VladeckProfessor of Law
Mary Ellen Zurko
Principal Engineer, Security Business Group
Ex Officio Members:
Chief Cybersecurity Advisor
National Institute for Standards and Technology
Assistant Director, National Science Foundation for the
Computer and Information Science and Engineering Directorate
William “Brad” Martin
Research Advisor to the National Security Agency Director's Special Assistant for Cyber
and Member Special Cyber Operations
Research and Engineering Working Group
National Security Agency
Lynette I. Millett
Director, Forum on Cyber Resilience
Senior Program Officer and Associate Director, CSTB
Program Officer, CSTB
Research Associate, CSTB
Fred B. Schneider (NAE), Chair of the Forum on Cyber Resilience, is Samuel B. Eckert Professor of Computer Science at Cornell University and has been chair of the Department since July 2014. He joined Cornell's faculty in Fall 1978, having completed a Ph.D. at Stony Brook University and a B.S. in Engineering at Cornell in 1975. Schneider's research has focused on various aspects of trustworthy systems—systems that will perform as expected, despite failures and attacks. Schneider was elected Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (1992), the Association of Computing Machinery (1995), and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (2008). He was named Professor-at-Large at the University of Tromso (Norway) in 1996 and was awarded a Doctor of Science by the University of Newcastle-upon-Tyne in 2003 for his work in computer dependability and security. He received the 2012 IEEE Emanuel R. Piore Award for "contributions to trustworthy computing through novel approaches to security, fault-tolerance and formal methods for concurrent and distributed systems". The U.S. National Academy of Engineering elected Schneider to membership in 2011, and the Norges Tekniske Vitenskapsakademi (Norwegian Academy of Technological Sciences) named him a foreign member in 2010. He is currently a member of the National Academies Naval Studies Board and the Computer Science and Telecommunications Board. In 2007, Schneider was elected to the board of directors of the Computing Research Association (CRA).
Anita L. Allen is the Henry R. Silverman Professor of Law and Professor of Philosophy at the University of Pennsylvania Law School, where she is also the University's Vice Provost for Faculty. She is an expert on privacy law, bioethics, and contemporary values, and is recognized for her scholarship about legal philosophy, women’s rights, and race relations. In 2010 she was appointed by President Obama to the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues. Her books include Unpopular Privacy: What Must We Hide (Oxford, 2011); Privacy Law and Society (Thomson/West, 2011); The New Ethics: A Guided Tour of the 21st Century Moral Landscape (Miramax/Hyperion, 2004); Why Privacy Isn’t Everything: Feminist Reflections on Personal Accountability (Rowman and Littlefield, 2003); and Uneasy Access: Privacy for Women in a Free Society (Rowman and Littlefield, 1988). She co-edited (with Milton Regan) Debating Democracy’s Discontent (Oxford, 1998). Professor Allen, who has written more than a 100 scholarly articles, has also contributed to popular magazines and blogs, and has frequently appeared on nationally broadcast television and radio programs. Professor Allen has served on numerous editorial and advisory boards, and on the boards of a number of local and national non-profits and professional associations including the Hastings Center, the Electronic Information Privacy Center and the Bazelon Center for Mental Health Law. She was elected to the National Academy of Medicine in 2016.
Bob Blakley is Global Director of Information Security Innovation at Citigroup. He recently served as Plenary chair of the NSTIC Identity Ecosystem Steering Group and as Research and Development Co-Chair of the Financial Services Sector Coordinating Council for Critical Infrastructure Protection and Homeland Security. He is currently a member of the Forum on Cyber Resilience – a National Academies Roundtable. Prior to joining Citigroup Bob was Distinguished Analyst and Agenda Manager for Identity and Privacy at Gartner and Burton group. Before that he was Chief Scientist for Security and Privacy at IBM. He is past general chair of the IEEE Security and Privacy Symposium and the ACSA New Security Paradigms workshop. He was awarded ACSAC's Distinguished Security Practitioner award in 2002 and is a frequent speaker at information security and computer industry events. Bob was general editor of the OMG CORBASecurity specification and the OASIS SAML specification and is the author of "CORBASecurity: An Introduction to Safe Computing with Objects," published by Addison-Wesley. He was the first chair of the OATH Joint Coordinating Committee. He also participated in the National Academy of Science's panels “Authentication Technologies and Their Privacy Implications” and “Whither Biometrics.” Bob holds 20 patents in cryptography and information security and he publishes regularly in the academic literature on information security and privacy. Bob earned an A.B. in Classics from Princeton University and the M.S. and Ph.D. in Computer and Communications Science from the University of Michigan.
Fred H. Cate is a Distinguished Professor and C. Ben Dutton Professor of Law at the Indiana University Maurer School of Law. He is managing director of the Center for Law, Ethics, and Applied Research in Health Information, and a senior fellow and former founding director of the Center for Applied Cybersecurity Research. Professor Cate specializes in information privacy and security law issues. He has testified before numerous congressional committees and speaks frequently before professional, industry, and government groups. He is a senior policy advisor to the Centre for Information Policy Leadership at Hunton & Williams LLP, a member of Intel's Privacy and Security External Advisory Board, the Department of Homeland Security Data Privacy and Integrity Committee Cybersecurity Subcommittee, the National Security Agency’s Privacy and Civil Liberties Panel, the Board of Directors of The Privacy Projects, the Board of Directors of the International Foundation for Online Responsibility, and the Board of Directors of the Kinsey Institute for Research in Sex, Gender and Reproduction. Previously, Professor Cate served as a member of the National Academy of Sciences Committee on Technical and Privacy Dimensions of Information for Terrorism Prevention, counsel to the Department of Defense Technology and Privacy Advisory Committee, reporter for the third report of the Markle Task Force on National Security in the Information Age, and a member of the Federal Trade Commission's Advisory Committee on Online Access and Security and Microsoft's Trustworthy Computing Academic Advisory Board. He chaired the International Telecommunication Union's High-Level Experts on Electronic Signatures and Certification Authorities. He served as the Privacy Editor for the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers' Security & Privacy and is one of the founding editors of the Oxford University Press journal, International Data Privacy Law. He is the author of more than 150 books and articles, and he appears frequently in the popular press. Professor Cate attended Oxford University and received his J.D. and his A.B. with Honors and Distinction from Stanford University. He is a Senator and Fellow (and immediate past President) of the Phi Beta Kappa Society, an elected member of the American Law Institute, and a fellow of the American Bar Foundation.
David D. Clark (NAE) is a Senior Research Scientist at the MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory. Since the mid 1970s, Dr. Clark has been leading the development of the Internet; from 1981-1989 he acted as Chief Protocol Architect in this development, and chaired the Internet Activities Board. His current research looks at re-definition of the architectural underpinnings of the Internet, and the relation of technology and architecture to economic, societal and policy considerations. He is helping the U.S. National Science foundation organize their Future Internet Design program. Dr. Clark is a member of the National Academy of Engineering, and is past chairman of the Computer Science and Telecommunications Board of the National Academies. He has contributed to a number of studies on the societal and policy impact of computer communications. He is co-director of the MIT Communications Futures Program, a project for industry collaboration and coordination along the communications value chain. He is Chair of the Open Internet Advisory Committee at the FCC and is a member of the FCC’s Technological Advisory Council. Dr. Clark received his Ph.D. in Computer Science from MIT in 1973.
Richard J. Danzig is Vice Chair of the Board of Trustees of The RAND Corporation, a member of the Defense Policy Board and The President’s Intelligence Advisory Board, a Trustee of Reed College, a Director of the Center for a New American Security and a Director of Saffron Hill Ventures (a European investment firm). Recently he has been a director of National Semiconductor Corporation (NY Stock Exchange) and Human Genome Sciences Corporation (NASDAQ). He has also served as The Chairman of the Board of The Center for a New American Security and Chairman of the Board of the Center for Strategic and Budgetary Assessments. From the spring of 2007 through the Presidential election of 2008, Dr. Danzig was a senior advisor to Senator Obama on national security issues. Dr. Danzig served as the 71st Secretary of the Navy from November 1998 to January 2001. He was the Under Secretary of the Navy between 1993 and 1997. Dr. Danzig is a member of the Aspen Strategy Group and a senior advisor at the Center for New American Security, the Center for Naval Analyses, and the Center for Strategic and International Studies in Washington DC. His primary activity is as a consultant to the Departments of Defense and Homeland Security on terrorism.
Eric Grosse is recently retired as Vice President, Security & Privacy Engineering at Google in Mountain View, CA, leading a team of 512 who ensure systems and data stay safe and users' privacy remains secure. Improved and wider use of SSL, stronger consumer authentication technology, detection and blocking of espionage, transparency on legal requests for data, sophisticated malware analysis, tools and frameworks for safer building of web applications are among the achievements of the Google Security Team. Before Google, Dr. Grosse was a Research Director and Fellow at Lucent Bell Labs where he worked on security, networking, algorithms for approximation and visualization, software distribution, and scientific computing. He has a Ph.D. in Computer Science from Stanford.
David A. Hoffman is director of security policy and global privacy officer at Intel Corporation. Mr. Hoffman joined Intel in 1998 as Intel’s eBusiness attorney. In 1999, he founded Intel’s privacy team and in 2000 was appointed group counsel of eBusiness and director of privacy. In 2005, Mr. Hoffman moved to Munich, Germany, as group counsel in the Intel European legal department while leading Intel’s worldwide privacy and security policy team. Mr. Hoffman was a founding member of the BBBOnLine Steering Committee. He served on the TRUSTe board of directors from 2000 to 2006. Mr. Hoffman served on the board of directors for the International Association of Privacy Professionals, for which he was treasurer. He holds the Certified Information Privacy Professional Certification and is a Senior Lecturing Fellow at the Duke University School of Law. He has guest lectured at law schools in the U.S., Europe, Japan and China. Mr. Hoffman has a J.D. from the Duke University School of Law, where he was a member of the Duke Law Journal. He also received an A.B. from Hamilton College.
Paul Kocher (NAE) Paul Kocher is President and Chief Scientist of Cryptography Research. Mr. Kocher has gained an international reputation for his research and innovative designs in cryptography. An active contributor to major conferences and leading security initiatives, Mr. Kocher has designed numerous cryptographic applications and protocols which are successfully deployed in real world systems. His accomplishments include discovering timing attacks and Differential Power Analysis (including techniques for preventing against these vulnerabilities), helping author the widely used SSL 3.0 standard, and leading the design of the record breaking DES Key Search machine. He has recently focused on developing anti-piracy technologies for securing digital content. Mr. Kocher was elected to the National Academy of Engineering in 2009. Paul founded Cryptography Research and leads the company as its President & Chief Scientist. He previously held positions at RSA Security and was a founding member of Valicert, Inc. (now Tumbleweed). He holds a B.S. degree from Stanford University.
Tadayoshi Kohno is the Short-Dooley Professor of the Computer Science & Engineering Department at the University of Washington, and an Adjunct Associate Professor in the UW Information School. His research focuses on computer security and privacy, broadly defined, with a particular focus on computer security and privacy for emerging and consumer technologies; computer security and privacy for mobile and cloud systems; the human element in computer security systems; and computer security education. Originally trained in applied cryptography, his current research thrusts span from secure cyber-physical systems to cloud computing. Kohno is the recipient of a National Science Foundation CAREER Award, an Alfred P. Sloan Research Fellowship, an MIT Technology Review TR-35 Young Innovator Award, and multiple best paper awards. Kohno is a member of the Defense Science Study Group and a founding member of the IEEE Symposium on Secure Design and the USENIX Security Steering Committee. He received his Ph.D. in computer science from the University of California at San Diego.
Butler W. Lampson (NAS, NAE) is a Technical Fellow at Microsoft Corporation and an Adjunct Professor at MIT. He has worked on computer architecture, local area networks, raster printers, page description languages, operating systems, remote procedure call, programming languages and their semantics, programming in the large, fault-tolerant computing, transaction processing, computer security, WYSIWYG editors, and tablet computers. He was one of the designers of the SDS 940 time-sharing system, the Alto personal distributed computing system, the Xerox 9700 laser printer, two-phase commit protocols, the Autonet LAN, the SPKI system for network security, the Microsoft Tablet PC software, the Microsoft Palladium high-assurance stack, and several programming languages. He received the ACM Software Systems Award in 1984 for his work on the Alto, the IEEE Computer Pioneer award in 1996 and von Neumann Medal in 2001, the Turing Award in 1992, and the NAE’s Draper Prize in 2004. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering and a Fellow of the Association for Computing Machinery and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.
Susan Landau is professor of Cybersecurity Policy in the Department of Social Science and Policy Studies at Worcester Polytechnic Institute. Landau has been a senior staff Privacy Analyst at Google, a Distinguished Engineer at Sun Microsystems, a faculty member at the University of Massachusetts at Amherst and at Wesleyan University. She has held visiting positions at Harvard, Cornell, and Yale, and the Mathematical Sciences Research Institute. Landau is the author of Surveillance or Security? The Risks Posed by New Wiretapping Technologies (MIT Press, 2011), and co-author, with Whitfield Diffie, of Privacy on the Line: The Politics of Wiretapping and Encryption (MIT Press, 1998, rev. ed. 2007). She has written numerous computer science and public policy papers and op-eds on cybersecurity and encryption policy and testified in Congress on encryption, surveillance, and cybersecurity efforts. Landau has served on the Computer Science Telecommunications Board of the National Research Council, the advisory committee for the National Science Foundation's Directorate for Computer and Information Science and Engineering, and the National Institute of Standards and Technology's Information Security and Privacy Advisory Board. A 2015 inductee to the Cybersecurity Hall of Fame, a 2012 Guggenheim Fellow, a 2010-2011 fellow at the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study, Landau is the recipient of the 2008 Women of Vision Social Impact Award, and is also a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and the Association for Computing Machinery. She received her BA from Princeton, her MS from Cornell, and her PhD from MIT.
Steven B. Lipner, (NAE) is executive director of SAFECode, a non-profit organization dedicated to increasing trust in information and communications technology products and services through the advancement of effective software assurance methods. He retired in 2015 as partner director of software security in Trustworthy Computing at Microsoft Corporation. His expertise is in software security, software vulnerabilities, Internet security, and organization change for security. He is the founder and long-time leader of the Security Development Lifecycle (SDL) team that has delivered processes, tools and associated guidance and oversight that have significantly improved the security of Microsoft’s software. Mr. Lipner has over 40 years of experience as a researcher, development manager, and general manager in IT security. He served as executive vice president and general manager for Network Security Products at Trusted Information Systems and has been responsible for the development of mathematical models of security and of a number of secure operating systems. Mr. Lipner was one of the initial 12 members of the U.S. Computer Systems Security and Privacy Advisory Board (now the Information Security and Privacy Advisory Board) and served two terms and a total of ten years on the board. He is the author of numerous professional papers and has spoken on security topics at many professional conferences. He is named as inventor on 12 U.S. patents in the fields of computer and network security and has served on numerous scientific boards and advisory committees, including as a current member of the NRC Committee on Future Research Goals and Directions for Foundational Science in Cybersecurity and the NRC Committee on Law Enforcement and Intelligence Access to Plaintext Information in an Era of Widespread Strong Encryption: Options and Tradeoffs. Mr. Lipner was elected in 2015 to the National Cybersecurity Hall of Fame.
Deirdre K. Mulligan is an associate professor at the UC Berkeley School of Information and formerly a clinical professor of law at the UC Berkeley School of Law. She was the founding director of the Samuelson Law, Technology & Public Policy Clinic, which she led from 2001-2008. Before coming to Berkeley, she was staff counsel at the Center for Democracy & Technology in Washington. Professor Mulligan's current research agenda focuses on information privacy and security. Current projects include qualitative interviews to understand the institutionalization and management of privacy within corporate America, and role of law in corporate information security policy and practice. Other areas of current research include digital rights management technology and privacy and security issues in sensor networks and visual surveillance systems, and alternative legal strategies to advance network security. Professor Mulligan is currently participating in a multi-stakeholder initiative, the Global Network Initiative, to advance and preserve freedom of expression and privacy through collaborative efforts aimed to resist government efforts that seek to enlist companies in acts of censorship and surveillance in violation of international human rights standards. During the summer of 2007, Professor Mulligan was a member of an expert team charged by the California Secretary of State to conduct a top-to-bottom review of the voting systems certified for use in California elections. This review investigated the security, accuracy, reliability and accessibility of electronic voting systems used in California. Professor Mulligan was a member of the National Academy of Sciences Committee on Authentication Technology and Its Privacy Implications; the Federal Trade Commission's Federal Advisory Committee on Online Access and Security, and the National Task Force on Privacy, Technology, and Criminal Justice Information. She was a vice-chair of the California Bipartisan Commission on Internet Political Practices and chaired the Computers, Freedom, and Privacy (CFP) Conference in 2004. She is currently a member of the California Office of Privacy Protection's Advisory Council and a co-chair of Microsoft's Trustworthy Computing Academic Advisory Board. She serves on the board of the California Voter Foundation and on the advisory board of the Electronic Frontier Foundation.
Tony Sager Tony Sager is a Senior VP and Chief Evangelist for the Center for Internet Security. He leads the development of the CIS Critical Security Controls, a worldwide consensus project to find and support technical best practices in cybersecurity. Tony also serves as the Director of the SANS Innovation Center, a subsidiary of The SANS Institute. Tony retired from the National Security Agency (NSA) after 34 years as an Information Assurance professional. He started his career in the Communications Security (COMSEC) Intern Program, and worked as a mathematical cryptographer and a software vulnerability analyst. In 2001, Tony led the release of NSA security guidance to the public. He also expanded NSA’s role in the development of open standards for security. Mr. Sager holds a B.A. in Mathematics from Western Maryland College and an M.S. in Computer Science from The Johns Hopkins University.
William H. Sanders is a Donald Biggar Willett Professor of Engineering, the Head of the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, and the Director of the Coordinated Science Laboratory at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. He is a professor in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Affiliate Professor in the Department of Computer Science. He is a Fellow of the IEEE and the ACM, a past Chair of the IEEE Technical Committee on Fault-Tolerant Computing, and past Vice-Chair of the IFIP Working Group 10.4 on Dependable Computing. He was the founding Director of the Information Trust Institute at Illinois. Dr. Sanders's research interests include secure and dependable computing and security and dependability metrics and evaluation, with a focus on critical infrastructures. He has published more than 200 technical papers in those areas. He is currently the Director and Principal Investigator of the DOE/DHS Trustworthy Cyber Infrastructure for the Power Grid (TCIPG) Center , which is at the forefront of national efforts to make the U.S. power grid smart and resilient. He is also co-developer of three tools for assessing computer-based systems: METASAN, UltraSAN, and Möbius. Möbius and UltraSAN have been distributed widely to industry and academia; more than 500 licenses for the tools have been issued to universities, companies, and NASA for evaluating the performance, dependability, and security of a variety of systems. He is also a co-developer of the Loki distributed system fault injector, the AQuA/ITUA middlewares for providing dependability/security to distributed and networked applications, and the NetAPT (Network Access Policy Tool) for assessing the security of networked systems.
David Vladeck is a Professor of Law, Georgetown University Law Center. Professor Vladeck holds a B.A. degree from New York University, J.D. from Columbia University, and LL.M. from Georgetown. Professor Vladeck teaches federal courts, civil procedure, administrative law, and seminars in First Amendment litigation and privacy, and is faculty director for the law school’s Center on Privacy and Technology. Professor Vladeck recently returned to the Law Center after serving for nearly four years as the Director of the Federal Trade Commission's Bureau of Consumer Protection. At the FTC, he supervised the Bureau's more than 430 lawyers, investigators, paralegals and support staff in carrying out the Bureau's work to protect consumers from unfair, deceptive or fraudulent practices. Before joining the Law Center faculty full-time in 2002, Professor Vladeck spent over 25 years with Public Citizen Litigation Group, a nationally-prominent public interest law firm, handling and supervising complex litigation. He has briefed and argued a number of cases before the U.S. Supreme Court and more than sixty cases before federal courts of appeal and state courts of law resort. He is a senior fellow of the Administrative Conference of the United States, an elected member of the American Law Institute, and serves on the boards of the Natural Resources Defense Council and the National Consumers Law Center. Professor Vladeck frequently testifies before Congress and writes on administrative law, privacy, preemption, First Amendment, and access to justice issues.
Mary Ellen Zurko is a member of the Office of the CTO, Security Business Group, at Cisco Systems, and a Principal Engineer on the Next Generation Firewall team there. Mez has worked extensively in security; in product development, early product prototyping, and in research. She was security architect of one of IBM's earliest clouds; SaaS for business collaboration. She defined the field of User-Centered Security in 1996. As a senior research fellow at the Open Group Research Institute, she led several innovative security initiatives in authorization policies, languages, and mechanisms that incorporate user-centered design elements. She started her security career at DEC working on an A1 VMM, on which she recently coauthored a retrospective with a fellow member of the Forum on Cyber Resilience. She has written on active content security, public key infrastructures, distributed authorization, user-centered security, and security and the web. She is a contributor to the O'Reilly book "Security and Usability: Designing Secure Systems that People Can Use." She is on the steering committees of the International WWW Conference series, New Security Paradigms Workshop, and Symposium on Useable Privacy and Security. Mez received S.B and S.M. degrees in computer science from MIT.
Lynette I. Millett is the Director of the Forum on Cyber Resilience and Associate Director of the Computer Science and Telecommunications Board, National Research Council of the National Academies. Ms. Millett has extensive experience as program manager, team leader, analyst, researcher, and writer with specific expertise in information technology policy. She is skilled in working with diverse and expert work groups and since 2000 has been developing, directing, and overseeing National Research Council studies and teams of national experts examining public policy issues related broadly to information technology, computing, software, and communications. Her portfolio at the National Research Council includes a suite of studies on computing research, several examinations of government IT and infrastructure needs, and in-depth explorations of privacy, identity and cybersecurity. She has a proven track record of leading and working with diverse ad hoc teams to produce actionable, authoritative, and independent advice in fast-moving policy and technical environments. She has an M.Sc. in computer science from Cornell University, where her work was supported by graduate fellowships from the National Science Foundation and the Intel Corporation; and a B.A. with honors in mathematics and computer science from Colby College, where she was elected to Phi Beta Kappa.
Emily Grumbling is a Program Officer at the Computer Science and Telecommunications Board of the National Academies. She previously served as an AAAS Science and Technology Policy Fellow in the Directorate for Computer and Information Science and Engineering at the National Science Foundation (2012-2014), and an ACS Congressional Fellow in the U.S. House of Representatives (2011-2012). Emily received her Ph.D. in Physical Chemistry from the University of Arizona in 2010, and her B.A. with a double-major in Chemistry and Film/Electronic Media Arts from Bard College in 2004.
Katiria Ortiz is a Research Associate at the Computer Science and Telecommunications Board of the National Academies. She previously served as an intern under the U.S. Department of Justice and as an Undergraduate Research Assistant at the Cybersecurity Quantification Laboratory at the University of Maryland, College Park. She received her M.A. in International Science and Technology Policy from George Washington University in 2016 and a B.S. in Cell Biology and Molecular Genetics with a B.A. in Criminology and Criminal Justice from the University of Maryland, College Park in 2014.