Skip to Main Content
The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine
Laboratory Assessments Board
LAB Home
About LAB
Current Projects
LAB Reports
Staff and Contact Information

Panel on Review of the Material Measurement Laboratory at the National Institute of

Standards and Technology


FRANCES S. LIGLER (NAE) (Chair) is the Lampe Distinguished Professor of Biomedical Engineering in the Joint Department of Biomedical Engineering in the College of Engineering at North Carolina State University and School of Medicine at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Until 2013, she was the Senior Scientist for Biosensors and Biomaterials at the US Naval Research Laboratory in Washington, D.C. Currently working in the fields of biosensors and microfluidics, she has also performed research in biochemistry, immunology, and proteomics. She has over 375 full-length publications and patents, which have led to eleven commercial biosensor products. Elected an SPIE Fellow in 2000, a Fellow of AIMBE in 2011, and a Fellow of AAAS in 2013, she also serves on the organizing committee for the World Biosensors Congress and the permanent steering committee for Europt(r)odes, the European Conference on Optical Sensors. She is also a member and past Chair of the Bioengineering Section of the National Academy of Engineering. Dr. Ligler earned a B.S. from Furman University and both a D.Phil. and a D.Sc. from Oxford University in Biochemistry and Bioengineering.
ILHAN A. AKSAY (NAE) is Profesor in the Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering at Princeton University. Dr. Aksay’s technical interests include the processing science of materials, thermodynamics and phase equilibria in materials systems, diffusion and structural studies in ionic systems, interfacial reactions and capillarity phenomena, and the utilization of water-based colloidal and biomimetic techniques in ceramic processing. His work has been heavily influenced by the structures of biological materials and the self-assembly processing pathways that yield such structures. He is particularly interested in the use of complex fluids to control the architecture of organic/ceramic nanocomposites from molecular to several micron length scales. He is also interested in the utility of such structures in the development of structural, electronic, and optical materials. The most recent application interest has been on the development of adaptive material systems that can sense an external input (e.g., strain or stress) and react to this at the molecular level to negate the changes generated by the input. To this end, he is developing techniques to incorporate the sensor, the actuator, and the energy source into nano- to microporous load bearing "adaptive" materials systems. Dr. Aksay received a B.S. in Ceramic Engineering at the University of Washington, and an M.S. and Ph.D. in Materials Science and Engineering at the University of California, Berkeley.
MICHAEL BASKES (NAE) is a Professor at Bagley College of Engineering at Mississippi State University. Dr. Baskes’s interests encompass the use of computational methods to investigate material properties. His major scientific accomplishments have been development of the embedded atom method, development of models to predict the behavior of helium in metals, and development of a model to explain hydrogen isotope recombination. Prior to his current professorial position, Dr. Baskes was employed at Sandia, Livermore, and Los Alamos National Laboratories; the University of California, San Diego; and the University of North Texas. Dr. Baskes earned a B.S. degree in Engineering and a Ph.D. in Materials Science from the California Institute of Technology.
MARCO J. CASTALDI is Associate Professor of Chemical Engineering at the City College of the City University of New York (CUNY). Dr. Castaldi focuses his research on understanding catalytic and non-catalytic reactions that occur when carbon dioxide is introduced into thermal conversion processes such as the gasification of coal. He developed and tested a simple method for converting biomass to fuel in which he added carbon dioxide to the process. When he did, he found that he produced significantly more fuel and less waste. He also developed the world’s first and only catalytic shock tube for mechanism elucidation as well as the largest hydrate test apparatus in the U.S. demonstrating carbon neutral methane production. Prior to his professorial appointment at CUNY, Dr. Castaldi was Assistant Professor in the Department of Earth and Environmental Engineering at Columbia University, and Manager of Fuel Processor Component Development and Research and Development Engineer at Precision Combustion Inc. Dr. Castaldi earned a B.S. Chemical Engineering from Manhattan College and an M.S. and Ph.D. in Chemical Engineering from the University of California, Los Angeles.
ARUP K. CHAKRABORTY (NAE) is Robert T. Haslam Professor of Chemical Engineering, Professor of Chemistry, Professor of Biological Engineering and Director of the Institute for Medical Engineering and Science at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He recently moved to MIT from the University of California, Berkeley, where he was a Warren and Katherine Schlinger Distinguished Professor, Chair of the Department of Chemical Engineering, and Professor of Chemistry. Dr. Chakraborty's primary research interests are focused on intercellular communication that results in activation of the adaptive immune response. His interests also include biosensors, polymer science, membranes, and interfacial phenomena. He is primarily concerned with developing quantum and statistical mechanical descriptions to elucidate pertinent issues in these areas. He received his B. of Tech. in Chemical Engineering from the Indian Institute of Technology and his Ph.D. in Chemical Engineering from the University of Delaware.
JEAN M.J. FRÉCHET (NAS, NAE) is the Henry Rapoport Chair of Organic Chemistry in the Department of Chemistry of the University of California, Berkeley. In addition he is the Head of Materials Synthesis, Materials Science Division of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Director of the Organic and Macromolecular Facility for the Molecular Foundry, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, and Vice-President for Research at King Abdullah University of Science and Technology. His research areas include: organic synthesis and polymer chemistry applied to nanoscience and nanotechnology with emphasis on the design, fundamental understanding, synthesis, and applications of functional macromolecules. He has authored nearly 900 scientific papers and holds over 70 United States Patents. Dr. Frechet earned a B.S. in Chemistry and Chemical Engineering from the Institut de Chimie et Physique Industrielles, Lyon, France. He has two M.S. and two Ph.D. degrees in Chemistry and Chemical Engineering from the SUNY College of Environmental Sciences and Forestry and Syracuse University.
ERIC FULLERTON is Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering in Jacobs School of Engineering
and Professor of NanoEngineering, Chaired Professor and Director of the Center for Magnetic Recording
Research at the University of California, San Diego's (UCSD) Center for Magnetic Recording Research
(CMRR). Before joining UCSD, Dr. Fullerton was a Senior Manager and Research Scientist in the
Fundamentals of Nano-Structured Materials Group at Hitachi Global Storage Technologies (formerly IBM
Almaden Research Center). Dr. Fullerton's expertise is in thin-film magnetic and nano-materials. He is an internationally acclaimed scholar in areas such as thin film and superlattice growth, magnetic recording and nano-technologies, and x-ray and neutron scattering. At Hitachi Global Storage Technologies, Dr. Fullerton made fundamental advances in the development of high density magnetic recording media based on anti-ferromagnetically coupled ferromagnetic films. Early in his career, he developed a technique for mapping the structure of thin-film multi-layers from x-ray diffraction data that became the standard in the field. Dr. Fullerton earned a Ph.D. in Physics from UCSD.
JENNIE HUNTER-CEVERA is CEO and Founder of Hunter-Cevera and Associates. She is formerly the Executive Vice President of discovery and analytical sciences at RTI International. Her consulting company focuses on providing integrated solutions to complex problems that institutions face today in a global market. Her specialty is providing a 360 degree perspective in gathering information and coming up with a solution that addresses the current and future needs of the institution. Her clients include young biotechnology companies, research universities, and non-profit institutions. Her company provides workshops on effectiveness and efficiency for infrastructure and operations, reorganization implementation, developing business plans, strategic plans, executive coaching, general consulting, review of technologies, and implementation of moving science from the bench to the bank. She has over 22 years of experience in the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industry. Before joining RTI, she was President of the University of Maryland Biotechnology Institute and Head of the Center for Environmental Biotechnology at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Dr. Hunter-Cevera holds five patents and has 15 pending patents. She is a member of the American Academy of Microbiology. She earned a B.A. and M.S. in Biology from West Virginia University and a Ph.D. in Microbiology and Biochemistry from Rutgers University.
JENNIE S. HWANG (NAE) is CEO of H-Technologies Group, and Board Trustee and Distinguished Adjunct Professor at Case Western Reserve University. Her career encompasses corporate and entrepreneurial businesses, international collaboration, research management, technology transfer, and global leadership positions, as well as corporate and university governance. She has held senior executive positions with Lockheed Martin Corp., SCM Corp., and Sherwin Williams Co., and co-founded entrepreneurial businesses. With more than 30-years of experience, she is internationally recognized as a pioneer and long-standing leader in the infrastructure development of electronics miniaturization and green manufacturing. She is an inventor and author of 400+ publications, including the sole authorship of several internationally-used textbooks and has lectured to tens of thousands of engineers and researchers on professional development courses. Dr. Hwang has served on the International Advisory Board of the Singapore Advanced Technology and Manufacturing Institute and a number of industry boards. Additionally, she has served as a Board Director for Fortune 500 NYSE-traded and private companies and various civic boards. The Dr. Jennie S. Hwang YWCA Award, in its 14th year, recognizing outstanding women students who study in engineering, science and technology-related disciplines was established in her honor. Her formal education includes the Harvard University Executive Program, Columbia University Business School Governance Program, and four academic degrees (Ph.D., M.A., M.S., B.S.) in Materials Science and Engineering, Chemistry, and Liquid Crystal Science, respectively, from Columbia University, Kent State University, and Case Western Reserve University.
IAN D. JARDINE is Vice President of Global Research and Development and Chief Technology Officer of Life Sciences Mass Spectrometry with Fisher Scientific. He is responsible for coordinating and overseeing all of Thermo's R&D efforts as well as driving higher levels of excellence in the research and Development function. This includes project selection, project discipline, leveraging technologies across Thermo and being a spokesperson externally to create more visibility for Thermo's innovation.
Prior to assuming this role, Ian was Vice President of Research and Development for Thermo Electron. He joined Thermo first as Director of analytical biochemistry, then Director of marketing for mass spectrometry, and ultimately President of the mass spectrometry business, now a part of the Scientific Instruments Division. Prior to joining Thermo, he held an Assistant Professorship at Purdue University and a Professorship at the Mayo Clinic and Mayo Medical School. Dr. Jardine earned his Ph.D. in
Analytical Chemistry/Mass Spectrometry from the University of Glasgow, after which he completed a fellowship at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine.
WAYDE KONZE is Director of Analytical Sciences at the Dow Chemical Company, where he was previously a Senior Research and Development Manager. Dr. Konze currently leads a global research and development (R&D) group of 275 people, half of which are Ph.D. level, to develop new analytical sciences technologies for diverse research areas. He discovered breakthrough new polyolefin catalysts and successfully implemented them in large scale pilot plant trials; worked on several catalyst-related new R&D projects in areas of olefin metathesis, polyurethanes, epoxy resins, styrenics, polyolefins and engineering thermoplastics; and was instrumental in developing a new catalysis platform that is being utilized for many new business areas. His research specialties include organometallic, inorganic and organic chemistry; catalyst development; olefin polymerization catalysis; high-throughput chemistry; high pressure reactor techniques, chromatography (GC, GC-MS, TLC and column) and crystallization techniques, electronic storage devices; electronic materials; block polymers and polymer composites, and thermoplastic and thermoset R&D. Dr. Konze received a B.S. in Chemistry from the Univeristy of Minnesota and a Ph.D. in Inorganic Chemistry from Iowa State University.
MICHAEL R. LADISCH (NAE) is the Director of the Laboratory of Renewable Resources, Engineering Department, and Distinguished Professor of Agricultural and Biological Engineering and Biomedical Engineering at Purdue University. His areas of expertise are bio-separations, bio-nanotechnology bioprocess engineering, and bioenergy. His research has resulted in systematic approaches and correlations for scaling up chromatographic purification techniques from the laboratory to process-scale manufacturing systems. He is familiar with biotechnologies and has a broad background in bioscience and bioengineering. He has served as a member of U.S. delegations and advisory panels to Russia, Thailand, China, and Japan to review the status of biotechnology programs. He has also chaired several committees within the National Research Council concerning biotechnology. He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering. He earned a B.S. degree from Drexel University and M.S. and Ph.D. degrees from Purdue University, all in Chemical Engineering.
JEANNE F. LORING is a Professor the Director of the Center for Regenerative Medicine in the Department of Chemical Physiology at the Scripps Research Institute in La Jolla, CA. Her research team primarily focuses on large-scale analysis of the genomics and epigenetics of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) and their derivatives, with the goal of ensuring the quality and safety of these cells for clinical use. The team's translational projects include development of stem cell applications for neurological diseases, including cell therapies for Parkinson’s disease, multiple sclerosis, and Alzheimer disease, and epigenetic modeling of Fragile X and Rett syndromes and Friedreich's ataxia. In addition, the team is working to improve drug development by producing an ethnically diverse library of iPSC (induced pluripotent stem cell) lines for toxicity screening and pharmacogenomics. Her lab is also developing a "zoo" of induced pluripotent stem cells from endangered species to aid in their conservation. Prior to working with Scripps, Dr. Loring was Co-Director of the Stem Cell Center at the Burnham Institute for Medical Research and Senior Director at Incyte Genomics. Dr. Loring earned a B.S. in Molecular Biology from the University of Washington, Seattle and a Ph.D. in Developmental Neurobiology from the University of Oregon, Eugene.
GREGORY H. MILLER is Professor of Engineering in the Department of Applied Science at the University of California at Davis. Dr. Miller’s research interests involve the solution of physics and engineering problems through the design of mathematical models and numerical methods; the construction of constitutive equations; the numerical solution of the resulting systems; and the analysis of experimental, theoretical, and computational results. He investigates problems of realistic complexity and scale that involve supercomputing on massively parallel architectures. Dr. Miller earned a B.S. from Purdue University and a Ph.D. from the California Institute of Technology.
ROBERT D. MILLER (NAE) currently manages the Advanced Organic Materials Department at the IBM Almaden Research Laboratory. His research activities have included: basic photochemical processes and mechanisms, radiation sensitive polymers and microlithography, synthetic methods utilizing multifunctional synthons, synthetic applications of strained ring materials, spectroscopy and chemistry of reactive intermediates, new polymeric materials for nonlinear optics, polymeric light emitting diodes, novel polymeric architectures, silicon and germanium containing polymers, controlled polymerization techniques, functionalized organic and inorganic nanoparticles, materials for molecular and organic electronics, organic materials for magnetic storage, polymeric electronic materials for semiconductor applications, nanoporous thin films for bioscience, optics and photonics, photovoltaic materials and structures, sublithographic self assembly using block copolymers, air bridge dielectrics, radiation definable dielectrics, solution and CVD precursors for low-k applications, and others. Dr. Miller is a co-inventor on more than 70 patents. He is currently an original member and principal investigator in the Center for Polymeric Interfaces and Macromolecular Assemblies which is a NSF-funded MERSEC center composed of members from Stanford University, UC Davis, UC Berkeley and the IBM Research—Almaden and has served on the executive board of this organization. Dr. Miller earned a B.S. in Chemistry from Lafayette College and a Ph.D. in Organic Chemistry from Cornell University.
BHAKTA B. RATH (NAE) is Head of the Materials Science and Component Technology Directorate and Associate Director of Research at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL). In his current position, Dr. Rath manages a multidisciplinary research program to discover and exploit new improved materials, generate new concepts associated with materials behavior, and develop advanced components based on these new and improved materials and concepts. Scientists in this Directorate perform theoretical and experimental research to determine the scientific origins of materials behavior and to develop procedures for modifying these materials to meet naval needs for advanced platforms, electronics, sensors, and photonics.  Dr. Rath earned an M.S. in Metallurgy from Michigan Technological University and received a Ph.D. from the Illinois Institute of Technology in Metallurgy and Material Sciences.

ROBERT E. SCHAFRIK (NAE) is the General Manager in the Materials and Process Engineering Department at General Electric (GE) Aviation and a NMMB Board Member. He is responsible for developing advanced materials and processes used in GE’s aeronautical turbine engines and their marine and industrial derivatives. He oversees Materials Application Engineering activities supporting GE Aviation’s global design engineering, manufacturing, and field support activities. He also operates a state-of-the-art in-house laboratory for advanced materials development, characterization, and failure analysis. Prior to joining GE, he served in two concurrent positions within the National Research Council: Staff Director, National Materials Advisory Board and Staff Director, Board on Manufacturing and Engineering Design. Under his direction, 33 final reports for studies were issued that addressed significant national issues in materials and manufacturing. Dr. Schafrik also served in the U.S. Air Force in a variety of research and development and system acquisition capacities; he retired as a Lieutenant Colonel. Dr. Schafrik earned a Ph.D. in Metallurgical Engineering from Ohio State University, an M.S. in Information Systems from George Mason University, an M.S. in Aerospace Engineering from the Air Force Institute of Technology, and a B.S. in Metallurgy from Case-Western Reserve University.
SUBHASH C. SINGHAL (NAE) is a Battelle Fellow Emeritus and Director of Fuel Cells for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Dr. Singhal is interested in all aspects of high temperature solid oxide fuel cells from fundamentals, designs, materials, and fabrication to commercialization. He also has interest and experience in research and development of advanced materials and coatings, particularly for advanced energy conversion systems including fuel cells, gas turbines, and steam turbines. Other areas of interest include thermodynamic properties of materials and systems; high temperature solid state chemistry and electrochemistry; management of technology teams and technical innovation; and participation in international organizations (e.g. UNIDO, UNDP, NATO Science for Peace program, NATO Advanced Study Institutes program, European Union, etc.) in materials and energy areas. Dr. Singhal received a Ph.D. in Materials Science and Engineering from the University of Pennsylvania and an M.B.A. from the University of Pittsburgh.
DARRYL SULLIVAN is the Scientific Director of Nutritional Chemistry and Food Safety with Covance Laboratories Inc. In his current position, Mr. Sullivan is responsible for the overall scientific rigor of all testing programs. Mr. Sullivan brings new test methods, technologies, and innovations into the laboratory and is responsible for implementing and validating these methods and technologies. Mr. Sullivan is the primary Covance liaison to AOAC International, and other scientific associations. Prior to becoming Scientific Director Mr. Sullivan was senior manager in the Food and Dietary Supplement Groups where he was responsible for the department’s major food and nutraceutical testing programs. His responsibilities included design and implementation of the testing programs, assuring the quality of the data, and communicating directly with the clients. Mr. Sullivan managed laboratory supervisors, scientists, technicians, and administrative personnel in carrying out these duties. He was held accountable for the total performance of these testing programs. He was responsible for the quality of the data, the timeliness of the testing and the financial performance of the teams. Mr. Sullivan was expected to direct method development programs, problem solving projects, and new testing ventures. Mr. Sullivan earned a B.S. in Biochemistry from the University of Wisconsin-Madison.
ROBERT WAGONER (NAE) is the Professor Emeritus in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at Ohio State University. His research centers on the large-strain deformation of metals, particularly as applied to sheet-metal forming. The area involves constitutive equations, formability concerns, finite element methods (FEM, FEA), tailor-welded blanks (TWB), hydroforming, springback, stress and strain analysis, manufacturing, and die design. Typical sheet materials are plain-carbon and high-strength low-alloy steels, aluminum alloys, and stainless steels. Tests include tensile and plane-strain testing, springback testing, limiting dome height (LDH) testing, and forming limit diagrams (FLD). Two novel tests and a machine (now available commercially) for conducting such tests were developed: the OSU Formability Test, OSU Friction Test, and Formability Testing Machine. Special-purpose FEM programs, SHEET-S and SHEET-3, have been written based on quasi-static, implicit, nonlinear methods. New contact algorithms suitable for large concurrent deformation and relative surface displacements were developed and incorporated in these methods. A series of international benchmark tests for assessing sheet forming software were devised (NUMISHEET), beginning in 1988. Fundamental aspects of the work involve micro-mechanisms of metal deformation, including dislocation/grain boundary interactions, dislocation shapes and arrays, and scale effects in materials. These have been applied to powder metallurgy and powder metal-ceramic composite processing. Dr. Wagoner earned B.S, M.S., and Ph.D. degrees in Metallurgical Engineering from Ohio State University.
ROBERT WIELGOSZ is the Acting Operations Director and Director of the Chemistry Department within the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) in Sèvres, France. As Acting Operations Director he is responsible for the safe and efficient operation of the BIPM in the absence of the Director. As Director of the Chemistry Department he is responsible for the establishment, strategic development and management of the BIPM program in Metrology in Chemistry; the formulation of program needs and activities with stakeholders; coordination of international comparisons for air quality and greenhouse gas standards as well as organic small and large molecule primary calibrator standard comparisons. The comparison program results in 170 participation from National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) in a program cycle. He is also the Executive Secretary for the Consultative Committee for Amount of Substance; metrology in chemistry (CCQM), which coordinates twenty international comaprisons for NMIs annually, covering the fields of organic, inorganic, electrochemical, gas, surface and bio analysis. He is Executive Secreatry to the Joint Committee for Traceability and Laboratory Medicine (JCTLM), which develops and maintains an international database and review process for Reference Materials, Methods and Measurement Services fo in vitro diagnostics.He represents the BIPM on the IUPAC Interdivisional Committee on Terminology, Nomenclature and Symbols (ICTNS). Prior to establsihing the Chemistry Department at the BIPM, he was a Senior Scientist at the National Physical Laboratory (UK). Dr. Wielgosz earned a M.A. in the Natural Sciences from Emmanuel College Cambridge University, and a Ph.D. in Electrochemical studies of Porous Silicon from the University of Bath.
DAVID B. WILLIAMS is Dean of the College of Engineering at Ohio State University. As Dean, Williams is responsible for the strategic vision, mission and goals of the college, oversees the education of more than 8,000 undergraduate and graduate students, and leads the administration of 1,200 faculty, research scientists and staff. Drawing on his extensive collaborative experience, Dean Williams continues to create partnerships between the university, the Central Ohio community, and regional and national partners including Battelle, Boeing, GE, GM, Honda, NetJets and NASA Glenn. With his background in research, he is working to increase funding for Ohio State’s many internationally recognized research centers. Dean Williams is accomplished at managing complex organizations under financial constraints and developing universities as engines of economic growth. He has a robust history of fundraising in the public and private sectors, bringing financial support to realize the institution’s strategic goals. Before coming to The Ohio State University, Williams served as the fifth president of the University of Alabama in Huntsville. As president, he was instrumental in leading UA Huntsville into the Carnegie Foundation Tier One research classification through the hiring of several eminent scholars, the opening of the first office for Oak Ridge National Laboratory on any U.S. campus, and the creation of pioneering research collaborations such as one with Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne’s “Skunk Works.” Before joining UA Huntsville, Williams spent 31 years at Lehigh University, where he was Professor of Materials Science and Engineering. Dr. Williams holds B..A., M.A., Ph.D., and Sc.D. degrees in Materials Science from the University of Cambridge.