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Human Factors Science at the Army Research Laboratory


KENNETH R. BOFF is Principal Scientist with Socio-Technical Sciences. From 2007-2012, he served as Principal Scientist with the Tennenbaum Institute, Georgia Institute of Technology, and Scientific Advisor to the Asian Office of Aerospace Research and Development (Tokyo). From 1997-2007, he served as the US Air Force Research Laboratory Chief Scientist for Human Effectiveness. In this position, he was responsible for the technical direction of a multi-disciplinary R&D portfolio encompassing individual, organizational and socio-cultural behavior and modeling, training, protection and the bio and human-engineering of complex systems. He is best known for his work on understanding and remediating problems in the transition of research to applications in the design, acquisition, and deployment of systems and the value-centered management of R&D organizations. Holder of a patent for Rapid Communication Display technology, Dr. Boff has authored numerous articles, book chapters and technical papers, and is co-editor of “Complex Socio-Technical Systems” (2012), “Organizational Simulation” (2005), "System Design" (1987), senior editor of the two-volume "Handbook of Perception and Human Performance" (1986), and the four-volume "Engineering Data Compendium: Human Perception and Performance" (1988). He actively consults and provides technical liaison with government agencies, international working groups, universities and professional societies. He has organized and facilitated numerous technical workshops in the US, Europe and the Pacific Rim focused on contemporary issues in complex socio-technical systems. He is a Fellow of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society and the International Ergonomics Association.


LINDA NG BOYLE is Associate Professor at the University of Washington with joint appointments in the Departments of Industrial and Systems Engineering, and Civil and Environmental Engineering. She is director of the Human Factors and Statistical Modeling Lab, which focuses on the examination of complex datasets to gain insights on human performance and behavior as they interact with systems. The primary goal of this work is to enhance operator safety and reduce the risk of injuries and fatalities. She is a member of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, American Statistical Association, and Institute of Industrial Engineers. She is the associate editor for the journal Accident, Analysis and Prevention, and the chair of the Transportation Research Board, Committee on Statistical Methods. She received her PhD in Civil Engineering from the University of Washington.


JEROME BUSEMEYER is the Provost Professor in the Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Indiana University, Bloomington. His research includes mathematical models of learning and decision making, and he formulated a dynamic theory of human decision making called decision field theory. Currently he is working on a new theory applying quantum probability to human judgment and decision making, and he published a new book on this topic with Cambridge University Press. He received his PhD as a mathematical psychologist from University of South Carolina in 1980, and later he enjoyed a post-doctoral position at University of Illinois. For 14 years he was a faculty member at Purdue University, and then he moved on to Indiana University in 1997, where he is now. His research has been steadily funded by NSF, NIMH, and NIDA, and in return he served on national grant review panels for these agencies. He has published over 100 articles in various cognitive and decision science journals such as Psychological Review as well as serving on their editorial boards, and he served as the Chief Editor of Journal of Mathematical Psychology from 2005-2010. For the years 2005 to 2007, he spent time in the Washington DC area as the Manager of the Cognition and Decision Program at the Air Force Office of Scientific Research. He became a fellow of the Society of Experimental Psychologists in 2006.


W. PETER CHERRY (NAE) is an Independent Consultant. Earlier he served as chief analyst of Science Applications International Corporation. He was elected to the NAE “For contributions to national security through planning and operational analyses of military forces, systems, and force-employment concepts.” His research interests center on the design, development, and test and evaluation of large scale systems of systems with emphasis on network centricity, organizational versatility and robustness, and technology insertion. Research areas include project organization, processes and procedures, models and simulations used to support design and development, and test and evaluation strategies using virtual prototypes, all at the system of systems level. In the context of systems of systems and national security his interests include the development of theory and analysis methods supporting stability and support operations, command and control and decision support, and improved integration of logistics and support processes into force evaluation, planning and execution, primarily in the ground force domain. Dr. Cherry received his PhD in industrial and operations engineering from the University of Michigan.


NANCY J. COOKE is a Professor of Cognitive Science and Engineering at Arizona State University and is Science Director of the Cognitive Engineering Research Institute in Mesa, Arizona. She is also Cognitive Section Editor of Human Factors, a member-at-large of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society’s Executive Council, the chair of the National Research Council’s Board on Human Systems Integration, and was a member of the National Research Council’s Soldier Systems Panel. She currently chairs a study panel at the National Academies on the Science of Team Science. Dr. Cooke’s research interests include the study of individual and team cognition and its application to the development of cognitive and knowledge engineering methodologies, sensor operator threat detection, homeland security systems, remotely-operated vehicles, healthcare systems, and emergency response systems. In particular, Dr. Cooke specializes in the development, application, and evaluation of methodologies to elicit and assess individual and team cognition. Based on her empirical work in her team testbeds over the last two decades, Dr. Cooke has proposed a theory of Interactive Team Cognition which is published (with Gorman, Myers, and Duran) in the journal, Cognitive Science.


CAROLINA CRUZ-NEIRA is the W. Hansen Hall and Mary Officer Hall/BORSF Endowed Super Chair in Telecommunications in Computer Engineering at the University of Louisiana at Lafayette. She is known as the co-inventor of the CAVE. Her research is driven by providing applicability and simplicity to immersive technology focusing on software engineering for immersive systems, applications of immersive technology and usability studies of virtual environments. She spearheaded the open-source VR API movement with VR Juggler and is an advocate of best practices to build and operate large immersive facilities. She is currently working on modeling and simulation, training, and data analytics and starting to explore immersion through mobile devices. Dr. Cruz is also a business entrepreneur launching several companies and consulting businesses. Some of her awards include: Named among the 30 most influential women in Louisiana (2007), the 2007 Virtual Reality Technical Achievement Award from the IEEE Visualization and Graphics Technical Committee and the 2009 International Digital Media and the Arts Association Distinguished Career Award. Dr. Cruz has a PhD (1995) and MS (1991) in Electrical Engineering and Computer Science from the University of Illinois at Chicago. She graduated Cum Laude in Systems Engineering at the Universidad Metropolitana in Caracas, Venezuela in 1987.


PAMELA H. DALTON is a Member of the Monell Chemical Senses Center, a non-profit, basic research institute devoted to the mechanisms and function of smell, taste and chemical irritation. Her research interests focus on cognitive and emotional factors that modify the perception of odor, irritation and acute health effects from volatile chemicals. Another line of investigation examines the relationship between exposure frequency, adaptation and clinical sequelae from exposure to airborne chemicals, both in the laboratory and in occupational and community settings. In a related effort, modeling how odorant transport factors (e.g., physico-chemical characteristics of the odorant, nasal airflow, inflammatory changes) affect these processes can provide additional insight into variation in olfactory perception among the population. She is a member of the Center for Excellence in Environmental Toxicology at the University of Pennsylvania Medical School and a frequent consultant to regulatory agencies in the US and Europe. She received her Ph.D. in Cognitive/Experimental Psychology from New York University and her Masters in Public Health from Drexel University.


BARBARA A. DOSHER (NAS) is Distinguished Professor of Cognitive Sciences at the University of California at Irvine, where she has been Dean of Social Sciences since 2002. She studies how humans perceive, remember, and retrieve information using a combination of behavioral testing and mathematical modeling. Her research falls generally into three categories: (1) memory in humans, with emphasis on forgetting and retrieval in explicit and implicit memory and in working memory, (2) attentional processes in adult humans, and their consequences for perceptual efficiency and information processing, with emphasis on visual perception and memory, and (3) the mechanisms of learning and improvement in perceptual tasks. She was a Professor in the Department of Psychology, Columbia University, from 1990-1992, and a visiting scholar at Stanford in 1984. She moved to University of California, Irvine in 1992. She is an Elected Fellow of the American Psychological Society and the Society for Experimental Psychologists, and received the 2013 Howard Crosby Warren Medal of the Society for Experimental Psychologists. At UCI, she is a Fellow of the Center for Neurobiology of Learning and Memory and a member of the Institute of Mathematical Behavioral Sciences. She has served on the Board and as President of the Society for Mathematical Psychology and on the Executive Board of the Vision Sciences Society, is a prior Associate Editor of Psychological Review, and has served on grant review boards at the National Science Foundation and National Institutes of Mental Health.


HOWARD EGETH is Professor of Psychological and Brain Sciences with joint appointments as Professor of Cognitive Science and of Neuroscience within the Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences at Johns Hopkins University. His expertise is perception and cognition; and attention and attentional selectivity. The visual world presents far more information to the eyes than we can effectively deal with at any given time. Thus, what we see is determined by what we attend to. His research examines the factors that determine the focus of attentional selectivity, and also explores the nature of perception outside the focus of attention (i.e., so-called preattentive vision). He is also the co-author of The Psychology of Learning (McGraw-Hill). He has served as President of the Federation of Behavioral, Psychological, and Cognitive Sciences, as Chair of the Governing Board of the Psychonomic Society, and as President of the Division of Experimental Psychology of the American Psychological Association. In addition to various courses in cognitive psychology, he teaches a course in evolutionary psychology that focuses on the underpinnings of moral behavior.

PAUL W. GLIMCHER is Julius Silver Professor of Neural Science, Economics, and Psychology and Director of the Center for Neuroeconomics at the New York University. His research interests are on the identification and characterization of signals that intervene between the neural processes that engage in sensory encoding and the neural processes that engage movement generations. His group studies these processes using a variety of tools that are drawn from the fields of neuroscience, economics and psychology. Their methodologies thus range from single neuron electrophysiology to fMRI to game theory. The long-term goal of his research is to describe the neural events that underlie behavioral decision-making employing an interdisciplinary approach that is coming to be called "neuroeconomics". His group’s approach to this problem consolidates mathematical economic approaches to decision-making with traditional neurobiological tools. By using these tools in their physiological analyses they hope to develop a coherent view of how the brain makes decisions. He graduated with an A.B. from Princeton University, Magna Cum Laude, and he received his Ph.D. in Neuroscience from the University of Pennsylvania. He is a Fellow of McKnight, Whitehall, Klingenstein and McDonnell Foundations.


NICHOLAS HATSOPOULOS is Professor in the Department of Organismal Biology and Anatomy at the University of Chicago. His research interest is to understand how the activation of large populations of neurons gives rise to some of the most interesting functions of the brain, such as perception, action, learning, memory, cognition and ultimately conscious awareness. Over the past forty years, electrophysiological recordings in behaving animals have revealed considerable information about the firing patterns of single neurons in isolation, but it remains a mystery how large collections of interacting neurons mediate these functions. His overall research program is to understand how neuronal ensembles in the cortex act together to control, coordinate, and learn complex movements of the arm and hand. In addition to advancing basic understanding of the brain, this research program is contributing to a more applied research project to develop neural prosthetic systems (or brain-machine interfaces) for paralyzed patients. His group records electrical signals from the motor cortex, decodes them into a set of behaviorally relevant output signals, and then uses these output signals to drive a computer cursor or robotic device. His group is currently developing novel decoding algorithms and augmenting existing brain-machine interface systems with different forms of sensory feedback. He serves as the Chair, Committee on Computational Neuroscience and Committee on Neurobiology in the Department of Organismal Biology and Anatomy at the University of Chicago.


ALBERT I. KING (NAE) is Distinguished Professor and Chair of the Department of Biomedical Engineering in the College of Engineering at Wayne State University was recently named Honorary Professor at Tsinghua University in China. He is recognized worldwide for his work in the efficacy of safety devices in automobiles, the mechanisms and injuries to the spine, and experimental models of head injury. He has received numerous awards, including the Smithsonian Medal for his work on computer brain models, the Kappa Delta Award from the American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons, the H.R. Lissner Award from the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, to name a few.


JOHN LACH is Professor and Chair of the Charles L. Brown Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the University of Virginia. He is also a founder and co-director of the UVA Center for Wireless Health. His research interests are body sensor networks for biomedical and healthcare applications, integrated circuit design techniques, dynamically adaptable and real-time embedded systems, fault and defect tolerance, safety-critical system design and analysis, general-purpose and application-specific processor design, and field programmable gate arrays. He has been the PI or co-PI on over 30 grants totaling over $9M (over $3.5M directed to his lab) and has published over 100 refereed papers, including three Best Paper Awards. He is currently working with a large group of graduate and undergraduate student researchers.


MARGARET L. LOPER is the Chief Scientist for the Information and Communications Laboratory at the Georgia Tech Research Institute. She holds a Ph.D. in Computer Science from the Georgia Institute of Technology, a M.S. in Computer Engineering from the University of Central Florida, and a B.S. in Electrical Engineering from Clemson University. Margaret’s technical focus is parallel and distributed simulation, and she has published more than 50 papers as book chapters, journal contributions, or in conference proceedings. She is a senior member of the IEEE and ACM, and member of the Society for Modeling and Simulation. She is a founding member of the Simulation Interoperability Standards Organization (SISO) and received service awards for her work with the Distributed Interactive Simulation (DIS) and High Level Architecture (HLA) standards and the DIS/SISO transition. Her research contributions are in the areas of temporal synchronization, simulation testing, and simulation communication protocols. Margaret teaches the core Modeling and Simulation (M&S) course for Georgia Tech’s Professional Masters in Applied Systems Engineering (PMASE) degree program, as well as three M&S professional education courses. She is currently involved in projects related to data intensive systems (big data), the Internet of Things, and the interoperability of live, virtual and constructive (LVC) simulations.


GEORGE E. LUKES is a member of the research staff of the Institute for Defense Analyses. He provides scientific and technical assistance to Defense agencies and commands including the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), and the Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA). From 1994 to 2000, he served as a DARPA program manager where his responsibilities included the Synthetic Environment Program and the Image Understanding Program. Previously, he led research and development efforts at the U.S. Army Topographic Engineering Center in computer-assisted photo interpretation research, computer image generation, and terrain database generation for advanced distributed simulation. Mr. Lukes holds a M.S. degree from the American University, Washington, D.C. and a B.S. degree from the University of California, Berkeley.


ROBERT A. LUTFI is Professor in the Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders at the University of Wisconsin – Madison. His research focuses on human auditory perception. He is particularly interested in how one's ability to detect and recognize complex sounds is affected by both lawful and random variation in sound, as occurs in nature. A goal of his research is the development of mathematical models for predicting detection and recognition performance under various conditions of signal uncertainty. He also conducts research on the perception of complex sounds by hearing-impaired listeners, and on the auditory abilities of children. He has a B.A. in Psychology/Mathematics from the University of South Florida and a Ph.D. in Experimental Psychology from the Loyola University of Chicago. And he did a Postdoc in psychoacoustics at the Cambridge University, England.


JEAN MACMILLAN is the Executive Vice President of Science and Technology at Aptima, Inc. She is a leading expert in understanding, maximizing, and assessing human performance in complex sociotechnical systems. Her 30-year career has spanned a broad range of accomplishments in simulation-based training, human-machine interaction, and user-centered system design. Dr. MacMillan’s current research focuses on methods to increase the effectiveness of simulation-based training by linking training objectives to scenario design elements and performance measures. She recently led projects to develop reliable and valid performance measures for teams of F-16 pilots training in a distributed simulation facility and to design synthetic entities that function as team members for simulation-based training of teamwork skills. Prior to joining Aptima in 1997, Dr. MacMillan was a Senior Scientist at BBN Technologies and a Senior Cognitive Systems Engineer at Alphatech (now BAE Systems). She is a frequent contributor and strategic advisor to workshops and expert panels on human engineering issues for organizations such as DARPA and the military services. Dr. MacMillan recently co-chaired a three-year National Research Council study on military needs for social and organizational models, which resulted in the publication of Behavioral Modeling and Simulation: From Individuals to Societies. She is currently a member of the Editorial Board of the Journal of Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making, and is Associate Editor for Cognitive Systems Engineering for the on-line journal Cognitive Technology.


ANN C. MCKEE is a Professor of Neurology and Pathology at VA Boston HealthCare System and Boston University School of Medicine. She is also Co-Director of the Center for the Study of Traumatic Encephalopathy, Director of the VISN-1 Neuropathology Laboratory for the New England VA Medical Centers and Director of Brain Banks for the Alzheimer Disease Center and Framingham Heart Study. Her research interests center on the neuropathological alterations of neurodegenerative diseases, with a primary focus on the role of tau protein, axonal injury, trauma, vascular injury, and neurodegeneration. Much of her current work centers on the long-term consequences of repetitive head injury from contact sports and military service. As a board-certified neurologist and neuropathologist, she is particularly interested in the clinical, behavioral and psychological manifestations of pathological disease and the neuroanatomical localization of clinical symptoms. She has written widely on many neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer’s disease, Lewy Body disease, Parkinson’s Disease, Progressive Supranuclear Palsy, Multiple System Atrophy, Frontotemporal Degeneration, Corticobasal Degeneration and Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy. She has been an invited participant in several NIH-sponsored workshops on Progressive Supranuclear Palsy, Vascular Dementia and Traumatic Brain Injury. She is also keenly interested in the neuropathology of normal aging and disorders of the spinal cord. She is a past recipient of the Moore Award and a recent recipient of the 2006 and 2009 Moore Award Honorable Mention from the American Association of Neuropathologists. She is also a recipient of a Merit Award from the Department of Veterans Affairs.


J. ANTHONY MOVSHON (NAS) is University Professor, Silver Professor, and Director of the Center for Neural Science at the New York University. He is interested in how the brain encodes and decodes visual information, and in the mechanisms that put that information to use in the control of behavior. His research concerns the function and development of the primate visual system, especially the visual areas of the cerebral cortex. His laboratory supports work on neurophysiology, neuroanatomy, and psychophysics; the main experimental tool is electrophysiological recording from single neurons. His group stresses analytical and quantitative approaches to the study of visual receptive fields. Conceptually, much of this research draws on related work in visual psychophysics, and on computational approaches to understanding brain organization and visual processing. He received his doctorate from Cambridge University in 1975, where he studied visual neurophysiology and psychophysics. He joined the faculty at New York University that same year, and has remained there apart from a sabbatical year spent at Oxford University.


MATTHEW S. PETERSON is an Associate Professor in the Human Factors and Applied Cognition and Cognitive and Behavioral Neurosciences divisions of the Department of Psychology, as well as a member of the Neuroscience PhD program at George Mason University. His research is on visual attention and related areas, such as eye movements, working memory, multitasking, and visual cognition. He received his PhD. from the University of Kansas followed by postdoctoral training in psychophysiology at the Beckman Institute at the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign. His articles have appeared in numerous scholarly journals, such as Psychological Science, Cognition, Perception and Psychophysics, and Cerebral Cortex. Additionally, his work has been cited in The Wall Street Journal, Science Daily, and The Atlantic Monthly. His research has been funded by the National Institutes of Health, the United States Army, and the United States Air Force. He currently serves as the director of the human factors and applied cognition concentration of the MA in psychology and consulting editor of Psychonomic Bulletin and Review.


STEPHEN F. SANDS is Chairman and Chief Science Officer, Sands Research LLC. This is his second successful corporate venture after the formation, building and sale of the leading supplier of research EEG systems to The Marmon Group. In 1988, Dr. Sands, with Mr. Ron Wright, co-founded Neuroscan Inc. which became the market leader in EEG software and equipment to over 2,500 universities, corporate and national research laboratories. Dr. Sands was instrumental in introducing many innovations which were new to the discipline of Neuroscience and are today accepted practices for recording high-density in EEG and evoked potential research. Receiving his B.A. in Psychology in 1975 from California State University, Long Beach, California, Dr. Sands earned his MA and PhD in Biomedical Sciences at The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Houston, Texas. Between 1979 and 1983 Dr. Sands performed Postdoctoral work at the National Eye Institute in the Department of Sensory Sciences at The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences. He was a Research Assistant Professor at the Graduate School of Biomedical Science Center at Houston, a Lecturer at the Department of Psychology at the University of Texas at El Paso and a Member of the Technical Staff at Bell Laboratories in Naperville, Illinois. In 2007, Dr. Sands established Sands Research LLC and Electrode Arrays LLC. Sands Research was converted to a Delaware corporation in early 2008. Dr. Sands has numerous scientific publications in psychology, behavior and the neurosciences.


BARBARA SHINN-CUNNINGHAM is Professor of Biomedical Engineering at Boston University. She is trained as an electrical engineer (Brown University, Sc.B.; MIT, M.S. and Ph.D.). She is the Founding Director of the Boston University Center for Computational Neuroscience and Neural Technology (CompNet). Her research on attention, auditory perception, and spatial hearing has lead to recognition from the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, the Whitaker Foundation, and the National Security Science and Engineering Faculty Fellows program, as well as support from NIDCD, NSF, ONR, AFOSR, and other agencies. Within Boston University, she is Director and PI of the NSF-sponsored CELEST Science of Learning Center and on the Executive Steering Committee of the Hariri Institute for Computational Science and Engineering. Active in many professional societies, she currently is serving on the Executive Council of the Acoustical Society of America and has served as Chair of the AUD NIH study section and as Associate Editor for the Journal of the associate for Research in Otolaryngology. She is a Fellow of the Acoustical Society of America and a lifetime National Associate of the National Research Council of the National Academies of Science “in recognition of extraordinary service to the National Academies in its role as advisor to the Nation in matters of science.” She oversees an active research group that uses behavioral, neuroimaging, and computational methods to understand auditory attention, a topic on which she lectures at conferences and symposia around the world.


D. LYNN SMITH-LOVIN is the Robert L. Wilson Professor of Arts and Sciences in the Department of Sociology at Duke University. She studies identity, action and emotional response. She is interested in the basic question of how identities affect social interaction. She uses experimental, observational, survey and simulation methods to describe how identities, actions and emotions are interrelated. The experiments she does usually involve creating social situations where unusual things happen to people, then seeing how they respond behaviorally or emotionally. She observes small task group interactions to see how identities influence conversational behavior. Her survey work often focuses on gender and other social positions that influence the groups and networks in which people are imbedded. Her simulations studies involve affect control theory, a mathematical model of how identities, actions and emotions affect one another. Now, she is putting affect control theory together with McPherson’s ecological theory of affiliation to show how social systems, identities, and emotional experience are connected. Her academic honors include: Lifetime Achievement Award, Sociology of Emotions, American Sociological Association, 2005; and the Cooley-Mead Award for Lifetime Achievements in Sociological Social Psychology, Section on Social Psychology, American Sociological Association, 2006.


BRIAN A. WANDELL (NAS) is the first Isaac and Madeline Stein Family Professor. He joined the Stanford Psychology faculty in 1979 and is a member, by courtesy, of Electrical Engineering, Ophthalmology, and Radiology. He is Director of Stanford’s Center for Cognitive and Neurobiological Imaging. Wandell’s research centers on vision science, spanning topics from visual disorders and reading development in children, to digital imaging devices and algorithms for both magnetic resonance imaging and digital imaging. His work in visual neuroscience uses functional and structural MRI along with behavior testing and modeling to understand the action of the visual portions of the brain. His research includes studies of the organization of the visual field maps in the human brain, color and motion processing within these maps, and the potential for reorganization following injury or developmental disorders. His lab develops tools for diffusion imaging and functional MRI. In 1986, Wandell won the Troland Research Award from the National Academy of Sciences for his work in color vision. He was made a fellow of the Optical Society of America in 1990; in 1997 he became a McKnight Senior Investigator and received the Edridge Green Medal in Ophthalmology for work in visual neuroscience. In 2000, he was awarded the Macbeth Prize from the Inter-Society Color Council, and in 2007 he was named Electronic Imaging Scientist of the Year by the SPIE/IS&T, and he was awarded the Tillyer Prize from the Optical Society of America in 2008. He was elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 2011.


MARY C. WHITTON is research associate professor of computer science at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and senior project manager at UNC’s Renaissance Computing Institute (RENCI). She co-leads the Effective Virtual Environments research group that investigates what makes virtual reality experiences effective and uses knowledge of human perception to develop technologies and techniques that make virtual environments more effective for applications such as simulation, training, and rehabilitation. Before joining UNC in 1994, she was a founder of two companies (Ikonas—1978; Trancept Systems—1987) that produced high-end user-programmable hardware and software for graphics, imaging, and visualization. The companies’ products were widely adopted in research laboratories for applications including seismic exploration, 3D medical imaging, intelligence, computer animation, and scientific modeling and simulation. Professor Whitton has held leadership roles in ACM SIGGRAPH including serving as President 1993-1995. She is a member of ACM, ACM SIGGRAPH, and is a senior member of IEEE. She earned a B.A. from Duke University (1970), and an M.S. in Guidance and Personnel Services (1974) and an M.S. in Electrical and Computer Engineering (1984) from North Carolina State University.