Committee to Review the Quality of the Management and of the Science and Engineering Research at the Department of Energy's National Security Laboratories - Phase 2
CHARLES V. SHANK (NAS/NAE) (CO-CHAIR),
served as Director of the E.O. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory from 1989 until his retirement in 2004. He received his Ph.D. in electrical engineering from the University of California at Berkeley in 1969, after which he spent 20 years at Bell Laboratories, as both a researcher and director. His research at Bell Labs introduced the use of short laser pulses to the study of ultrafast events, allowing researchers to gain a better understanding of how energy is stored and transferred within materials. During his 15-year leadership of Lawrence Berkeley Lab, it emerged as a leader in the field of supercomputing and joined with two other national labs to form the Joint Genome Institute, a major contributor to the decoding of the human genome. While LBL Director, Shank also had a triple appointment as professor at the University of California at Berkeley in the Department of Physics, Department of Chemistry, and Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences. He has since severed all his ties to the University of California. Dr. Shank is now a Senior Fellow at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute’s Janelia Farm Research Campus. In addition to his election to the NAS and NAE, Dr. Shank has received the R.W. Wood Prize of the Optical Society of America, the David Sarnoff and Morris E. Leeds awards of the IEEE, the George E. Pake Prize and the Arthur L. Schawlow Prize of the American Physical Society, and the Edgerton Award of the International Society for Optical Engineering. He has served on a number of NRC boards and committees and chaired one study, a decadal survey of optical science and engineering. Dr. Shank served as co-chair of Phase I of this study.
C. KUMAR N. PATEL (NAS/NAE) (CO-CHAIR),
is the founder, president and CEO of Pranalytica, Inc. a Santa Monica based company that is the leader in quantum cascade laser technology for defense and homeland security applications. He is also a professor of physics and astronomy, electrical engineering, and chemistry at the University of California, Los Angeles. He served as vice chancellor for research at UCLA from 1993-1999. Prior to joining UCLA in March 1993, he was the executive director of Research, Material Science, Engineering and Academic Affairs Division with AT&T Bell Laboratories in Murray Hill, New Jersey. He joined Bell Laboratories in 1961 where he began his career by carrying out research in the field of gas lasers. He is the inventor of the carbon dioxide and many other molecular gas lasers that ushered in the era of high power sources of coherent optical radiation. 1996, Dr. Patel was awarded the National Medal of Science by the President of the United States of America. His other awards include the Ballantine Medal of the Franklin Institute, the Zworykin Award of the National Academy of Engineering, the Lamme Medal of the Institute of Electronic and Electrical Engineers, the Texas Instruments Foundation Founders’ Prize, the Charles hard Townes Award of the Optical Society of America, The Arthur H. Schawlow Award of the Laser Institute of America, the George E. Pake Prize of the American Physical Society, the Medal of Honor of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, the Frederic Ives Medal of the Optical Society of America and the William T. Ennor Manufacturing Technology Award or the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. In 2012 he was inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame. Dr. Patel holds a B.E. in Telecommunications from the College of Engineering in Poona, India, and received his M.S. and Ph.D. in Electrical Engineering from Stanford University. In 1998, he was awarded an honorary Doctor of Science degree from the New Jersey Institute of Technology, and is a member of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) and the National Academy of Engineering (NAE). He is a member of the Board of Directors of Newport Corporation and served on the Board of Trustees of the Aerospace Corporation from 1979 to 1989. He has served on several NRC committees including the NRC Committee on the Navy’s Needs in Space for Providing Future Capabilities, NRC’s Air Force Studies Board, NRC Panel on Sensors and Electron Devices, congressionally mandated NRC Committee on An Assessment of Concepts and Systems for U.S. Boost Phase Missile Defense in Comparison with Other Alternatives. Dr. Patel served as co-chair of Phase I of this study.
JOHN F. AHEARNE, NAE,
is executive director emeritus of Sigma Xi, the Scientific Research Society; emeritus director of the Sigma Xi Ethics Program; and an adjunct professor of engineering at Duke University. Prior to working at Sigma Xi, Dr. Ahearne served as vice president and senior fellow at Resources for the Future and as commissioner and chair of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. He worked in the White House Energy Office and as deputy assistant secretary of energy. He also worked on weapons systems analysis, force structure, and personnel policy as deputy and principal deputy assistant secretary of defense. Serving in the U.S. Air Force (USAF), he worked on nuclear weapons effects and taught at the USAF Academy. Dr. Ahearne’s research interests include risk analysis, risk communication, energy analysis, reactor safety, radioactive waste, nuclear weapons, materials disposition, science policy, and environmental management. He was elected to the NAE in 1996 for his leadership in energy policy and the safety and regulation of nuclear power. Dr. Ahearne has served on numerous NRC committees, having chaired several, and is a former president of the Society for Risk Analysis. Dr. Ahearne earned his Ph.D. in physics from Princeton University in 1966. He served on the committee for Phase I of this study.
CHRISTINA BACK is the Advanced Nuclear Materials Leader at General Atomics and an experimental physicist with expertise in the study of radiation in high-energy-density plasmas. She received her B. S. in Physics from Yale in 1984 and her Ph.D. in plasma physics from the University of Florida in 1989. After a 2 year postdoc with the CNRS at the Ecole Polytechnique in France, she spent 13 years at LLNL in the ICF and HEDS programs, specializing in the study of radiation transport and spectroscopy. In addition to serving on APS and National Research Council committees, Dr. Back is a fellow of the American Physical Society and has been elected a General Councillor of the APS. Currrently, she is Target Production coordinator and Radiation Physics manager at General Atomics, where she is responsible for identifying new opportunities for target fabrication advances in HEDP as well as conducting research to develop novel radiation sources for lithographic and other applications. With her knowledge of experimental methods and target requirements, she interfaces closely with colleagues in the national and international ICF and HEDP research programs.
PHILLIP COLELLA, NAS, is the group leader of the Applied Numerical Algorithms Group at the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center at Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. He is widely recognized for his contributions in high-resolution finite difference methods, adaptive mesh refinement, volume-of-fluid methods for fronts and irregular geometries, and multidimensional shock dynamics. He received his Ph.D. from the University of California, Berkeley in 1979.
JILL DAHLBURG is the Superintendent of the Space Science Division (SSD) at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) and a member of the Senior Executive Service since December 2007. Dr. Dahlburg served as NRL Senior Scientist for Science Applications from June 2003 to December 2007. From 2001 to mid-2003, she left NRL to work for General Atomics (GA) as the Director of the Division of Inertial Fusion Technology (IFT) and Co-Director of the Theory and Computing Center. In 2000, she served as Head of the NRL Tactical Electronic Warfare Division (TEWD) Distributed Sensor Technology Office, where she co-proposed and was co-principal investigator for the first year of development of the small, expendable unmanned aerial vehicle Dragon Eye, which saw active duty in Iraq. Dr. Dahlburg holds a B.A. degree (1978) from St. John’s College in Annapolis and an M.S. degree in physics (1980) and a Ph.D. degree in theoretical physics (1985) from the College of William & Mary. In 1986 she served as a member of the research staff of Dartmouth College, and she was a visiting scientist at Imperial College in London in 1996 concurrent with her duties at NRL. She has served as Chair of the Navy Space Experiments Review Board (2006-present), member of the Committee for Space Weather (2007-present), Chair-Elect of the American Physical Society (APS) Topical Group on Energy Research and Applications, and member of the APS Panel on Public Affairs. Previous service includes a term as Chair of the DOE Advanced Scientific Computing Advisory Committee (2005-2007) and long-term membership on the DOE Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (1999-2008). She has been an Editor of Fusion Engineering and Design (2003-2007), and a Divisional Associate Editor (Plasma Physics) of Physical Review Letters (1996-2000). A Fellow of the APS, Dr. Dahlburg’s previous professional service includes serving as 2005 Chair of the APS Division of Plasma Physics (DPP), member of the LLNL Defense & Nuclear Technologies Director’s Review Committee (2001-2007), and APS/DPP Distinguished Lecturer (1999-2000). She served on the committee for Phase I of this study.
ROBER FALCONE is a professor in the Physics Department at the University of California, Berkeley. His research is concerned with measuring and controlling dynamics on the length and time scales of atomic and molecular motion (nanometers and femtoseconds, and shorter). His group focuses on the study of ultrafast phenomena in condensed matter, molecular, and atomic physics. Some of their recent experiments are to further understanding of materials under extreme conditions; e.g., exploring electron and ion dynamics of warm dense matters and density, temperature and ionization state measurment of compressed plasmas.
YOGENDRA M. GUPTA
is Regents Professor in the Department of Physics and Director of the Institute for Shock Physics, and has been a faculty member at Washington State University (WSU) since 1981. Prior to his appointment at WSU, he spent nearly seven years at Stanford Research Institute (now SRI international) preceded by two years of postdoctoral research. Since 1970, Gupta has been engaged in experimental and theoretical research related to shock wave and high pressure compression of condensed matter. His work has emphasized real-time examination and understanding of microscopic processes using a variety of time-resolved measurements and related analyses (optical spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, and several continuum methods). Gupta and his collaborators have worked on a broad range of condensed matter phenomena: structural transformations, chemical reactions, and deformation and fracture. These studies have resulted in over 270 publications. Since joining WSU, he has supervised the work of more than 90 graduate students and research associates. Professor Gupta is a Fellow of both the American Physical Society and the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and has served on numerous committees related to the U.S. national security programs. In 2001, he received the American Physical Society’s Shock Compression Science Award, the premier award in the field. In 2005, he was the recipient of Washington State University’s highest faculty recognition, the Eminent Faculty Award.
WICK HAXTON, NAS, is Professor of Physics at the University of California, Berkeley.Haxton has made major contributions in theoretical nuclear physics and astrophysics. His contributions include the areas of many-body techniques, nuclear astrophysics (particularly supernovae and nucleosynthesis), solar neutrinos, neutrino physics, electromagnetic and weak interactions with nuclei, and symmetries. He has also contributed to many-body problems in atomic and condensed matter physics such as the fractional quantum Hall effect.His neutrino physics interests include laboratory and astrophysics tests of flavor and lepton number conservation, the role of neutrinos in the core collapse supernova mechanism, and neutrino effects on the associated nucleosynthesis. Haxton received his Ph.D. in Physics from Stanford University in 1976. He spent 25 years at the University of Washington and 15 years as director of the Department of Energy’s Institute for Nuclear Theory, before moving to Berkeley in 2009.
is Profesor in the Department of Chemistry at the University of Chicago. Prior to his appointment at Chicago, he was a faculty member at the University of Pittsburgh from 1987-1999. Dr. Hopkins received his BA from the University of California at San Diego in 1980 and Ph.D from the California Institute of Technology in 1986, and spent one year as a postdoctoral fellow at Los Alamos National Laboratory. He served as Department Chair at Chicago from 2003-2009. His research interests lie in inorganic chemistry, with a current focus on artificial photosynthesis, supramolecular surface chemistry, and metal containing polymers. He is a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.
RAYMOND JEANLOZ, NAS,
is Professor in Earth and Planetary Science and in Astronomy at the University of California, Berkeley. His specialties include the constitution and evolution of planetary interiors, and properties of materials at high pressures and temperatures. After completing his Ph.D. at the California Institute of Technology, Jeanloz was on the faculty of Harvard University and then moved to UC Berkeley. Dr. Jeanloz has served on numerous scientific boards and advisory committees, including as chair of the NRC Board on Earth Sciences and Resources (from 2000 to 2002) and as a member of the NRC Committee on International Security and Arms Control (since 2002; chair since 2005). Dr. Jeanloz is a member of the Science and Technology Committee advising the LLCs that manage Los Alamos and Livermore laboratories. He is a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and the American Geophysical Union. Dr. Jeanloz received a B.A. in geology from Amherst College and a Ph.D. in geology and geophysics from the California Institute of Technology. He served on the committee for Phase I of this study.
is an Independent Consultant and is retired from Los Alamos National Laboratory. He has a B.S. from the United States Military Academy at West Point where he graduated 1st in the Class of 1961. Upon graduation he was offered a Rhodes Scholarship. Dr. Kammerdiener received an M.S. from the University of California, Davis/Livermore in 1966 and a Ph.D. from the University of California, Davis and LLNL in 1972. He served with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers from 1961 to 1972 and was a Major in the Airborne – Rangers in Vietnam during 1966-1967. He was a research associate at LLNL from 1968 to1972. From 1972-2001, Dr. Kammerdiener was a member of the professional staff at LANL. His thirty-year career in nuclear weapons at LANL included being lead designer of many successfully tested nuclear devices, both fission triggers and thermonuclear secondaries. He has been a LANL Fellow since 1995 and has served as a consultant at LANL, LLNL, and to the JASONS. Dr. Kammerdiener was a contributing author to the JASON studies of Nuclear Testing in 1995, 1996, 1998, and 2005.
WILLIAM R. MARTIN
is Professor and Chair of the Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences at the University of Michigan. Martin has been active in developing numerical methods for application to nuclear engineering problems, including neutron, photon, and electron transport, thermal-hydraulics and heat transfer, and reactor plant simulation. Primary interests include the development of numerical methods for solving the Boltzmann transport equation, including Monte Carlo methods, finite element methods, and discrete ordinate methods. He has also worked on advanced fuel designs and fuel cycles for light water reactors and new core designs for research reactors. He received his Ph.D. in Nuclear Engineering from the University of Michigan in 1976.
MARGARET MURNANE, NAS,
is a Fellow at JILA and a member of the Department of Physics and Electrical and Computer Engineering at the University of Colorado. She received her B.S and M.S. degrees from University College Cork, Ireland, and her Ph.D. degree in physics from the University of California at Berkeley in 1989, joining the faculty of physics at Washington State University in 1990. In 1996, Professor Murnane moved to the University of Michigan, and in 1999 she moved to the University of Colorado. She runs a joint research group and a small laser company with her husband, Prof. Henry Kapteyn. Prof. Murnane's research interests have been in ultrafast optical and x-ray science. Professor Murnane is a Fellow of the American Physical Society and the Optical Society of America.
ROBERT NICKELL, NAE,
is a technical expert in the nuclear power field. His company, Applied Science and Technology of San Diego, CA, specializes in life-cycle management relating to license renewal issues relating to nuclear generating plants. He is the past president and a Fellow of ASME and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. He was elected to the NAE in 2007.
is Director of the Nuclear Power Institute and Professor of Nuclear Engineering at Texas A&M University. His areas of interest include human resource development for the nuclear industry, international utilization of nuclear power, behavior of nuclear fuels, and advanced nuclear power systems. He received his Ph.D. in nuclear engineering from the University of Illinois in 1972.
PAUL PEERCY, NAE,
is Dean of The College of Engineering at the University of Wisconsin, Madison. He came to the college in September 1999 from SEMI/SEMATECH, where he was president since 1995. Prior to that position, he was director of Microelectronics and Photonics at Sandia National Laboratories
in Albuquerque. His research interests include phase transitions in solids, ferroelectricity, Raman and Brillouin scattering studies of solids, ion-solid interactions, laser-induced phase transformations, microelectronics and photonics, and solid state devices. He is the author or co-author of more than 175 technical papers and holds two patents. He received his Ph.D. in physics from the University of Wisconsin, Madison, in 1966.
is a Professor in the Materials Science and Engineering Department at Carnegie Mellon University. Dr. Rollett obtained an M.A. in Metallurgy and Materials Science from Cambridge University, England in 1977 and a Ph.D. in Materials Engineering from Drexel University in 1987. He worked for Los Alamos National Laboratory for sixteen years, rising to be Deputy Director of the Materials Science & Technology Division in 1994. He then moved to Carnegie Mellon University to serve as Department Head in Materials Science & Engineering, which position he occupied from 1995 to 2000. He became a Fellow of ASM International in 1996 and a Fellow of the Institute of Physics (UK) in 2004. He is active in the Materials Research Science & Engineering Center at CMU; is the Focal Area Point of Contact for Computational Chemistry & Materials for the DoD; is the Chair of the International Committee for the Conference on Recrystallization and Grain Growth; and was Chair of the International Conference on Textures of Materials held at CMU in 2008. Dr. Rollett also is involved in the DOE Computational Materials Science Network and is a Fellow of the Minerals, Metals and Materials Society.
ROBERT ROSNER is a Professor in the Departments of Astronomy and Astrophysics and of Physics at the University of Chicago. He is a former Director of Argonne National Laboratory, 2005-2009. Prior to that, he served as Argonne’s chief scientist since 2002. He was chairman of astronomy and astrophysics at the University of Chicago 1991-1997 and since 1998 has been the university’s William E. Wrather Distinguished Service Professor and is currently the director of the Energy Policy Institute at Chicago (EPIC). He was the Rothschild Visiting Professor at the Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences at Cambridge University in 2004. He was elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 2001 and is a Fellow of the American Physical Society. He holds a Ph.D. in physics from Harvard University and a B.S. in physics from Brandeis University. Most of Dr. Rosner’s scientific work has been related to astrophysical fluid dynamics and plasma physics problems. Much of his current work involves developing new numerical simulation tools for modeling astrophysical phenomena, as well as validating these simulations using terrestrial laboratory experiments. He led the DOE-funded Center for Astrophysical Thermonuclear Flashes at Chicago from 1997 until 2002. He served as a member of the committee for Phase I of this study.
ROBERT SELDEN is a private consultant in defense science and research management. He retired in 1993 as an associate director at LANL. His career in the DOE national laboratories began at LLNL in the 1960s when he was one of the two participants in the Nth Country Experiment to design a nuclear explosive from unclassified information. After moving to LANL in 1979, he served as the Division Leader of the Applied Theoretical Physics Division, as Associate Director for Theoretical and Computational Physics, and as the first Director of the Los Alamos Center for National Security Studies. Dr. Selden served as the Chief Scientist of the U.S. Air Force from 1988 to 1991 where he received the Air Force Association’s Theodore von Karman Award for outstanding contributions to defense science and technology. He has been a member of the Strategic Advisory Group to the Commander of the United States Strategic Command since 1995. Since 2003 he has served as Chairman of the Advisory Group’s Stockpile Assessment Team, which has the responsibility to conduct a detailed annual review of the U.S. nuclear weapon stockpile. He also is currently a member of the Joint Advisory Committee on Nuclear Surety to the Secretaries of Defense and Energy. He was a member of the Air Force Scientific Advisory Board from 1984 to 2005. Dr. Selden received his BA degree from Pomona College, Claremont, California, in 1958, and his Ph.D. degree in Physics from the University of Wisconsin in 1964. He served on the committee for Phase I of this study.
KENNETH SHEA is a Professor of Chemistry at the University of California, Irvine. His research interests include synthetic organic, polymer, and materials chemistry. He is a Fellow of the AAAS, an NIH Senior International Fellow, and a Regents Faculty Fellow. He received his Ph.D. from Pennsylvania State University in 1973.
FRANCIS SULLIVAN is Director of the IDA Center for Computing Sciences. He holds a B.S. in Physics from Pennsylvania State University (1962) and a Ph.D. in Mathematics from the University of Pittsburgh (1968). His work includes pioneering the use of computational techniques in modeling and simulation for neutron transport and incompressible fluid flow problems. Sullivan's current research is on efficient probabilistic methods for estimating properties of very large graphs. Dr. Sullivan has held academic positions at the University of Pittsburgh, the Catholic University of America (Professor and Chairman, Mathematics Department and Computer Science Program) and Johns Hopkins University, and visiting appointments at Chalmers Tekniska Hoegskola and at the University of Nijmegen. He is former Director of the Computing and Applied Mathematics Laboratory at NIST (1982-1992). While in government service, Sullivan received the Department of Commerce Gold Medal in 1987 for work in design of algorithms, and the Presidential Meritorious Executive Rank Award in 1988 for leading the development of more advanced NIST scientific computing facilities. Dr. Sullivan has served on various oversight committees, including the Industrial Advisory Board of Duke University; the Computer Science & Electrical Engineering Advisory Board of the University of Maryland-Baltimore County; and the Mathematical Sciences Advisory Network of the Whiting School of Engineering, Johns Hopkins University. He has also been a member of the University of California Laboratory Security Panel and the Science and Technology Panel for the Los Alamos and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories. As a member of the UC S&T Panel, he was on the Division Review Committees for computing at both Los Alamos and Livermore laboratories. He has served on a Defense Sciences Board study of high performance computing at the NNSA Labs. He has also been on the NAS Mathematical Sciences Education Board, has been Chairman of the IMA Board of Governors and a member of the SIAM Board of Trustees. He is the author of a book and over 100 essays and technical publications in functional analysis, algorithm design, Monte Carlo methods, and computational physics. He is a member of several editorial boards and has been Editor-in-Chief of Computing in Science and Engineering, a joint publication of the IEEE Computer Society and the American Institute of Physics.
GARY WAS is a Professor in the Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences at the University of Michigan. He conducts research in radiation materials science and environmental effects on metals, including stress corrosion cracking, high temperature corrosion and hydrogen embrittlement. His current work in the area of stress corrosion cracking focuses on the determination of the mechanism of intergranular cracking in austenitic alloys in high-temperature aqueous solutions with emphasis on the role of grain boundary structure, chemistry, and deformation. Ion irradiation and stress corrosion cracking are linked through an investigation of the mechanism of irradiation in the assisted stress corrosion cracking of core components in nuclear reactors, by using proton irradiation to study the effects of neutron irradiation. Other current projects are on stress corrosion cracking in supercritical water, oxidation of nickel-base alloys in very high temperature, impure He gas, and irradiation creep of pyrolytic carbon.
is a Professor of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences
at the University of California, Berkeley
and is also the Associate Laboratory Director for Computing Sciences
and the Director of the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC
) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
. She is the co-author of two books and more than 100 refereed technical papers on parallel languages, compilers, algorithms, libraries, architecture, and storage. She co-invented the UPC and Titanium languages and demonstrated their applicability across architectures through the use of novel runtime and compilation methods. She also co-developed techniques for self-tuning numerical libraries, including the first self-tuned library for sparse matrix kernels which automatically adapts the code to properties of the matrix structure and machine. Her work includes performance analysis and modeling as well as optimization techniques for memory hierarchies, multicore processors, communication libraries, and processor accelerators. She has worked with interdisciplinary teams on application scaling, and her own applications work includes parallelization of a model for blood flow in the heart. She earned her Ph.D. in Electrical Engineering and Computer Science from MIT and has been a professor of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences at UC Berkeley since 1991 with a joint research appointment at Berkeley Lab since 1996. She has received multiple research and teaching awards and is a member of the California Council on Science and Technology.