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Early Sustainment Planning for the United States Air ForceProceedings of a Workshop—in Brief   (AFSB)
Released 2019-09-13

Increasing Student Success in Developmental MathematicsProceedings of a Workshop   (BOSE,BMSA)
Released 2019-09-06 Forthcoming/Prepublication

The Board on Science Education and the Board on Mathematical Sciences and Analytics of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine convened the Workshop on Increasing Student Success in Developmental Mathematics on March 18-19, 2019. The Workshop explored how to best support all students in postsecondary mathematics, with particular attention to students who are unsuccessful in developmental mathematics and with an eye toward issues of access to promising reforms and equitable learning environments. The two-day workshop was designed to bring together a variety of stakeholders, including experts who have developed and/or implemented new initiatives to improve the mathematics education experience for students. The overarching goal of the workshop was to take stock of the mathematics education community's progress in this domain. Participants examined the data on students who are well-served by new reform structures in developmental mathematics and discussed various cohorts of students who are not currently well served - those who even with access to reforms do not succeed and those who do not have access to a reform due to differential access constraints. Throughout the workshop, participants also explored promising approaches to bolstering student outcomes in mathematics, focusing especially on research and data that demonstrate the success of these approaches; deliberated and discussed barriers and opportunities for effectively serving all students; and outlined some key directions of inquiry intended to address the prevailing research and data needs in the field. This publication summarizes the presentations and discussion of the workshop.

Facilities Staffing Requirements for the Veterans Health Administration—Resource Planning and Methodology for the FutureInterim Report   (BICE,BOHSI)
Released 2019-08-30

The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine was tasked by the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) to prepare a comprehensive resource planning and staffing methodology guidebook for VHA Facility Management (Engineering) Programs. The resource and staffing methodology must take into account all significant parameters and variables involved in the VHA Engineering Programs. The methodology should yield customized outputs based on site-specific input data, to enable specification of the optimal budget and staffing levels for each site. Currently, the VHA does not utilize a staffing model for defining its facilities workforce. Each medical center defines its required facilities staffing. This interim report focuses on the types, availability, usage, and limitations of models in the staffing processes.

Key Operational Characteristics and Functionalities of a State-of-the-Art Patient Scheduling SystemProceedings of a Workshop—in Brief   (HCS,CSTB)
Released 2019-08-30

Current electronic health care systems are archaic and face similar challenges that limit efficient patient scheduling and health care accessibility. A large initiative to improve these systems is underway because these challenges exist across many electronic health care systems. However, these challenges are exacerbated within the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Healthcare System due to uniquely complex aspects of that system and its patients. The National Academies convened a two-day workshop to explore important operational characteristics and functionalities of effective patient scheduling systems. This workshop built upon a 2015 Institute of Medicine report that identified hurdles to timely patient scheduling specifically within the Veterans Health Administration, who administers the VA system. Discussions at the workshop reviewed past healthcare system patient, clinician, and scheduler experiences and technologies. They also highlighted the importance of design, implementation, and adaptability of scheduling systems. This publication summarizes the presentations from the workshop.

Managing the NIH Bethesda Campus's Capital Assets for Success in a Highly Competitive Global Biomedical Research Environment   (BICE)
Released 2019-08-26 Forthcoming/Prepublication

Robust Machine Learning Algorithms and Systems for Detection and Mitigation of Adversarial Attacks and AnomaliesProceedings of a Workshop   (BMSA,CSTB,ICSB)
Released 2019-08-22

The Intelligence Community Studies Board (ICSB) of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine convened a workshop on December 11–12, 2018, in Berkeley, California, to discuss robust machine learning algorithms and systems for the detection and mitigation of adversarial attacks and anomalies. This publication summarizes the presentations and discussions from the workshop.

Performance Management and Financing of Facility Engineering Programs at the Veterans Health AdministrationProceedings of a Workshop–in Brief   (BICE,BOHSI)
Released 2019-08-07

The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine convened a workshop on May 8-9, 2019, to gather data on performance management and financing associated with the complex and diverse physical plants that support a wide variety of Veterans Health Administration (VHA) facilities. This workshop was the fourth in a series undertaken to assist the larger effort by an ad hoc committee of the National Academies for the Veterans Administration to prepare a resource planning and staffing methodology guidebook for VHA Facility Management (Engineering) Programs. This publication summarizes the presentations and discussions from the workshop.

Facilities Staffing Requirements for the Veterans Health Administration–Engineering AdministrationProceedings of a Workshop–in Brief   (BICE,NMMB,BOHSI)
Released 2019-07-24

The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine convened a workshop on March 5-6, 2019, to explore staffing considerations for engineering administration at the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) of the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). Workshop speakers shared information about (1) data and data management, (2) contracting strategies, and (3) perspectives on challenges and expectations at various VHA facilities. This Proceedings of a Workshop—in Brief summarizes the presentations and discussions that took place during the workshop.

Facilities Staffing Requirements for the Veterans Health Administration–Capital Asset Inventory Database Management and Strategic CapitalProceedings of a Workshop–in Brief   (BICE,NMMB,BOHSI)
Released 2019-07-24

Continuous Improvement of NASA's Innovation EcosystemProceedings of a Workshop   (ASEB,SSB)
Released 2019-07-23 Forthcoming/Prepublication

Facilities Staffing Requirements for the Veterans Health Administration–Operations and Maintenance of the Physical Plant and EquipmentProceedings of a Workshop–in Brief   (BICE,NMMB,BOHSI)
Released 2019-07-17

21st Century Paradigm Change in Performance and Design MetricsProceedings of a Workshop   (NMMB)
Released 2019-07-15

In September 2015, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine convened a two-day workshop on evolving paradigms for design and manufacturing. Participants discussed ways to lower costs and shorten production time in defense systems while bringing materials and manufacturing alternatives into the tradespace. This publication summarizes the presentations and discussions from the workshop.

Facilities Staffing Requirements for the Veterans Health Administration–Resourcing, Workforce Modeling, and StaffingProceedings of a Workshop   (BICE,BOHSI)
Released 2019-07-12

In January 2019, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine convened the 2-day Workshop on Resourcing, Workforce Modeling, and Staffing. This workshop is one of several data-gathering sessions to support the committee’s iterative study. The overarching goal of the study is to help the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) assess the overall resource needs of its Facilities Management Program and to develop budget and staffing methodologies. Such methodologies can provide better justification for ensuring that local VHA programs are adequately and consistently staffed to accomplish the mission and meet all requirements. This publication summarizes the presentations and discussions from the workshop.

The Growing Threat to Air Force Mission-Critical ElectronicsLethality at Risk: Unclassified Summary   (AFSB,ICSB)
Released 2019-07-05

High-performance electronics are key to the U.S. Air Force’s (USAF’s) ability to deliver lethal effects at the time and location of their choosing. Additionally, these electronic systems must be able to withstand not only the rigors of the battlefield but be able to perform the needed mission while under cyber and electronic warfare (EW) attack. This requires a high degree of assurance that they are both physically reliable and resistant to adversary actions throughout their life cycle from design to sustainment. In 2016, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine convened a workshop titled Optimizing the Air Force Acquisition Strategy of Secure and Reliable Electronic Components, and released a summary of the workshop. This publication serves as a follow-on to provide recommendations to the USAF acquisition community.

Strategic Long-Term Participation by DoD in Its Manufacturing USA InstitutesProceedings of a Workshop   (NMMB)
Released 2019-06-28

The U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) Manufacturing USA Institutes aim to protect national security and increase U.S. competitiveness in manufacturing. The domestic industrial base is critical to supporting and sustaining both military advantage and economic competitiveness. Through these institutes, the DoD is committed to domestically designing and manufacturing the most innovative defense systems. Intended as intensely collaborative applied research and development endeavors among government, industry, and academia, the institutes are envisioned to become lasting, self-sustaining national assets. A long-term strategy is needed to achieve this goal. The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine recently convened a workshop to discuss the long-term sustainability of the Manufacturing USA Institutes. Participants explored different perspectives across multiple disciplines, discussed public-private partnership models, and considered international programs in advanced manufacturing to inform their recommendations regarding the future of the institutes. This publication summarizes the presentations and discussions from the workshop.

Finding Hazardous Asteroids Using Infrared and Visible Wavelength Telescopes   (SSB)
Released 2019-06-19 Forthcoming/Prepublication

Near Earth objects (NEOs) have the potential to cause significant damage on Earth. In December 2018, an asteroid exploded in the upper atmosphere over the Bering Sea (western Pacific Ocean) with the explosive force of nearly 10 times that of the Hiroshima bomb. While the frequency of NEO impacts rises in inverse proportion to their sizes, it is still critical to monitor NEO activity in order to prepare defenses for these rare but dangerous threats. Currently, NASA funds a network of ground-based telescopes and a single, soon-to-expire space-based asset to detect and track large asteroids that could cause major damage if they struck Earth. This asset is crucial to NEO tracking as thermal-infrared detection and tracking of asteroids can only be accomplished on a space-based platform. Finding Hazardous Asteroids Using Infrared and Visible Wavelength Telescopes explores the advantages and disadvantages of infrared (IR) technology and visible wavelength observations of NEOs. This report reviews the techniques that could be used to obtain NEO sizes from an infrared spectrum and delineate the associated errors in determining the size. It also evaluates the strengths and weaknesses of these techniques and recommends the most valid techniques that give reproducible results with quantifiable errors.

2017-2018 Assessment of the Army Research Laboratory   (ARLTAB,LAB)
Released 2019-06-17

The Army Research Laboratory (ARL) is the corporate laboratory for the U.S. army, which bridges scientific and military communities. The ARL is critical in maintaining the United States’ dominant military power through its advanced research and analysis capabilities. The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine's Army Research Laboratory Technical Assessment Board (ARLTAB) conducts biennial assessments of the scientific and technical quality of the facilities. These assessments are necessary to ensure that the ARL’s resources and quality of programs are maximized. 2017-2018 Assessment of the Army Research Laboratory includes findings and recommendations regarding the quality of the ARL’s research, development, and analysis programs. The report of the assessment is subdivided by the ARL’s Science and Technology campaigns, including Materials Research, Sciences for Lethality and Protection, Information Sciences, Computational Sciences, Sciences for Maneuver, Human Sciences, and Analysis and Assessment. This biennial report summarizes the findings for the 2017-2018 period.

Beyond Spectre: Confronting New Technical and Policy ChallengesProceedings of a Workshop   (CSTB)
Released 2019-05-30

In 2017, researchers discovered a vulnerability in microprocessors used in computers and devices all over the world. The vulnerability, named Spectre, combines side effects from caching and speculative execution, which are techniques that have been used for many years to increase the speed at which computers operate. The discovery upends a number of common assumptions about cybersecurity and draws attention to the complexities of the global supply chain and global customer base for the vast range of devices and cloud capabilities that all computer users rely on. In October 2018, the Forum on Cyber Resilience hosted a workshop to explore the implications of this development. This publication summarizes the presentations and discussions from the workshop.

Assessment of the Information Sciences Directorate at the Army Research Office   (ARLTAB,LAB)
Released 2019-05-22

This report summarizes the 2018 findings of the Panel on Review of Extramural Basic Research at the Army Research Laboratory, which reviewed the programs at the Army Research Office’s Information Sciences Directorate.

Metrics for Successful Supercritical Water Oxidation System Operation at the Blue Grass Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant   (BAST)
Released 2019-05-14

The supercritical water oxidation system at the Blue Grass Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant near Richmond, Kentucky is a secondary waste processing reactor that is an important unit in the overall function of the Blue Grass Chemical Agent Pilot Program. This system is designed to reactively destroy the primary products of agent hydrolysis, thus preventing chemical reformation of the original agents. This letter report develops metrics that can be used to determine the success or risks of failure of the system, focusing on safety, corrosion, performance, and reliability, availability, and maintainability.

Reproducibility and Replicability in Science   (CNSTAT,BBCSS,NRSB,CATS,BMSA,COSEMPUP,BRDI)
Released 2019-05-07 Forthcoming/Prepublication

One of the pathways by which the scientific community confirms the validity of a new scientific discovery is by repeating the research that produced it. When a scientific effort fails to independently confirm the computations or results of a previous study, some fear that it may be a symptom of a lack of rigor in science, while others argue that such an observed inconsistency can be an important precursor to new discovery. Concerns about reproducibility and replicability have been expressed in both scientific and popular media. As these concerns came to light, Congress requested that the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine conduct a study to assess the extent of issues related to reproducibility and replicability and to offer recommendations for improving rigor and transparency in scientific research. Reproducibility and Replicability in Science defines reproducibility and replicability and examines the factors that may lead to non-reproducibility and non-replicability in research. Unlike the typical expectation of reproducibility between two computations, expectations about replicability are more nuanced, and in some cases a lack of replicability can aid the process of scientific discovery. This report provides recommendations to researchers, academic institutions, journals, and funders on steps they can take to improve reproducibility and replicability in science.

Strategic Long-Term Participation by DoD in Its Manufacturing USA Institutes   (NMMB)
Released 2019-04-15

To effectively mature and transition DoD manufacturing science and technology advances into production, DoD must have access to a robust and responsive U.S. industrial base which is often driven by advanced manufacturing technologies. The Manufacturing USA institutes are considered crucial and game-changing catalysts that are bringing together innovative ecosystems in various technology and market sectors critical to DoD and the nation. Since 2012, DoD has invested $600 million directly in its Manufacturing USA institutes with the understanding that the initial federal investment included (1) core funding and (2) one-time, start-up funding to establish the institutes within a period of 5 to 7 years. As the institutes now begin to reach year five, DoD is evaluating the effectiveness of the institutes in fulfilling their goals and the best on-going roles for the federal government, including on-going funding options, to ensure optimal benefit to U.S. competitiveness. This report reviews the role of DoD’s investment to date in establishing its eight institutes as public–private partnerships and its engagement with each institute after it has matured beyond the start-up period.

Report 3 on Tracking and Assessing Governance and Management Reform in the Nuclear Security Enterprise   (LAB)
Released 2019-03-08

The congressionally mandated report A New Foundation for the Nuclear Enterprise (the "Augustine-Mies" report), released in November 2014, concluded that "the existing governance structures and many of the practices of the [nuclear security] enterprise are inefficient and ineffective, thereby putting the entire enterprise at risk over the long term." Following the release of the Augustine-Mies report, the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2016 called for DOE to develop an implementation plan for responding to the recommendations in that and similar reports. The NDAA also called for a 4 1⁄2-year study, joint between the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and the National Academy of Public Administration, to evaluate the implementation plan, to track the actions proposed in that plan, and to assess progress. This report is the third in a series of reports to be issued over 2017–2020 as part of that study.

Acquisition Strategies for Future Space-Based OpticsUnclassified Summary   (ICSB,AFSB)
Released 2019-02-26

This study originated with congressionally directed language from the House Permanent Select Committee for Intelligence (HPSCI) in 2016 and titled “Acquisition Strategies for Future Space Based Optics”. This publication is an unclassified summary of the classified report.

Frontiers of Materials ResearchA Decadal Survey   (NMMB,BPA)
Released 2019-02-08

Modern materials science builds on knowledge from physics, chemistry, biology, mathematics, computer and data science, and engineering sciences to enable us to understand, control, and expand the material world. Although it is anchored in inquiry-based fundamental science, materials research is strongly focused on discovering and producing reliable and economically viable materials, from super alloys to polymer composites, that are used in a vast array of products essential to today’s societies and economies. Frontiers of Materials Research: A Decadal Survey is aimed at documenting the status and promising future directions of materials research in the United States in the context of similar efforts worldwide. This third decadal survey in materials research reviews the progress and achievements in materials research and changes in the materials research landscape over the last decade; research opportunities for investment for the period 2020-2030; impacts that materials research has had and is expected to have on emerging technologies, national needs, and science; and challenges the enterprise may face over the next decade.

Report Series: Committee on Astrobiology and Planetary ScienceReview of the Planetary Science Aspects of NASA SMD's Lunar Science and Exploration Initiative   (SSB)
Released 2019-02-07

On December 11, 2017, President Donald Trump signed Space Policy Directive-1 (SPD-1). The new directive replaced original text in the National Space Policy of the United States of America and instructed the Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to “lead the return of humans to the Moon for long-term exploration and utilization, followed by human missions to Mars and other destinations”. In response to and in support of the vision expressed in SPD-1, this report reviews decadal and other community-guided lunar science priorities as context for NASA’s current lunar plans and then presents and evaluates the actions being taken by NASA’s Planetary Science Division to support lunar science.

Report Series: Committee on Astrobiology and Planetary ScienceReview of the Commercial Aspects of NASA SMD's Lunar Science and Exploration Initiative   (SSB)
Released 2019-02-07

On December 11, 2017, President Donald Trump signed Space Policy Directive-1 (SPD-1). The new directive replaced original text in the National Space Policy of the United States of America and instructed the Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to "lead the return of humans to the Moon for long-term exploration and utilization, followed by human missions to Mars and other destinations". In response to and in support of the vision expressed in SPD-1, the first report reviewed decadal and other community-guided lunar science priorities as context for NASA’s current lunar plans and then presented and evaluated the actions being taken by NASA’s Planetary Science Division (PSD) to support lunar science. At the request of NASA PSD, this second report explores plans for commercial partnerships, lunar infrastructure development, and related aspects of NASA’s lunar science and exploration initiative.

Planetary Protection Classification of Sample Return Missions from the Martian Moons   (SSB)
Released 2019-01-18

An international consensus policy to prevent the biological cross-contamination of planetary bodies exists and is maintained by the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) of the International Council for Science, which is consultative to the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space. Currently, COSPAR’s planetary protection policy does not specify the status of sample-return missions from Phobos or Deimos, the moons of Mars. Although the moons themselves are not considered potential habitats for life or of intrinsic relevance to prebiotic chemical evolution, recent studies indicate that a significant amount of material recently ejected from Mars could be present on the surface of Phobos and, to a lesser extent, Deimos. This report reviews recent theoretical, experimental, and modeling research on the environments and physical conditions encountered by Mars ejecta during certain processes. It recommends whether missions returning samples from Phobos and/or Deimos should be classified as “restricted” or “unrestricted” Earth return in the framework of the planetary protection policy maintained by COSPAR. This report also considers the specific ways the classification of sample return from Deimos is a different case than sample return from Phobos.

Making Climate Assessments WorkLearning from California and Other Subnational Climate Assessments: Proceedings of a Workshop   (BEES)
Released 2019-01-11

Climate assessment activities are increasingly driven by subnational organizations—city, county, and state governments; utilities and private companies; and stakeholder groups and engaged publics—trying to better serve their constituents, customers, and members by understanding and preparing for how climate change will impact them locally. Whether the threats are drought and wildfires, storm surge and sea level rise, or heat waves and urban heat islands, the warming climate is affecting people and communities across the country. To explore the growing role of subnational climate assessments and action, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine hosted the 2-day workshop on August 14-15, 2018. This publication summarizes the presentations and discussions from the workshop.