Skip to Main Content
The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine
Naval Studies Board
Naval Studies Board Home
About NSB
Published Reports
Current Projects
Special Projects


NSB Members

The Honorable Paul A. Schneider (Chair), Independent Consultant
Mr. Stephen M. Carmel, Maersk Line, Ltd.
Dr. James N. Eagle, Naval Postgraduate School
Dr. J. Gary Eden (NAE), University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
LtGen George J. Flynn, USMC (Ret.), Independent Consultant
Dr. Rochel Gelman (NAS), Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey
Mr. James R. Gosler, Independent Consultant
Mr. Charles E. Harper, Jariet Technologies
Dr. Tamara E. Jernigan, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
Dr. Bernadette Johnson, Defense Innovation Unit Experimental
The Honorable Kenneth W. Kizer, MD, MPH (NAM), University of California, Davis
Dr. Terry P. Lewis, Raytheon Company
Dr. Ronald R. Luman, Applied Physics Laboratory, Johns Hopkins University
The Honorable Arthur L. Money (NAE), Independent Consultant

Dr. Richard S. Muller (NAE), University of California, Berkeley
VADM David P. Pekoske, USCG (Ret.), PAE
ADM J. Paul Reason, USN (Ret.), Independent Consultant
Dr. Fred B. Schneider (NAE), Cornell University
Dr. Allan Steinhardt, Booz Allen Hamilton, Inc.
MCPON Rick D. West, USN (Ret.), Progeny Systems Corporation

NSB Staff

Dr. Charles F. Draper, Director
Ms. Cherie Chauvin, Senior Program Officer
Dr. Raymond S. Widmayer, Senior Program Officer
Ms. Marta V. Hernandez, Associate Program Officer
Ms. Susan G. Campbell, Administrative Coordinator
Ms. Mary G. (Dixie) Gordon, Information Officer
Ms. Heather M. Lozowski, Financial Manager

Contact Information

Phone: 202-334-3523
Fax: 202-334-3695
Mailing Address:
Naval Studies Board
The National Academies of Sciences,
  Engineering, and Medicine
500 Fifth Street, NW
Washington, DC 20001


The Honorable Paul A. Schneider (Chair) is an independent consultant with specific interest in defense and aerospace issues. He was previously a Principal of The Chertoff Group—an organization aimed at providing security, risk management, and merger/acquisition advisory services for U.S. government and corporate clients around the world. Previously, Mr. Schneider served first as the Under Secretary for Management and subsequently as the Deputy Secretary and Chief Operating Officer of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). Prior to joining DHS, Mr. Schneider served in a number of U.S. government capacities, to include: Senior Acquisition Executive of the National Security Agency, where he was responsible for oversight and execution of signals intelligence and information security development and acquisition programs; Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Navy for Research, Development and Acquisition, where he was responsible for the oversight and execution of Navy and Marine Corps research, development and acquisition programs; and Executive Director and Senior Civilian of the Naval Sea Systems Command, the Navy’s largest ashore organization, where he was responsible for the day-to-day operations of shipyards, laboratories, and engineering and test facilities. Mr. Schneider serves on numerous scientific boards and advisory committees, including as the current Chair of the Armed Forces Communications and Electronics Association’s Homeland Security Committee. He is recently co-chaired the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine’s (Academies’) Committee on Mainstreaming Unmanned Undersea Vehicles into Future U.S. Naval Operations and is currently co-chairing the Committee on Defending Forward-Deployed U.S. Navy Platforms from Potential Enemy Missile and Rocket Attacks.

Mr. Stephen M. Carmel is Senior Vice President at Maersk Line, Limited (MLL). He is responsible for the Non-Liner/Gray fleet Division of MLL. He previously held positions in operations and finance for MLL and U.S. Marine Management, Incorporated. Mr. Carmel began his career sailing as a deck officer and Master primarily on tankers. He graduated from the U.S. Merchant Marine Academy in 1979 and holds a Master of Arts in Economics and a Master of Business Administration from Old Dominion University; he is currently pursuing a Ph.D. with an emphasis in International Political Economy. Mr. Carmel is also a Certified Management Accountant, and he serves on a number of boards and scientific advisory committees such as the Chief of Naval Operations Executive Panel. His Academies experience includes member of the Marine Board and member of the Planning Committee for Safe Navigation in the U.S. Arctic: A Workshop.

Dr. James N. Eagle is Professor Emeritus having recently retired as Professor of Operations Research at the Naval Postgraduate School. His primary areas of research and expertise are the military applications of operations research, especially in search and detection theory, applied probability, and military modeling. Dr. Eagle served as an officer in the U.S. Navy submarine force from 1969 to 1980, retiring from the U.S. Naval Reserve as a captain in 1994. At the Naval Postgraduate School, he has served as Chairman of the Undersea Warfare Academic Group, Chairman of the Department of Operations Research, and Associate Dean of Faculty. He is past associate editor of U.S. Naval Research Logistics and served on the Academies’ Committee on U.S. Naval Forces’ Capabilities for Responding to Small Vessel Threats. He is currently serving as a member of the Academies’ Committee on Mainstreaming Unmanned Undersea Vehicles into Future U.S. Naval Operations being conducted under the auspices of the Naval Studies Board.

Dr. J. Gary Eden (NAE) is Gilmore Family Professor in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Director of the Laboratory for Optical Physics and Engineering at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Dr. Eden began his career in 1976 as a research physicist at the Naval Research Laboratory where he made several contributions to the area of visible and ultraviolet lasers and laser spectroscopy. Since joining the faculty of the University of Illinois in 1979, he has been engaged in research in atomic, molecular and ultrafast laser spectroscopy; the discovery and development of visible and ultraviolet lasers; and the science and technology of microcavity plasma devices. He has served as Assistant Dean in the College of Engineering, Associate Dean of the Graduate College, and Associate Vice-Chancellor for Research. A member of the National Academy of Engineering, Dr. Eden has authored more than 280 refereed publications and 73 awarded patents and is a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the American Physical Society, the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), the International Society for Optics and Photonics (SPIE), and the Optical Society of America. He has served as Editor-in-Chief of the IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics and is currently Editor-in-Chief of Progress in Quantum Electronics. He was awarded the C.E.K. Mees Medal of the Optical Society of America in 2007 and was the recipient of the Fulbright-Israel Distinguished Chair in the Natural Sciences and Engineering for 2007-2008. He is a co-founder of Eden Park Illumination and was named the recipient of the Harold E. Edgerton Award of SPIE for 2010.

LtGen George J. Flynn, USMC (Ret.) is an independent consultant, having recently retired from the U.S. Marine Corps following a distinguished career of more than 38 years. While on active duty, General Flynn created the Joint Force Development Directorate at the Joint Chiefs of Staff, managing more than 2,000 people and a $1 billion organization that developed new military operational, concepts, doctrine and training. He also supervised all elements of the Combatant Commander exercise program, which provides staff training and evaluates the mission performance of the largest military command organization in the United States. As Deputy Commandant of the Marine Corps for Combat Development and Integration, General Flynn determined future requirements for all equipment, training, personnel, facilities, and supporting activities of the Marine Corps. And, in his role as the Deputy Commanding General, Multi-National Corps, Iraq, he was directly involved in leading combat operations and providing direct supervision of support activities of more than 50,000 service members and civilians, while conducting operational planning and execution to enable coalition operations, including extensive interaction with United Kingdom and Coalition Special Operations Forces. Today, General Flynn is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations and senior associate of Center for Strategic and International Studies.

Dr. Rochel Gelman (NAS) is Distinguished Professor Emeritus of Psychology and Cognitive Science at Rutgers-New Brunswick, The State University of New Jersey.  She has extensive experience pairing experimental methods with observation (especially when paired with videotape and coding).  She was one of the first to demonstrate that preschool children and infants have abstract concepts.  These efforts lead to major awards from the American Psychological Association, the Association of Psychological Science, and the Society for Research in Developmental Psychology.  Ongoing research in her laboratory includes studies of verbal and nonverbal representations and understandings of early concepts of numbers and arithmetic, casual reasoning, as well as the animate-inanimate domains.  Since her basic research overlaps with concerns about STEM [science, technology, engineering, and mathematics], she has been able to partner with schools to produce a preschool program, and introduce science into ninth grade ESL [English as a second language] high school programs as well as beginning STEM courses.  These efforts have led to a new line of research to discover why mathematics beyond natural number arithmetic is hard for so many people.  Prior to joining Rutgers, Dr. Gelman was on the faculties of the University of Pennsylvania and University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA).  Dr. Gelman has played a central role in establishing and advancing cognitive science at the University of Pennsylvania and Rutgers and was the Co-Director of the Rutgers Center for Cognitive Science. She served on a variety of the Academies' committees, including How People Learn and the Long-Term Stewardship of Safety Data from the Second Strategic Highway Research Program.  Her honors also include membership in the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and a Guggenheim Fellowship.  She was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 2006.

Mr. James R. Gosler is an independent consultant, having retired from Sandia National Laboratories, where he served as a Fellow, Information Operations. His early contributions included establishing a performance modeling/ simulation program in the data processing operating systems design area and developing attack methodologies for both cryptographic and nuclear weapon systems in the adversarial analysis group. In 1989, Mr. Gosler was invited by the National Security Agency to serve as Sandia’s first Visiting Scientist. During his two year assignment, he consulted on computer security concerns and established/chaired key information security research working groups. Upon his return to Sandia, he was named Manager of the Software Adversarial Analysis Department. In 1993, he established and directed the Vulnerability Assessments Program and was named Assistant Director of the Systems Assessment and Research Center. He has completed numerous professional courses and schools, including the National Senior Cryptologic Course, the National Senior Intelligence Course, Harvard’s Program for Senior Executives in National and International Security, Aspen Institute’s Senior Executive Seminar, and the Intelligence Fellows Program. Mr. Gosler is a retired Captain in the U.S. Naval Reserves. He recently served as co-chair of the Academies’ Committee for a Review of U.S. Navy Cyber Defense Capabilities and has been in instrumental in disseminating the study’s results to Department of the Navy leadership.

Mr. Charles E. Harper is President and Chief Executive Officer of Jariet Technologies having most recently served as Senior Vice President and Chief Strategy Officer at Semtech Corporation, where he was responsible for advance technology and process technology development for Semtech’s business units in wireless, sensing, and communication systems.  Prior to the acquisition by Semtech, Mr. Harper was Chairman, CEO, and Co-Founder of Sierra Monolithics since its founding in 1988.  Sierra Monolithics was an advance technology company responsible for the design, development, and manufacture of integrated circuits for optical networks used by the commercial sector; and communications, radar, and electronic warfare systems used by various military customers and the DOD.  Prior to founding Sierra Monolithics, Mr. Harper worked for several high technology and defense companies, including as Manager of Advance Technology Development at Magnavox, Director of Business Planning at Mattel, and Assistant Director of Management Services at Lear Sieger; he also held several engineering and executive management positions at the Garrett/Allied Signal Corporation.  Mr. Harper has served on numerous scientific boards and advisory committees, including as a current member of the California Council on Science and Technology, the University of Southern California Electric Engineering Advisory Council, the University of California at Los Angeles Health System Board, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Sloan School Dean Advisory Council, and the Six Semiconductor (Brazil) Technical Advisory Board.

Dr. Tamara E. Jernigan is Deputy Principal Associate Director at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), an organization responsible for ensuring the safety, reliability, and security of the U.S. nuclear stockpile in the absence of testing through a comprehensive science-based program. Dr. Jernigan joined LLNL as Principle Deputy Associate Director for the Physics and Advanced Technologies Directorate. Prior to her tenure at LLNL, she served as a NASA astronaut from 1985 to 2001. Dr. Jernigan is a veteran of five Space Shuttle missions where she supervised the pre-flight planning and in-flight execution of critical activities aboard STS-40, 52, 67, 80, and 96, including an 8 hour spacewalk while docked to the International Space Station. She recently served on the Academies’ Committee on the NASA Technology Roadmap and is currently a member of the Committee on Defending Forward-Deployed U.S. Navy Platforms from Potential Enemy Missile and Rocket Attacks.

Dr. Bernadette Johnson is Chief Science Officer of Defense Innovation Unit  Experimental (DIUx), where she works to promote the rapid transition of technologies to the warfighter. Prior to joining DIUx, she was the Chief Technology Officer at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Lincoln Laboratory. Her responsibilities there included the development of the laboratory’s long-term technology strategy and the coordination of collaborative research with the MIT campus and other universities. In her previous research career, she worked to develop technologies for military and civilian chemical and biological defense and forensics sensing, and was engaged in various applications of laser development and remote sensing. She was and remains actively involved in technology innovation initiatives. Dr. Johnson previously served on the Academies’ Committee on Review of Testing and Evaluation Methodology for Biological Point Detectors. She recently served as a member of the Academies’ Committee on Mainstreaming Unmanned Undersea Vehicles into Future U.S. Naval Operations being conducted under the auspices of the Naval Studies Board. She is also just completing participation in an Academies' study for the Air Force on the Role of Experimentation in the Innovation Life Cycle.

The Honorable Kenneth W. Kizer, MD, MPH (NAM) is Distinguished Professor at the University of California, Davis, School of Medicine and the Betty Irene Moore School of Nursing; Director of the Institute for Population Health Improvement, UC Davis Health System; Director of the California Cancer Reporting and Epidemiologic Surveillance Program; and Chief Quality Consultant for the California Department of Health Care Services. Dr. Kizer’s professional experience includes senior executive positions in the public and private sectors, academe, and philanthropy. His previous positions have included: Chairman, CEO and President, Medsphere Systems Corporation; founding President and CEO, National Quality Forum; Under Secretary for Health, U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs; Director, California Department of Health Services; and Director, California Emergency Medical Services Authority. He has served on the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force and as Chairman, The California Wellness Foundation, as well as on the governing boards of a number of health IT and managed care companies, several foundations, and various professional associations and non-profit organizations. Dr. Kizer is an honors graduate of Stanford University and the University of California, Los Angeles and the recipient of two honorary doctorates. He is board certified in six medical specialties and/or subspecialties and has authored over 400 original articles, book chapters, and other reports. He is a fellow or distinguished fellow of 10 professional societies and is a member of the National Academy of Public Administration, in addition to the National Academy of Medicine. He has served on numerous boards and scientific advisory committees, to include member of the Academies' Standing Committee on Aerospace Medicine and Medicine of Extreme Environments.

Dr. Terry P. Lewis is Senior Systems Engineer with the Raytheon Company, where his areas of expertise include command, control, communications, and information systems; digitized battlespace systems; communications and transmission security in military tactical systems; wireless network security; and network management authentication techniques for robust security architecture. In addition, Dr. Lewis has developed anti-tampering technologies to prevent or reduce the ability of potential aggressors to reverse-engineer critical U.S. communications technologies. He is a Raytheon Fellow and received the Most Promising Engineer of the Year award conferred at the 2002 Black Engineer of the Year Award Conference. Dr. Lewis served as a member of the Academies’ Committee on Distributed Remote Sensing for Naval Undersea Warfare and more recently on the Committee for a Review of U.S. Navy Cyber Defense Capabilities.

Dr. Ronald R. Luman is Chief of Staff of the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, where he previously served as Assistant Director for Strategy and Head of the National Security Analysis Department. He has a broad technical experience base including leadership roles in design, development, test and evaluation of undersea systems, missile and navigation systems, ballistic missile defense and intelligence systems architectures. Dr. Luman has served on a number of scientific boards and advisory committees, including as a member of the Academies’ Committee on the Role of Naval Forces in the Global War on Terror, the Committee on National Security Implications of Climate for U.S. Naval Forces, and the Committee on Mainstreaming Unmanned Undersea Vehicles into Future U.S. Naval Operations—all of which were conducted under the auspices of the NSB. He is also Chair of the Systems Engineering Program in the JHU Whiting School of Engineering and is a 2015 inductee to the George Washington University Engineering Hall of Fame. He is currently co-chairing the Academies’ Committee on Defending Forward-Deployed U.S. Navy Platforms from Potential Enemy Missile and Rocket Attacks.

The Honorable Arthur L. Money (NAE) is an independent consultant and former Assistant Secretary of Defense for Command, Control, Communications and Intelligence (C3I) in which he was the senior civilian official in DoD with C3I responsibilities and chief information officer (CIO). Mr. Money also served as Assistant Secretary of the Air Force for Research, Development and Acquisition and served as CIO. Prior to joining DoD, he was president of ESL Incorporated, a subsidiary of TRW (a former American corporation involved in a variety of businesses including aerospace and defense). Mr. Money has more than 50 years of management and engineering experience with the defense electronics industry and intelligence community in the design and development of intelligence collection analysis capabilities and airborne tactical reconnaissance systems. Throughout his career, Mr. Money has been recognized for his vision, leadership, and commitment to excellence in systems and process reengineering. In 2012, Mr. Money was the 28th Annual William Oliver Baker Award Recipient, for life time service to the Intelligence Community and for National Security. A member of the National Academy of Engineering, he recently served as a member of the Academies’ Committee for a Review of U.S. Navy Cyber Defense Capabilities and is currently serving as a member of the Committee on Defending Forward-Deployed U.S. Navy Platforms from Potential Enemy Missile and Rocket Attacks.

Dr. Richard S. Muller (NAE) is Professor in the Graduate School and Founding Director, Berkeley Sensor and Actuator Center, University of California (UC), Berkeley. Joining the UC Berkeley faculty in 1962, his initial research and teaching focused on integrated circuit devices. In the late 1970s, Dr. Muller changed his research focus to the general area now known as microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). He has been awarded: NATO and Fulbright Research Fellowships; an Alexander von Humboldt Senior-Scientist Award; the UC Berkeley Citation (1994); Stevens Institute of Technology Renaissance Award (1995); the Transducers Research Conference Career Achievement Award (1997); the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Cledo Brunetti Award (with Roger T. Howe, 1998); and an IEEE Millennium Medal (2000). He is a Life Fellow of the IEEE and has served as an IEEE Distinguished Lecturer. In 1990, he proposed to IEEE and American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) the creation of a MEMS technical journal, which began publication in 1991 as the IEEE/ASME Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems. A member of the National Academy of Engineering, Dr. Muller is the author or co-author of more than 300 research papers and technical presentations and of 25 issued patents.

VADM David P. Pekoske, USCG (Ret.) is Group President of the National Security Group at A-T Solutions, Incorporated—a privately owned company providing counterterrorism-related intelligence, technology, training and mission support solutions to government clients. Admiral Pekoske’s expertise and experience includes maritime security and maritime transportation. Prior to joining A-T Solutions, he served in the U.S. Coast Guard for 33 years until his retirement in 2010. In his last position, Admiral Pekoske served as Vice Commandant of the U.S. Coast Guard, essentially serving as second in command and chief operating officer, and often representing the Commandant and Secretary of Homeland Security in National Security Council and Joints Chiefs of Staff settings. Admiral Pekoske serves on numerous boards and scientific advisory committees, to include as chairman of the Board of Directors for the InfraGard National Members Alliance (a national non-profit organization sponsored by the FBI focused on protecting our nation’s critical infrastructure) and as a member of the National Security Advisory Council of the U. S. Global Leadership Coalition (a network dedicated to strengthening America’s leadership in the world through strategic investment in development and diplomacy).

ADM J. Paul Reason, USN (Ret.) is an independent consultant having retired from the U.S. Navy with the rank of admiral after 35 years of service. The Navy’s first African American to make four-star rank, Admiral Reason’s last assignment was Commander, U.S. Atlantic Fleet, where his duties included the training, maintenance, and readiness of naval forces deployed to the Mediterranean and Caribbean seas, South America, and the Persian Gulf. (He was also responsible for the operations of most U.S. Navy bases and facilities along the East and Gulf coasts of the United States, in Puerto Rico, Cuba, and Iceland.) He is a nuclear-trained surface warfare officer with more than 20 years of experience at sea. Ashore he served as Deputy Chief of Naval Operation for Plans, Policy and Operations; Commander, Naval Surface Force Atlantic; and Commander, Naval Base Seattle. Following military retirement, Admiral Reason served on numerous corporate boards; among them, Amgen, Norfolk Southern, and Wal-Mart boards of directors. His Academies' experience includes serving as co-chair of the Committee for Capability Surprise on U.S. Naval Forces and serving on the Committee on U.S. Naval Forces’ Capabilities for Responding to Small Vessel Threats and the Committee on the Committee on the "1,000 Ship Navy"—A Distributed and Global Maritime Network. He is a current member of the NSB. He is a graduate of the Naval Academy, and he received an M.S. from the Naval Postgraduate school.

Dr. Fred B. Schneider (NAE) is Samuel B. Eckert Professor of Computer Science at Cornell University and chair of the department. A member of the NAE, Professor Schneider’s research interests include trustworthy systems; specifically, systems that will perform as expected despite failures and attacks. His early research interests included formal methods to aid in the design and implementation of concurrent and distributed systems that satisfy their specifications. Professor Schneider is author of two texts on that subject: On Concurrent Programming and (co-authored with D. Gries) A Logical Approach to Discrete Mathematics. He is also known for his research in theory and algorithms for building fault-tolerant distributed systems. More recently, Professor Schneider’s research interests have turned to system security, and his work characterizing what policies can be enforced with various classes of defenses is widely cited and it is seen as advancing the nascent science base for security. He is also engaged in research concerning legal and economic measures for improving system trustworthiness. Professor Schneider has served on numerous scientific boards and advisory committees, including as a member of the Academies' Computer Science and Telecommunications Board, as a member of the Committee for a Review of U.S. Navy Cyber Defense Capabilities, and as chair of the Academies’ Forum on Cyber-Resilience. He was Editor of the 1998 Academies' report entitled Trust in Cyberspace. He is a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the Association of Computing Machinery, and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers; he has been elected a foreign member of the Norwegian Academy of Technological Sciences (Norges Tekniste Vitenskapsakademi).

Dr. Allan Steinhardt is a science fellow (chief scientist) and senior executive advisor for Booz Allen Hamilton where he leads a team of scientists, engineers, and mathematicians in providing prototyping, portfolio analysis, technology roadmaps, and innovation services to the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD). His projects include custom radio frequency signal prototype collection systems for airborne platforms, prototype radar systems integration, and signal processing, and he is a science and technology subject-matter expert to support military intelligence. Previously, Dr. Steinhardt was an assistant professor at Cornell University and a senior staff scientist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Lincoln Laboratory. He also spent more than 11 years at the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), retiring as chief scientist. Dr. Steinhardt is a fellow of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), in recognition of his work on space time adaptive processing, which is used in the Joint Surveillance and Target Attack Radar System (JSTARS) and related radar systems. Dr. Steinhardt has published more than 100 articles in academic and defense strategy journals and co-authored a book on adaptive radar. He is also an inventor, holding one approved patent with several in review. His work on Householder algorithms has been cited more than 200 times in peer reviewed research journals. He is a current member of the NSB. Dr. Steinhardt has held various leadership positions at IEEE, most recently as two-term chair of the prestigious IEEE Dennis J. Pickard Medal for Radar Technologies and Applications Award Committee.

MCPON Rick D. West, USN (Ret.) is currently working with Progeny Systems Corporation in Bremerton, Washington, having served previously as a Client Executive for Insight and Futuring at Paladin Data Systems. MCPON West was the 12th Master Chief Petty Officer of the Navy (the senior-most enlisted person in the Navy) and retired in 2012 after 31 years of active duty service in the U.S. Navy. His career in the Navy spanned duties ashore and afloat, primarily aboard submarines. His specific duties at sea included Chief of the Boat aboard the USS Portsmouth (SSN 707), where he completed two Western Pacific deployments; Command Master Chief aboard the USS Preble (DDG 88), where he deployed to the Persian Gulf and qualified as Enlisted Surface Warfare Specialist; and Fleet Master Chief for both the U.S. Pacific Fleet and U.S. Atlantic Fleet through U.S. Fleet Forces Command.

Dr. Charles F. Draper is the director of the Naval Studies Board (NSB). He joined the NSB in 1997 as Program Officer then Senior Program Officer and in 2003 became Associate Director and Acting Director of the NSB. During his tenure with the NSB, Dr. Draper has served as study director on a wide range of topics aimed at helping the Department of the Navy and Department of Defense with their scientific, technical, and strategic planning. He recently served as study director for the report A Review of U.S. Navy Cyber Defense Capabilities, and previously served as the study director for over 20 reports including two congressionally mandated reports entitled Conventional Prompt Global Strike: Issues for 2008 and Beyond and Making Sense of Ballistic Missile Defense: An Assessment of Concepts and Systems for U.S. Boost-Phase Missile Defense in Comparison to Other Alternatives. Before joining the NSB, Dr. Draper was the lead mechanical engineer at S.T. Research Corporation where he provided technical and program management support for satellite Earth station and small satellite design. He received his Ph.D. in mechanical engineering from Vanderbilt University in 1995; his doctoral research was conducted at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), where he used an atomic-force microscope to measure the nanomechanical properties of thin-film materials. In parallel with his graduate student duties, Dr. Draper was a mechanical engineer working on-site at NRL on the development of an underwater X-ray backscattering tomography system used for the nondestructive evaluation of U.S. Navy sonar domes on surface ships.

Ms. Cherie Chauvin is a senior program officer with the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine's Naval Studies Board. Since joining the Academies' Board on Behavioral, Cognitive and Sensory Sciences and the Board on Human-Systems Integration in 2006, she has directed numerous studies relevant to defense, national security, and intelligence issues. Previously, she was an intelligence officer with the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA), where her work included support for military operations and liaison relationships across Sub-Saharan Africa and in Japan, South Korea, and Mongolia, as well as conducting worldwide intelligence collection operations (including during deployment to Afghanistan) to answer strategic and tactical military intelligence requirements. In recognition of her service, she was awarded the DIA Civilian Expeditionary Medal, the Department of the Army Commander’s Award for Civilian Service, and the Office of the Director of National Intelligence National Meritorious Unit Citation. She holds a B.S. in cognitive science from the University of California at San Diego, an M.A. in international relations from The Maxwell School at Syracuse University, and an M.S. in strategic intelligence from the National Defense Intelligence College.

Dr. Raymond S. Widmayer is a senior program officer with the Academies' Naval Studies Board (NSB) and was a consultant for the NSB from July 2004 through June 2007. He retired from the federal government in June 2004 with more than 40 years of service working for the U.S. Navy as a mechanical engineer. His career started at the Naval Ordnance Laboratory (White Oak) and progressed through a two-year posting with the United Kingdom, working on sea mine warfare programs for the Royal Navy. Following his United Kingdom posting he was selected as the technical director for Sea Mine Warfare within the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations (OPNAV) in 1982. He concluded his government service as the technical director of the OPNAV organization responsible for overall integration of S&T within OPNAV. Dr. Widmayer earned his BSME from the University of Maryland, his M.S. from Columbia University, and his Ph.D. from the University of Maryland. Additionally, he is a 1993 graduate of the Industrial College of the Armed Forces.

Ms. Marta V. Hernandez is an associate program officer with the Academies' Naval Studies Board (NSB). Prior to joining the NSB, she served for the Air Force Studies Board and the National Materials Advisory Board. Ms. Hernandez joined the National Research Council of the National Academies in 2003 after graduating from the University of Maryland with a B.S. in materials science and engineering. Since then she has worked on a variety of projects including ad-hoc committees, standing committees, roundtable meetings, and proposal review panels for various sponsors within the Department of Defense and other federal agencies.