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NSB Members

The Honorable Paul A. Schneider (Chair), Independent Consultant
Dr. James G. Bellingham, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
Dr. Jacopo Buongiorno, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Mr. Stephen M. Carmel, Maersk Line, Ltd.
Dr. Gregory K. Crawford, The MITRE Corporation 
Dr. Thomas M. Donnellan, Applied Research Laboratory, Pennsylvania State University
Dr. James N. Eagle, Naval Postgraduate School
Dr. J. Gary Eden (NAE), University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
LtGen George J. Flynn, USMC (Ret.), Independent Consultant
Dr. Naomi J. Halas (NAS/NAE), Rice University
Dr. Tamara E. Jernigan, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
Dr. Bernadette Johnson, Defense Innovation Unit Experimental
The Honorable Kenneth W. Kizer, MD, MPH (NAM), University of California, Davis
Dr. Ronald R. Luman, Applied Physics Laboratory, Johns Hopkins University
Mr. Mark A. Mitchell, Georgia Tech Research Institute
The Honorable Arthur L. Money (NAE), Independent Consultant
Dr. José M.F. Moura (NAE), Carnegie Mellon University
Dr. Richard S. Muller (NAE), University of California, Berkeley
Dr. Robert J. Niewoehner, U.S. Naval Academy
VADM David P. Pekoske, USCG (Ret.), Independent Consultant
ADM J. Paul Reason, USN (Ret.), Independent Consultant
Dr. Gabriel M. Rebeiz (NAE), University of California, San Diego
Dr. John A. Rogers (NAS/NAE), Northwestern University
Dr. Fred B. Schneider (NAE), Cornell University
Dr. Allan Steinhardt, Aeye, Inc.
MCPON Rick D. West, USN (Ret.), Progeny Systems Corporation - Bremerton

NSB Staff

Dr. Charles F. Draper, Director
Ms. Cherie Chauvin, Senior Program Officer
Dr. Raymond S. Widmayer, Senior Program Officer
Ms. Marta V. Hernandez, Associate Program Officer
Ms. Susan G. Campbell, Administrative Coordinator
Ms. Mary G. (Dixie) Gordon, Information Officer
Ms. Heather M. Lozowski, Financial Manager

Contact Information

Phone: 202-334-3523
Fax: 202-334-3695
Mailing Address:
Naval Studies Board
The National Academies of Sciences,
  Engineering, and Medicine
500 Fifth Street, NW
Washington, DC 20001


The Honorable Paul A. Schneider (Chair) is an independent consultant with specific interest in defense and aerospace issues. He was previously a Principal of The Chertoff Group—an organization aimed at providing security, risk management, and merger/acquisition advisory services for U.S. government and corporate clients around the world. Previously, Mr. Schneider served first as the Under Secretary for Management and subsequently as the Deputy Secretary and Chief Operating Officer of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). Prior to joining DHS, Mr. Schneider served in a number of U.S. government capacities, to include: Senior Acquisition Executive of the National Security Agency, where he was responsible for oversight and execution of signals intelligence and information security development and acquisition programs; Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Navy for Research, Development and Acquisition, where he was responsible for the oversight and execution of Navy and Marine Corps research, development and acquisition programs; and Executive Director and Senior Civilian of the Naval Sea Systems Command, the Navy’s largest ashore organization, where he was responsible for the day-to-day operations of shipyards, laboratories, and engineering and test facilities. Mr. Schneider serves on numerous scientific boards and advisory committees, including as the current Chair of the Armed Forces Communications and Electronics Association’s Homeland Security Committee. He recently co-chaired the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine’s (Academies’) Committee on Mainstreaming Unmanned Undersea Vehicles into Future U.S. Naval Operations and is currently co-chairing the Committee on Defending Forward-Deployed U.S. Navy Platforms from Potential Enemy Missile and Rocket Attacks.

Dr. James G. Bellingham is the director of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) Center for Marine Robotics. He arrived at WHOI from the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, where he was director of engineering and recently chief technologist. Dr. Bellingham was founder and manager of the Autonomous Underwater Vehicle Laboratory at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and co-founder of Bluefin Robotics, a Massachusetts-based company that develops, builds, and operates autonomous underwater vehicles (since acquired by Battelle). He recently served as a member of the NRC/NSB committee that helped prepare the report, entitled Mainstreaming Unmanned Undersea Vehicles into Future U.S. Naval Operations.

Dr. Jacopo Buongiorno is the TEPCO Professor and Associate Department Head, Nuclear Science and Engineering; and Director of the Center for Advanced Nuclear Energy Systems at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Dr. Buongiorno’s research interests include multi-phase flow and heat transfer, advanced reactor design, reactor-thermal-hydraulics, and safety. His current research is focused in four areas: offshore floating nuclear power plant, fundamentals of boiling, surface effects on boiling heat transfer, and nanofluids for nuclear applications. He is currently directing MIT’s study on the Future of Nuclear Energy in a Carbon-Constrained World. He recently served as a member of the Defense Science Study Group, which is a program of education and study that introduces outstanding science and engineering professors to national security challenges and encourages them to apply their talents to these issues.

Mr. Stephen M. Carmel is Senior Vice President at Maersk Line, Limited (MLL). He is responsible for the Non-Liner/Gray fleet Division of MLL. He previously held positions in operations and finance for MLL and U.S. Marine Management, Incorporated. Mr. Carmel began his career sailing as a deck officer and Master primarily on tankers. He graduated from the U.S. Merchant Marine Academy in 1979 and holds a Master of Arts in Economics and a Master of Business Administration from Old Dominion University; he is currently pursuing a Ph.D. with an emphasis in International Political Economy. Mr. Carmel is also a Certified Management Accountant, and he serves on a number of boards and scientific advisory committees such as the Chief of Naval Operations Executive Panel. His Academies experience includes member of the Marine Board and member of the Planning Committee for Safe Navigation in the U.S. Arctic: A Workshop.

Dr. Gregory K. Crawford
is the vice president for the Joint and Services Portfolio in The MITRE Corporation’s National Security Engineering Center (NSEC). The NSEC is a federally funded research and development center sponsored by the Department of Defense (DoD) and operated within MITRE’s Center for National Security. Dr. Crawford’s expertise includes space physics and solar terrestrial physics, as well as intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) sensing and exploitation. He has managed numerous projects, ranging from basic research and development to system design, experimentation, and end-to-end systems engineering. Dr. Crawford guided MITRE’s research in integrated sensing, processing, and exploitation with a focus on filling sponsors’ capability gaps, as well as led efforts to promote ISR integration across the DoD and the Intelligence Community. He earned a B.A, in physics and chemistry from California State University, M.S. in geophysics and space physics from the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA), and Ph.D. in space plasma physics from UCLA.

Dr. Thomas M. Donnellan is the Associate Director for Materials and Manufacturing at the Applied Research Laboratory at the Pennsylvania State University (ARL/PSU). ARL/PSU is a Department of Defense (DoD) University Affiliated Research Center and is tasked with providing technology solutions for emergent DoD problems. Dr. Donnellan has a 35-year career in advanced technology development and has worked at government laboratories, for the Navy and the FBI, in industry at Northrop Grumman, and in academia at Penn State. Prior to joining ARL/PSU, Dr. Donnellan was the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s senior scientist for Physical Science, with responsibility for advising the Bureau on research and development for forensic and intelligence applications.

Dr. James N. Eagle is Professor Emeritus having recently retired as Professor of Operations Research at the Naval Postgraduate School. His primary areas of research and expertise are the military applications of operations research, especially in search and detection theory, applied probability, and military modeling. Dr. Eagle served as an officer in the U.S. Navy submarine force from 1969 to 1980, retiring from the U.S. Naval Reserve as a captain in 1994. At the Naval Postgraduate School, he has served as Chairman of the Undersea Warfare Academic Group, Chairman of the Department of Operations Research, and Associate Dean of Faculty. He is past associate editor of U.S. Naval Research Logistics and served on the Academies’ Committee on U.S. Naval Forces’ Capabilities for Responding to Small Vessel Threats. He is currently serving as a member of the Academies’ Committee on Mainstreaming Unmanned Undersea Vehicles into Future U.S. Naval Operations being conducted under the auspices of the Naval Studies Board.

Dr. J. Gary Eden (NAE) is Gilmore Family Professor in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Director of the Laboratory for Optical Physics and Engineering at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Dr. Eden began his career in 1976 as a research physicist at the Naval Research Laboratory where he made several contributions to the area of visible and ultraviolet lasers and laser spectroscopy. Since joining the faculty of the University of Illinois in 1979, he has been engaged in research in atomic, molecular and ultrafast laser spectroscopy; the discovery and development of visible and ultraviolet lasers; and the science and technology of microcavity plasma devices. He has served as Assistant Dean in the College of Engineering, Associate Dean of the Graduate College, and Associate Vice-Chancellor for Research. A member of the National Academy of Engineering, Dr. Eden has authored more than 280 refereed publications and 73 awarded patents and is a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the American Physical Society, the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), the International Society for Optics and Photonics (SPIE), and the Optical Society of America. He has served as Editor-in-Chief of the IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics and is currently Editor-in-Chief of Progress in Quantum Electronics. He was awarded the C.E.K. Mees Medal of the Optical Society of America in 2007 and was the recipient of the Fulbright-Israel Distinguished Chair in the Natural Sciences and Engineering for 2007-2008. He is a co-founder of Eden Park Illumination and was named the recipient of the Harold E. Edgerton Award of SPIE for 2010.

LtGen George J. Flynn, USMC (Ret.), is an independent consultant, having recently retired from the U.S. Marine Corps following a distinguished career of more than 38 years. While on active duty, General Flynn created the Joint Force Development Directorate at the Joint Chiefs of Staff, managing more than 2,000 people and a $1 billion organization that developed new military operational, concepts, doctrine and training. He also supervised all elements of the Combatant Commander exercise program, which provides staff training and evaluates the mission performance of the largest military command organization in the United States. As Deputy Commandant of the Marine Corps for Combat Development and Integration, General Flynn determined future requirements for all equipment, training, personnel, facilities, and supporting activities of the Marine Corps. And, in his role as the Deputy Commanding General, Multi-National Corps, Iraq, he was directly involved in leading combat operations and providing direct supervision of support activities of more than 50,000 service members and civilians, while conducting operational planning and execution to enable coalition operations, including extensive interaction with United Kingdom and Coalition Special Operations Forces. Today, General Flynn is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations and senior associate of Center for Strategic and International Studies. 


Dr. Naomi J. Halas (NAS/NAE) is Stanley C. Moore Professor in Electrical and Computer Engineering, with appointments in the Departments of Chemistry, Physics and Astronomy, Biomedical Engineering, and Materials Science and Nanoengineering at Rice University. She is also the Founding Director of the Laboratory for Nanophotonics at Rice University, and Director of the Rice Quantum Institute. Dr. Halas is one of the pioneering researchers in the field of plasmonics, creating the concept of the “tunable plasmon” and inventing a family of nanoparticles with resonances spanning the visible and infrared regions of the spectrum. She is also the author of more than 250 refereed publications and has more than fifteen issued patents.

Dr. Tamara E. Jernigan is Deputy Principal Associate Director at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), an organization responsible for ensuring the safety, reliability, and security of the U.S. nuclear stockpile in the absence of testing through a comprehensive science-based program. Dr. Jernigan joined LLNL as Principle Deputy Associate Director for the Physics and Advanced Technologies Directorate. Prior to her tenure at LLNL, she served as a NASA astronaut from 1985 to 2001. Dr. Jernigan is a veteran of five Space Shuttle missions where she supervised the pre-flight planning and in-flight execution of critical activities aboard STS-40, 52, 67, 80, and 96, including an 8 hour spacewalk while docked to the International Space Station. She recently served on the Academies’ Committee on the NASA Technology Roadmap and is currently a member of the Committee on Defending Forward-Deployed U.S. Navy Platforms from Potential Enemy Missile and Rocket Attacks.

Dr. Bernadette Johnson is Chief Science Officer of Defense Innovation Unit Experimental (DIUx), where she works to promote the rapid transition of technologies to the warfighter. Prior to joining DIUx, she was the Chief Technology Officer at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Lincoln Laboratory. Her responsibilities there included the development of the laboratory’s long-term technology strategy and the coordination of collaborative research with the MIT campus and other universities. In her previous research career, she worked to develop technologies for military and civilian chemical and biological defense and forensics sensing, and was engaged in various applications of laser development and remote sensing. She was and remains actively involved in technology innovation initiatives. Dr. Johnson previously served on the Academies’ Committee on Review of Testing and Evaluation Methodology for Biological Point Detectors. She recently served as a member of the Academies’ Committee on Mainstreaming Unmanned Undersea Vehicles into Future U.S. Naval Operations being conducted under the auspices of the Naval Studies Board. She is also just completing participation in an Academies' study for the Air Force on the Role of Experimentation in the Innovation Life Cycle.

The Honorable Kenneth W. Kizer, MD, MPH (NAM), is Distinguished Professor at the University of California, Davis, School of Medicine and the Betty Irene Moore School of Nursing; Director of the Institute for Population Health Improvement, UC Davis Health System; Director of the California Cancer Reporting and Epidemiologic Surveillance Program; and Chief Quality Consultant for the California Department of Health Care Services. Dr. Kizer’s professional experience includes senior executive positions in the public and private sectors, academe, and philanthropy. His previous positions have included: Chairman, CEO and President, Medsphere Systems Corporation; founding President and CEO, National Quality Forum; Under Secretary for Health, U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs; Director, California Department of Health Services; and Director, California Emergency Medical Services Authority. He has served on the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force and as Chairman, The California Wellness Foundation, as well as on the governing boards of a number of health IT and managed care companies, several foundations, and various professional associations and non-profit organizations. Dr. Kizer is an honors graduate of Stanford University and the University of California, Los Angeles and the recipient of two honorary doctorates. He is board certified in six medical specialties and/or subspecialties and has authored over 400 original articles, book chapters, and other reports. He is a fellow or distinguished fellow of 10 professional societies and is a member of the National Academy of Public Administration, in addition to the National Academy of Medicine. He has served on numerous boards and scientific advisory committees, to include member of the Academies' Standing Committee on Aerospace Medicine and Medicine of Extreme Environments.

Dr. Ronald R. Luman is chief of staff of the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, where he previously served as assistant director for strategy and head of the National Security Analysis Department. He is also chair of the Systems Engineering Program in the Johns Hopkins University Whiting School of Engineering, the largest M.S. program in the nation and the first civilian systems engineering M.S. program to gain ABET accreditation. He has a broad technical experience base including leadership roles in design, development, test and evaluation of undersea systems, missile and navigation systems, ballistic missile defense and intelligence systems architectures. Dr. Luman has served on a number of scientific boards and advisory committees, including as a member of the Academies’ Committee on the Role of Naval Forces in the Global War on Terror, the Committee on National Security Implications of Climate for U.S. Naval Forces, and the Committee on Mainstreaming Unmanned Undersea Vehicles into Future U.S. Naval Operations—all of which were conducted under the auspices of the NSB. He is also Chair of the Systems Engineering Program in the JHU Whiting School of Engineering and is a 2015 inductee to the George Washington University Engineering Hall of Fame. He is currently co-chairing the Academies’ Committee on Defending Forward-Deployed U.S. Navy Platforms from Potential Enemy Missile and Rocket Attacks.

Mr. Mark A. Mitchell is the director of the Advanced Concepts Laboratory at the Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI). The Advanced Concepts Laboratory solves complex problems in the domains of electromagnetics, antenna systems, electronic warfare, materials science, and quantum computing and sensors. His prior position was as Associate Director of GTRI’s Sensors and Electromagnetic Applications Laboratory. His research at GTRI has been in the areas of radars, antennas, and phased arrays, including research projects for DARPA, FAA, Missile Defense Agency (MDA), U.S. Air Force, U.S. Army, and U.S. Navy. During 2008-2010 he was the Technical Director of the Missile Defense Agency’s Sensor Knowledge Center. Mr. Mitchell has authored or co-authored more than 40 publications in the fields of phased arrays and antennas.

The Honorable Arthur L. Money (NAE) is an independent consultant and former Assistant Secretary of Defense for Command, Control, Communications and Intelligence (C3I) in which he was the senior civilian official in DoD with C3I responsibilities and chief information officer (CIO). Mr. Money also served as Assistant Secretary of the Air Force for Research, Development and Acquisition and served as CIO. Prior to joining DoD, he was president of ESL Incorporated, a subsidiary of TRW (a former American corporation involved in a variety of businesses including aerospace and defense). Mr. Money has more than 50 years of management and engineering experience with the defense electronics industry and intelligence community in the design and development of intelligence collection analysis capabilities and airborne tactical reconnaissance systems. Throughout his career, Mr. Money has been recognized for his vision, leadership, and commitment to excellence in systems and process reengineering. In 2012, Mr. Money was the 28th Annual William Oliver Baker Award Recipient, for life time service to the Intelligence Community and for National Security. A member of the National Academy of Engineering, he recently served as a member of the Academies’ Committee for a Review of U.S. Navy Cyber Defense Capabilities and is currently serving as a member of the Committee on Defending Forward-Deployed U.S. Navy Platforms from Potential Enemy Missile and Rocket Attacks.

Dr. José M.F. Moura (NAE) is Philip L. and Marsha Dowd University Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Carnegie Mellon University (CMU). He is also an associate department head for research and strategy in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and, by courtesy, a professor of biomedical engineering at CMU. Dr. Moura's research interests include data science, statistical signal and image processing, graph signal processing, and distributed decision and inference in networked systems and graph based data.

Dr. Richard S. Muller (NAE) is Professor in the Graduate School and Founding Director, Berkeley Sensor and Actuator Center, University of California (UC), Berkeley. Joining the UC Berkeley faculty in 1962, his initial research and teaching focused on integrated circuit devices. In the late 1970s, Dr. Muller changed his research focus to the general area now known as microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). He has been awarded: NATO and Fulbright Research Fellowships; an Alexander von Humboldt Senior-Scientist Award; the UC Berkeley Citation (1994); Stevens Institute of Technology Renaissance Award (1995); the Transducers Research Conference Career Achievement Award (1997); the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Cledo Brunetti Award (with Roger T. Howe, 1998); and an IEEE Millennium Medal (2000). He is a Life Fellow of the IEEE and has served as an IEEE Distinguished Lecturer. In 1990, he proposed to IEEE and American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) the creation of a MEMS technical journal, which began publication in 1991 as the IEEE/ASME Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems. A member of the National Academy of Engineering, Dr. Muller is the author or co-author of more than 300 research papers and technical presentations and of 25 issued patents.

Dr. Robert J. Niewoehner is David F. Rogers Distinguished Professor of Aeronautics at the U.S. Naval Academy. A former chief test pilot for the U.S. Navy’s F/A-18 E/F Super Hornet Development (today the Navy’s primary fighter aircraft), Dr. Niewoehner’s expertise includes aeronautics and aerospace engineering; specifically, flight dynamics and control. He joined the U.S. Naval Academy in 1999 as an assistant professor following a military career which included assignments as U.S. Navy fleet F-14 pilot and instructor pilot; project officer and engineering test pilot; and chief test pilot for F/A-18 E/F Super Hornet Development. He has authored numerous publications, and he is associate fellow for the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics and Society of Experimentation Test Pilots. He earned a B.S. in phyics from the U.S. Naval Academy; M.S. in electrical engineering from the Johns Hopkins University; and Ph.D. in aerospace engineering from the Naval Postgraduate School.

VADM David P. Pekoske, USCG (Ret.), is an independent consultant. He was previously Vice President of National Programs at PAE and Group President of the National Security Group at A-T Solutions. In these positions he led business operations that provided counterterrorism-related intelligence, technology, training and mission support solutions to government clients. As a flag officer, Admiral Pekoske commanded Coast Guard operations from New York to Maine. He also commanded the Coast Guard’s Pacific Area and was the Assistant Commandant for Operations at Coast Guard Headquarters. In his last position, Admiral Pekoske served as Vice Commandant of the U.S. Coast Guard, often representing the Commandant and Secretary of Homeland Security in National Security Council and Joints Chiefs of Staff settings. Admiral Pekoske serves on numerous boards and scientific advisory committees, to include the National Security Advisory Council of the U. S. Global Leadership Coalition and the Board of Advisors of the Jewish Institute of National Security Affairs. He is the former chairman of the Board of Directors for the InfraGard National Members Alliance (a national non-profit organization sponsored by the FBI focused on protecting our nation’s critical infrastructure). Admiral Pekoske is a member of the adjunct faculty at American University.

ADM J. Paul Reason, USN (Ret.), is an independent consultant having retired from the U.S. Navy with the rank of admiral after 35 years of service. The Navy’s first African American to make four-star rank, Admiral Reason’s last assignment was Commander, U.S. Atlantic Fleet, where his duties included the training, maintenance, and readiness of naval forces deployed to the Mediterranean and Caribbean seas, South America, and the Persian Gulf. (He was also responsible for the operations of most U.S. Navy bases and facilities along the East and Gulf coasts of the United States, in Puerto Rico, Cuba, and Iceland.) He is a nuclear-trained surface warfare officer with more than 20 years of experience at sea. Ashore he served as Deputy Chief of Naval Operation for Plans, Policy and Operations; Commander, Naval Surface Force Atlantic; and Commander, Naval Base Seattle. Following military retirement, Admiral Reason served on numerous corporate boards; among them, Amgen, Norfolk Southern, and Wal-Mart boards of directors. His Academies' experience includes serving as co-chair of the Committee for Capability Surprise on U.S. Naval Forces and serving on the Committee on U.S. Naval Forces’ Capabilities for Responding to Small Vessel Threats and the Committee on the Committee on the "1,000 Ship Navy"—A Distributed and Global Maritime Network. He is a current member of the NSB. He is a graduate of the Naval Academy, and he received an M.S. from the Naval Postgraduate School.

Dr. Gabriel M. Rebeiz (NAE) is the Wireless Communications Industry Endowed Chair and distinguished professor of electrical and computer engineering at the University of California, San Diego. Prior to this appointment, he was a professor at the University of Michigan from 1988 to 2004. Dr. Rebeiz's expertise includes design of silicon RFICs for microwave and millimeter-wave systems with a specialty on phased arrays for communications (including SATCOM) and low-power radars, active and passive imaging systems up to THz frequencies (including thermal imagers), RF micro-electro-mechanical systems (RF MEMS), reconfigurable RF front-ends including tunable filters and tunable antennas, software-defined radios, planar antennas from RF to THz frequencies, radars, and collision avoidance systems for autonomous applications.

Dr. John A. Rogers (NAS/NAE) is the Louis Simpson and Kimberly Querrey Professor of Materials Science and Engineering at Northwestern University. His research seeks to understand and exploit interesting characteristics of 'soft' materials, such as polymers, liquid crystals, and biological tissues as well as hybrid combinations of them with unusual classes of micro/nanomaterials, in the form of ribbons, wires, membranes, tubes or related. A member of the National Academy of Sciences and National Academy of Engineering, Dr. Rogers’ current research focuses on soft materials for conformal electronics, nanophotonic structures, microfluidic devices, and microelectromechanical systems, all lately with an emphasis on bio-inspired and bio-integrated technologies. He has published more than 550 papers and has invented over 80 patents and patent applications, more than 50 of which are licensed or in active use by large companies and startups that he has co-founded, including Active Impulse Systems, Semprius, MC10, CoolEdge, XCeleprint and Transient Electronics.

Dr. Fred B. Schneider (NAE) is Samuel B. Eckert Professor of Computer Science at Cornell University and chair of the department. A member of the NAE, Professor Schneider’s research interests include trustworthy systems; specifically, systems that will perform as expected despite failures and attacks. His early research interests included formal methods to aid in the design and implementation of concurrent and distributed systems that satisfy their specifications. Professor Schneider is author of two texts on that subject: On Concurrent Programming and (co-authored with D. Gries) A Logical Approach to Discrete Mathematics. He is also known for his research in theory and algorithms for building fault-tolerant distributed systems. More recently, Professor Schneider’s research interests have turned to system security, and his work characterizing what policies can be enforced with various classes of defenses is widely cited and it is seen as advancing the nascent science base for security. He is also engaged in research concerning legal and economic measures for improving system trustworthiness. Professor Schneider has served on numerous scientific boards and advisory committees, including as a member of the Academies' Computer Science and Telecommunications Board, as a member of the Committee for a Review of U.S. Navy Cyber Defense Capabilities, and as chair of the Academies’ Forum on Cyber-Resilience. He was Editor of the 1998 Academies' report entitled Trust in Cyberspace. He is a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the Association of Computing Machinery, and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers; he has also been elected a foreign member of the Norwegian Academy of Technological Sciences (Norges Tekniste Vitenskapsakademi).

Dr. Allan Steinhardt is Chief Engineer at Aeye, Inc., a new startup focused on advanced sensors for autonomous air, ground, and maritime vehicles. Previously he was a science fellow (chief scientist) and senior executive advisor for Booz Allen Hamilton where he led a team of scientists, engineers, and mathematicians in providing prototyping, portfolio analysis, technology roadmaps, and innovation services to the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD). Previously, Dr. Steinhardt was an assistant professor at Cornell University and a senior staff scientist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Lincoln Laboratory. He also spent more than 11 years at the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), retiring as chief scientist. Dr. Steinhardt is a fellow of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), in recognition of his work on space time adaptive processing, which is used in the Joint Surveillance and Target Attack Radar System (JSTARS) and related radar systems. Dr. Steinhardt has published more than 100 articles in academic and defense strategy journals and co-authored a book on adaptive radar. He is also an inventor, holding one approved patent with several in review. His work on Householder algorithms has been cited more than 200 times in peer reviewed research journals. He is a current member of the NSB. Dr. Steinhardt has held various leadership positions at IEEE, most recently as two-term chair of the prestigious IEEE Dennis J. Pickard Medal for Radar Technologies and Applications Award Committee.

MCPON Rick D. West, USN (Ret.), is currently working with Progeny Systems Corporation in Bremerton, Washington, having served previously as a Client Executive for Insight and Futuring at Paladin Data Systems. MCPON West was the 12th Master Chief Petty Officer of the Navy (the senior-most enlisted person in the Navy) and retired in 2012 after 31 years of active duty service in the U.S. Navy. His career in the Navy spanned duties ashore and afloat, primarily aboard submarines. His specific duties at sea included Chief of the Boat aboard the USS Portsmouth (SSN 707), where he completed two Western Pacific deployments; Command Master Chief aboard the USS Preble (DDG 88), where he deployed to the Persian Gulf and qualified as Enlisted Surface Warfare Specialist; and Fleet Master Chief for both the U.S. Pacific Fleet and U.S. Atlantic Fleet through U.S. Fleet Forces Command.

Dr. Charles F. Draper is the director of the Naval Studies Board (NSB). He joined the NSB in 1997 as Program Officer then Senior Program Officer and in 2003 became Associate Director and Acting Director of the NSB. During his tenure with the NSB, Dr. Draper has served as study director on a wide range of topics aimed at helping the Department of the Navy and Department of Defense with their scientific, technical, and strategic planning. He recently served as study director for the report A Review of U.S. Navy Cyber Defense Capabilities, and previously served as the study director for over 20 reports including two congressionally mandated reports entitled Conventional Prompt Global Strike: Issues for 2008 and Beyond and Making Sense of Ballistic Missile Defense: An Assessment of Concepts and Systems for U.S. Boost-Phase Missile Defense in Comparison to Other Alternatives. Before joining the NSB, Dr. Draper was the lead mechanical engineer at S.T. Research Corporation where he provided technical and program management support for satellite Earth station and small satellite design. He received his Ph.D. in mechanical engineering from Vanderbilt University in 1995; his doctoral research was conducted at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), where he used an atomic-force microscope to measure the nanomechanical properties of thin-film materials. In parallel with his graduate student duties, Dr. Draper was a mechanical engineer working on-site at NRL on the development of an underwater X-ray backscattering tomography system used for the nondestructive evaluation of U.S. Navy sonar domes on surface ships.

Ms. Cherie Chauvin is a senior program officer with the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine's Naval Studies Board. Since joining the Academies' Board on Behavioral, Cognitive and Sensory Sciences and the Board on Human-Systems Integration in 2006, she has directed numerous studies relevant to defense, national security, and intelligence issues. Previously, she was an intelligence officer with the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA), where her work included support for military operations and liaison relationships across Sub-Saharan Africa and in Japan, South Korea, and Mongolia, as well as conducting worldwide intelligence collection operations (including during deployment to Afghanistan) to answer strategic and tactical military intelligence requirements. In recognition of her service, she was awarded the DIA Civilian Expeditionary Medal, the Department of the Army Commander’s Award for Civilian Service, and the Office of the Director of National Intelligence National Meritorious Unit Citation. She holds a B.S. in cognitive science from the University of California at San Diego, an M.A. in international relations from The Maxwell School at Syracuse University, and an M.S. in strategic intelligence from the National Defense Intelligence College.

Dr. Raymond S. Widmayer is a senior program officer with the Academies' Naval Studies Board (NSB) and was a consultant for the NSB from July 2004 through June 2007. He retired from the federal government in June 2004 with more than 40 years of service working for the U.S. Navy as a mechanical engineer. His career started at the Naval Ordnance Laboratory (White Oak) and progressed through a two-year posting with the United Kingdom, working on sea mine warfare programs for the Royal Navy. Following his United Kingdom posting he was selected as the technical director for Sea Mine Warfare within the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations (OPNAV) in 1982. He concluded his government service as the technical director of the OPNAV organization responsible for overall integration of S&T within OPNAV. Dr. Widmayer earned his BSME from the University of Maryland, his M.S. from Columbia University, and his Ph.D. from the University of Maryland. Additionally, he is a 1993 graduate of the Industrial College of the Armed Forces.

Ms. Marta V. Hernandez is an associate program officer with the Academies' Naval Studies Board (NSB). Prior to joining the NSB, she served for the Air Force Studies Board and the National Materials Advisory Board. Ms. Hernandez joined the National Research Council of the National Academies in 2003 after graduating from the University of Maryland with a B.S. in materials science and engineering. Since then she has worked on a variety of projects including ad-hoc committees, standing committees, roundtable meetings, and proposal review panels for various sponsors within the Department of Defense and other federal agencies.