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NSB Members
Dr. Gregory K. Crawford, The MITRE Corporation, Chair
Mr. Arthur H. (Trip) Barber, Systems Planning and Analysis, Inc.  
Dr. James G. Bellingham, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
Dr. Jacopo Buongiorno, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Mr. Stephen M. Carmel, Maersk Line, Ltd.
Dr. Thomas M. Donnellan, Applied Research Laboratory, Pennsylvania State University
Dr. J. Gary Eden (NAE), University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
LtGen George J. Flynn, USMC (Ret.), Independent Consultant
Dr. Naomi J. Halas (NAS/NAE), Rice University
ADM Cecil D. Haney, USN (Ret.), Independent Consultant 
The Honorable Kenneth W. Kizer, MD, MPH (NAM), University of California, Davis
Dr. Katherine A.W. McGrady, CNA 
Mr. Mark A. Mitchell, Georgia Tech Research Institute
The Honorable Arthur L. Money (NAE), Independent Consultant
Dr. José M.F. Moura (NAE), Carnegie Mellon University
Dr. Robert J. Niewoehner, U.S. Naval Academy
Dr. Gabriel M. Rebeiz (NAE), University of California, San Diego
Dr. Katherine A. Rink, Lincoln Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology  
Dr. John A. Rogers (NAS/NAE), Northwestern University
MCPON Rick D. West, USN (Ret.), Progeny Systems Corporation - Bremerton

NSB Staff

Dr. Charles F. Draper, Director
Ms. Cherie Chauvin, Senior Program Officer
Dr. Raymond S. Widmayer, Senior Program Officer
Ms. Marta V. Hernandez, Associate Program Officer
Ms. Heather M. Lozowski, Financial Manager
Ms. Bianca Markovich, Administrative Assistant

Contact Information

Phone: 202-334-3523
Fax: 202-334-3695
Mailing Address:
Naval Studies Board
The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
500 Fifth Street, NW
Washington, DC 20001


Dr. Gregory K. Crawford (Chair) is the vice president for the Joint and Services Portfolio in The MITRE Corporation’s National Security Engineering Center (NSEC) where he leads all MITRE’s work for the Army, Navy, Office of Secretary of Defense, Joint Staff/Combatant Commands, Defense Information Systems Agency, and Missile Defense Agency. The NSEC is a federally funded research and development center sponsored by the Department of Defense (DoD) and operated within MITRE’s Center for National Security. Dr. Crawford’s expertise includes space physics and solar terrestrial physics, as well as intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) sensing and exploitation. He has managed numerous projects, ranging from basic research and development to system design, experimentation, and end-to-end systems engineering. Dr. Crawford guided MITRE’s research in integrated sensing, processing, and exploitation with a focus on filling sponsors’ capability gaps, as well as led efforts to promote ISR integration across the DoD and the Intelligence Community. Dr. Crawford received a B.S. in physics and a B.A. in chemistry from California State University, Fresno; an M.S. in geophysics and space physics from the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA); and a Ph.D. in space plasma physics from UCLA.

Mr. Arthur H. (Trip) Barber is chief analyst of Systems Planning and Analysis (SPA), Incorporated, where he is responsible for improving and expanding the quality, breadth, and depth of the analytic products of the company and enhancing the professional analytic skills of its workforce. (SPA is a privately held company that provides technical and analytical support services to government executive decision makers; its services include, in part, strategic planning, technical analysis, systems engineering and technical trade-off analysis.) Prior to joining SPA in 2014, Mr. Barber served for 12 years as deputy director of the Assessment Division in the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations. As a member of the Senior Executive Service (SES) from 2002 to 2014, Mr. Barber served as the chief operating officer of the U.S. Navy's corporate analytic organization and the Navy's senior analyst, where his responsibilities included, in part, developing, managing and executing the Navy's overall corporate analytic agenda of over 120 studies/year on future capability and force structure requirements to inform budget and requirements decisions. Prior to his SES appointment, Mr. Barber served for 28 years in the U.S. Navy as a surface warfare officer, retiring at the rank of Captain after a career that included command of a destroyer and of the Norfolk Navy Base. Between his uniformed and civilian Navy careers he spent 25 years in the Pentagon working on program and capability analysis and budget development. He is a Fellow of the Military Operations Research Society and has been awarded three distinguished service medals by the Navy and the Department of Defense for his Pentagon work. In addition to his professional interests, Mr. Barber has been the volunteer manager of Team America Rocketry Challenge (TARC), which he co-founded in 2002 and continues to manage today. TARC is a national rocketry-based STEM challenge competition that has drawn over 65,000 7th through 12th grade students in nearly 11,000 teams over the last 16 years, getting them to design, build and successfully fly a complex payload-carrying model rocket to a precise altitude and flight duration. Mr. Barber earned a B.S. in aerospace engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and an M.S. in electrical engineering (with an additional subspecialty in Weapon System Engineering) from the Naval Postgraduate School.


Dr. James G. Bellingham is the director of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) Center for Marine Robotics. He arrived at WHOI from the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, where he was director of engineering and recently chief technologist. Dr. Bellingham was founder and manager of the Autonomous Underwater Vehicle Laboratory at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and co-founder of Bluefin Robotics, a Massachusetts-based company that develops, builds, and operates autonomous underwater vehicles (since acquired by Battelle). He recently served as a member of the NSB committee that helped prepare the report, entitled Mainstreaming Unmanned Undersea Vehicles into Future U.S. Naval Operations.

Dr. Jacopo Buongiorno is the TEPCO Professor and Associate Department Head, Nuclear Science and Engineering; and Director of the Center for Advanced Nuclear Energy Systems at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Dr. Buongiorno’s research interests include multi-phase flow and heat transfer, advanced reactor design, reactor-thermal-hydraulics, and safety. His current research is focused in four areas: offshore floating nuclear power plant, fundamentals of boiling, surface effects on boiling heat transfer, and nanofluids for nuclear applications. He is currently directing MIT’s study on the Future of Nuclear Energy in a Carbon-Constrained World. He recently served as a member of the Defense Science Study Group, which is a program of education and study that introduces outstanding science and engineering professors to national security challenges and encourages them to apply their talents to these issues.

Mr. Stephen M. Carmel is Senior Vice President at Maersk Line, Limited (MLL). He is responsible for the Non-Liner/Gray fleet Division of MLL. He previously held positions in operations and finance for MLL and U.S. Marine Management, Incorporated. Mr. Carmel began his career sailing as a deck officer and Master primarily on tankers. He graduated from the U.S. Merchant Marine Academy in 1979 and holds a Master of Arts in Economics and a Master of Business Administration from Old Dominion University; he is currently pursuing a Ph.D. with an emphasis in International Political Economy. Mr. Carmel is also a Certified Management Accountant, and he serves on a number of boards and scientific advisory committees such as the Chief of Naval Operations Executive Panel. His Academies experience includes member of the Marine Board and member of the Planning Committee for Safe Navigation in the U.S. Arctic: A Workshop.

Dr. Thomas M. Donnellan serves in the Director’s Office at the Applied Research Laboratory at the Pennsylvania State University (ARL/PSU). He previously served as the Associate Director for Materials and Manufacturing at ARL/PSU. ARL/PSU is a Department of Defense (DoD) University Affiliated Research Center and is tasked with providing technology solutions for emergent DoD problems. Dr. Donnellan has a 35-year career in advanced technology development and has worked at government laboratories, for the Navy and the FBI, in industry at Northrop Grumman, and in academia at Penn State. Prior to joining ARL/PSU, Dr. Donnellan was the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s senior scientist for Physical Science, with responsibility for advising the Bureau on research and development for forensic and intelligence applications.

Dr. J. Gary Eden (NAE) is Gilmore Family Professor in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Director of the Laboratory for Optical Physics and Engineering at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Dr. Eden began his career in 1976 as a research physicist at the Naval Research Laboratory where he made several contributions to the area of visible and ultraviolet lasers and laser spectroscopy. Since joining the faculty of the University of Illinois in 1979, he has been engaged in research in atomic, molecular and ultrafast laser spectroscopy; the discovery and development of visible and ultraviolet lasers; and the science and technology of microcavity plasma devices. He has served as Assistant Dean in the College of Engineering, Associate Dean of the Graduate College, and Associate Vice-Chancellor for Research. A member of the National Academy of Engineering, Dr. Eden has authored more than 280 refereed publications and 73 awarded patents and is a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the American Physical Society, the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), the International Society for Optics and Photonics (SPIE), and the Optical Society of America. He has served as Editor-in-Chief of the IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics and is currently Editor-in-Chief of Progress in Quantum Electronics. He was awarded the C.E.K. Mees Medal of the Optical Society of America in 2007 and was the recipient of the Fulbright-Israel Distinguished Chair in the Natural Sciences and Engineering for 2007-2008. He is a co-founder of Eden Park Illumination and was named the recipient of the Harold E. Edgerton Award of SPIE for 2010.

LtGen George J. Flynn, USMC (Ret.), is an independent consultant, having recently retired from the U.S. Marine Corps following a distinguished career of more than 38 years. While on active duty, General Flynn created the Joint Force Development Directorate at the Joint Chiefs of Staff, managing more than 2,000 people and a $1 billion organization that developed new military operational, concepts, doctrine and training. He also supervised all elements of the Combatant Commander exercise program, which provides staff training and evaluates the mission performance of the largest military command organization in the United States. As Deputy Commandant of the Marine Corps for Combat Development and Integration, General Flynn determined future requirements for all equipment, training, personnel, facilities, and supporting activities of the Marine Corps. And, in his role as the Deputy Commanding General, Multi-National Corps, Iraq, he was directly involved in leading combat operations and providing direct supervision of support activities of more than 50,000 service members and civilians, while conducting operational planning and execution to enable coalition operations, including extensive interaction with United Kingdom and Coalition Special Operations Forces. Today, General Flynn is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations and senior associate of Center for Strategic and International Studies. 


Dr. Naomi J. Halas (NAS/NAE) is Stanley C. Moore Professor in Electrical and Computer Engineering, with appointments in the Departments of Chemistry, Physics and Astronomy, Biomedical Engineering, and Materials Science and Nanoengineering at Rice University. She is also the Founding Director of the Laboratory for Nanophotonics at Rice University, and Director of the Rice Quantum Institute. Dr. Halas is one of the pioneering researchers in the field of plasmonics, creating the concept of the “tunable plasmon” and inventing a family of nanoparticles with resonances spanning the visible and infrared regions of the spectrum. She is also the author of more than 250 refereed publications and has more than fifteen issued patents.

ADM Cecil D. Haney, USN (Ret.) is an independent consultant, having retired from the U.S. Navy as a four-star admiral after 38 years of distinguished service. As a four-star Admiral he commanded the U.S. Strategic Command (2013-2016) responsible for strategic capabilities involving nuclear weapons, missile defense, space and cyberspace; and the U.S. Pacific Fleet (2012-2013) responsible for the manning, operations and maintenance of the U.S. Navy fleet located in the Pacific and Indian oceans. He now serves on the John Hopkins University Applied Physics Board of Managers and the Center for a New American Security Board of Directors. As a career submariner, he had command of the fast attack nuclear submarine USS Honolulu (SSN-718), Submarine Squadron ONE (Pearl Harbor, HI), and Submarine Group TWO (Groton CT). He has also served on the Chief of Naval Operations staff as the Director of Submarine Warfare and the Director of Naval Warfare Integration Group. Admiral Haney completed graduate education at the National War College in National Security Studies and the Naval Post-Graduate School in Engineering Acoustics and Systems Technology. He graduated from the United States Naval Academy with a degree in Ocean Engineering.

The Honorable Kenneth W. Kizer, MD, MPH (NAM), is Distinguished Professor at the University of California, Davis, School of Medicine and the Betty Irene Moore School of Nursing; Director of the Institute for Population Health Improvement, UC Davis Health System; Director of the California Cancer Reporting and Epidemiologic Surveillance Program; and Chief Quality Consultant for the California Department of Health Care Services. Dr. Kizer’s professional experience includes senior executive positions in the public and private sectors, academe, and philanthropy. His previous positions have included: Chairman, CEO and President, Medsphere Systems Corporation; founding President and CEO, National Quality Forum; Under Secretary for Health, U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs; Director, California Department of Health Services; and Director, California Emergency Medical Services Authority. He has served on the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force and as Chairman, The California Wellness Foundation, as well as on the governing boards of a number of health IT and managed care companies, several foundations, and various professional associations and non-profit organizations. Dr. Kizer is an honors graduate of Stanford University and the University of California, Los Angeles and the recipient of two honorary doctorates. He is board certified in six medical specialties and/or subspecialties and has authored over 400 original articles, book chapters, and other reports. He is a fellow or distinguished fellow of 10 professional societies and is a member of the National Academy of Public Administration, in addition to the National Academy of Medicine. He has served on numerous boards and scientific advisory committees, to include member of the Academies' Standing Committee on Aerospace Medicine and Medicine of Extreme Environments.

Dr. Katherine A.W. McGrady is president and CEO, CNA, which is a nonprofit research organization that operates the Center for Naval Analyses and the Institute for Public Research. She was appointed to that position in May 2015. In 2009, Dr. McGrady was appointed as CNA’s first chief operating officer, where she was responsible for the execution of CNA’s strategy and business processes, assuring consistency of policy and approach across the organization, and maintaining an environment of accountability and high research performance. She began her career with CNA as an analyst in 1988 and as the field representative to the Commander of Marine Forces Central Command and Commander, I Marine Expeditionary Force, serving in the Persian Gulf during the first Iraq war (Desert Shield and Desert Storm). Dr. McGrady received the Department of Navy’s Superior Public Service Award for her contributions during Desert Shield/Desert Storm. She also deployed as part of the Unified Task Force to Mogadishu, Somalia. Subsequent assignments led to her selection as vice president and director, Integrated Systems and Operations division, where she led a team focused on issues at the interface between the Navy and Marine Corps, including analysis of expeditionary systems, logistics, operations and tactics, and training for expeditionary operations. Simultaneously, she directed the Marine Corps Program, where she developed the annual research program and was the primary interface between CNA and the senior Marine Corps leadership. In 2004, Dr. McGrady became CNA’s senior vice president for research, providing oversight of research planning, research quality, cross-division staffing, and hiring, development, and training of research staff. She recently served on the National Academies’ Committee on Defending Forward-Deployed U.S. Navy Platforms from Potential Enemy Missile and Rocket Attacks. Dr. McGrady received a B.S. in chemistry from Smith College, and an M.S. and Ph.D. in macromolecular science and engineering (polymer chemistry) from the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.

Mr. Mark A. Mitchell is the director of the Advanced Concepts Laboratory at the Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI). The Advanced Concepts Laboratory solves complex problems in the domains of electromagnetics, antenna systems, electronic warfare, materials science, and quantum computing and sensors. His prior position was as Associate Director of GTRI’s Sensors and Electromagnetic Applications Laboratory. His research at GTRI has been in the areas of radars, antennas, and phased arrays, including research projects for DARPA, FAA, Missile Defense Agency (MDA), U.S. Air Force, U.S. Army, and U.S. Navy. During 2008-2010 he was the Technical Director of the Missile Defense Agency’s Sensor Knowledge Center. Mr. Mitchell has authored or co-authored more than 40 publications in the fields of phased arrays and antennas.

The Honorable Arthur L. Money (NAE) is an independent consultant and former Assistant Secretary of Defense for Command, Control, Communications and Intelligence (C3I) in which he was the senior civilian official in DoD with C3I responsibilities and chief information officer (CIO). Mr. Money also served as Assistant Secretary of the Air Force for Research, Development and Acquisition and served as CIO. Prior to joining DoD, he was president of ESL Incorporated, a subsidiary of TRW (a former American corporation involved in a variety of businesses including aerospace and defense). Mr. Money has more than 50 years of management and engineering experience with the defense electronics industry and intelligence community in the design and development of intelligence collection analysis capabilities and airborne tactical reconnaissance systems. Throughout his career, Mr. Money has been recognized for his vision, leadership, and commitment to excellence in systems and process reengineering. In 2012, Mr. Money was the 28th Annual William Oliver Baker Award Recipient, for life time service to the Intelligence Community and for National Security. A member of the National Academy of Engineering, he recently served as a member of the Academies’ Committee for a Review of U.S. Navy Cyber Defense Capabilities and is currently serving as a member of the Committee on Defending Forward-Deployed U.S. Navy Platforms from Potential Enemy Missile and Rocket Attacks.

Dr. José M.F. Moura (NAE) is Philip L. and Marsha Dowd University Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Carnegie Mellon University (CMU). He is also an associate department head for research and strategy in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and, by courtesy, a professor of biomedical engineering at CMU. Dr. Moura's research interests include data science, statistical signal and image processing, graph signal processing, and distributed decision and inference in networked systems and graph based data.

Dr. Robert J. Niewoehner is David F. Rogers Distinguished Professor of Aeronautics at the U.S. Naval Academy. A former chief test pilot for the U.S. Navy’s F/A-18 E/F Super Hornet Development (today the Navy’s primary fighter aircraft), Dr. Niewoehner’s expertise includes aeronautics and aerospace engineering; specifically, flight dynamics and control. He joined the U.S. Naval Academy in 1999 as an assistant professor following a military career which included assignments as U.S. Navy fleet F-14 pilot and instructor pilot; project officer and engineering test pilot; and chief test pilot for F/A-18 E/F Super Hornet Development. He has authored numerous publications, and he is associate fellow for the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics and Society of Experimentation Test Pilots. He earned a B.S. in phyics from the U.S. Naval Academy; M.S. in electrical engineering from the Johns Hopkins University; and Ph.D. in aerospace engineering from the Naval Postgraduate School.

 Dr. Gabriel M. Rebeiz (NAE) is the Wireless Communications Industry Endowed Chair and distinguished professor of electrical and computer engineering at the University of California, San Diego. Prior to this appointment, he was a professor at the University of Michigan from 1988 to 2004. Dr. Rebeiz's expertise includes design of silicon RFICs for microwave and millimeter-wave systems with a specialty on phased arrays for communications (including SATCOM) and low-power radars, active and passive imaging systems up to THz frequencies (including thermal imagers), RF micro-electro-mechanical systems (RF MEMS), reconfigurable RF front-ends including tunable filters and tunable antennas, software-defined radios, planar antennas from RF to THz frequencies, radars, and collision avoidance systems for autonomous applications.

Dr. Katherine A. Rink is associate division head of the Air, Missile and Maritime Defense Technology Division at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Lincoln Laboratory, which develops and assesses new technologies and integrated systems for defense against ballistic missiles, cruise missiles, and air vehicles in tactical, regional, and homeland defense applications. Before this, she served for 2 years as the group leader of the Advanced Concepts and Technologies Group, developing and integrating advanced air and missile defense capabilities across the Department of Defense and the Services, with particular emphasis on developing new technologies for the U.S. Navy to address the advanced missile threat. Dr. Rink joined MIT Lincoln Laboratory in 1999 as a member of the technical staff in the Systems Engineering and Analysis Group, where she worked on many technical aspects of the then-emerging Aegis ballistic missile defense system, including systems analysis, tracking, discrimination, prototyping, and flight test analysis. She led the Laboratory’s Aegis ballistic missile defense program and later led the development of advanced air and missile defense capabilities and electronic warfare prototypes for the U.S. Navy. Dr. Rink recently served on the National Academies’ Committee on Defending Forward-Deployed U.S. Navy Platforms from Potential Enemy Missile and Rocket Attack. She received a B.S. in systems science and mathematics, a B.A. in mathematics, and an M.S. and D.Sc. in systems science and mathematics, all from Washington University in St. Louis, with an additional M.S. in operations research from Columbia University.

Dr. John A. Rogers (NAS/NAE) is the Louis Simpson and Kimberly Querrey Professor of Materials Science and Engineering at Northwestern University. His research seeks to understand and exploit interesting characteristics of 'soft' materials, such as polymers, liquid crystals, and biological tissues as well as hybrid combinations of them with unusual classes of micro/nanomaterials, in the form of ribbons, wires, membranes, tubes or related. A member of the National Academy of Sciences and National Academy of Engineering, Dr. Rogers’ current research focuses on soft materials for conformal electronics, nanophotonic structures, microfluidic devices, and microelectromechanical systems, all lately with an emphasis on bio-inspired and bio-integrated technologies. He has published more than 550 papers and has invented over 80 patents and patent applications, more than 50 of which are licensed or in active use by large companies and startups that he has co-founded, including Active Impulse Systems, Semprius, MC10, CoolEdge, XCeleprint and Transient Electronics.

MCPON Rick D. West, USN (Ret.), is currently working with Progeny Systems Corporation in Bremerton, Washington, having served previously as a Client Executive for Insight and Futuring at Paladin Data Systems. MCPON West was the 12th Master Chief Petty Officer of the Navy (the senior-most enlisted person in the Navy) and retired in 2012 after 31 years of active duty service in the U.S. Navy. His career in the Navy spanned duties ashore and afloat, primarily aboard submarines. His specific duties at sea included Chief of the Boat aboard the USS Portsmouth (SSN 707), where he completed two Western Pacific deployments; Command Master Chief aboard the USS Preble (DDG 88), where he deployed to the Persian Gulf and qualified as Enlisted Surface Warfare Specialist; and Fleet Master Chief for both the U.S. Pacific Fleet and U.S. Atlantic Fleet through U.S. Fleet Forces Command.

Dr. Charles F. Draper is Director of the Naval Studies Board (NSB). He joined the NSB in 1997 as Program Officer then Senior Program Officer and in 2003 became Associate Director and Acting Director. For the past 15 years as the NSB Director, he has been primarily responsible for oversight of all NSB-related activities, to include consensus studies, workshops, and experts’ meeting conducted and/or organized under the NSB. In addition, Dr. Draper has served as study director on a wide range of topics aimed at helping the Department of the Navy and Department of Defense with their scientific, technical, and strategic planning, to include the following study reports: A Review of U.S. Navy Cyber Defense Capabilities, Making Sense of Ballistic Missile Defense, and Conventional Prompt Global Strike. Before joining the NSB, Dr. Draper worked in the private sector as a mechanical engineer, where he provided technical and program management support for satellite Earth station and small satellite design. He received his Ph.D. in mechanical engineering from Vanderbilt University in 1995; his doctoral research was conducted at the Naval Research Laboratory.

Ms. Cherie Chauvin is a senior program officer with the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine's Naval Studies Board. Since joining the Academies' Board on Behavioral, Cognitive and Sensory Sciences and the Board on Human-Systems Integration in 2008, she has directed numerous studies relevant to defense, national security, and intelligence issues. Previously, she was an intelligence officer with the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA), where her work included support for military operations and liaison relationships across Sub-Saharan Africa and in Japan, South Korea, and Mongolia, as well as conducting worldwide intelligence collection operations (including during deployment to Afghanistan) to answer strategic and tactical military intelligence requirements. In recognition of her service, she was awarded the DIA Civilian Expeditionary Medal, the Department of the Army Commander’s Award for Civilian Service, and the Office of the Director of National Intelligence National Meritorious Unit Citation. She holds a B.S. in cognitive science from the University of California at San Diego, an M.A. in international relations from The Maxwell School at Syracuse University, and an M.S. in strategic intelligence from the National Defense Intelligence College.

Dr. Raymond S. Widmayer is a senior program officer with the Naval Studies Board (NSB) and was a consultant for the NSB from July 2004 through June 2007. He retired from the federal government in June 2004 with more than 40 years of service working for the U.S. Navy as a mechanical engineer. His career started at the Naval Ordnance Laboratory (White Oak) and progressed through a two-year posting with the United Kingdom, working on sea mine warfare programs for the Royal Navy. Following his United Kingdom posting he was selected as the technical director for Sea Mine Warfare within the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations (OPNAV) in 1982. He concluded his government service as the technical director of the OPNAV organization responsible for overall integration of S&T within OPNAV. Dr. Widmayer earned his BSME from the University of Maryland, his M.S. from Columbia University, and his Ph.D. from the University of Maryland. Additionally, he is a 1993 graduate of the Industrial College of the Armed Forces.

Ms. Marta V. Hernandez is an associate program officer with the Naval Studies Board (NSB). Prior to joining the NSB, she served for the Air Force Studies Board and the National Materials Advisory Board. Ms. Hernandez joined the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in 2003 after graduating from the University of Maryland with a B.S. in materials science and engineering. Since then she has worked on a variety of projects including ad-hoc committees, standing committees, roundtable meetings, and proposal review panels for various sponsors within the Department of Defense and other federal agencies.