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Research and Development
2009 2008 2007 2006 2004

book coverProspective Evaluation of Applied Energy Research and Development at DOE (Phase Two)   (BEES)
Released 2007-07-17

book coverScientific Opportunities with a Rare-Isotope Facility in the United States   (BPA)
Released 2007-04-09

Over ten years ago, U.S. nuclear scientists proposed construction of a new rare isotope accelerator in the United States, which would enable experiments to elucidate the important questions in nuclear physics. To help assess this proposal, DOE and NSF asked the NRC to define the science agenda for a next-generation U.S. Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB). As the study began, DOE announced a substantial reduction in the scope of this facility and put off its initial operation date by several years. The study focused on an evaluation of the science that could be accomplished on a facility reduced in scope. This report provides a discussion of the key science drivers for a FRIB, an assessment of existing domestic and international rare isotope beams, an assessment of the current U.S. position about the FRIB, and a set of findings and conclusions about the scientific and policy context for such a facility.

Report in Brief
book coverA Matter of Size: Triennial Review of the National Nanotechnology Initiative   (NMAB)
Released 2006-11-30

The National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) was created in 2000 to focus and coordinate the nanoscience and nanotechnology research and development (R&D) activities being funded by several federal agencies. The purpose of the NNI is to marshal these research activities in order to accelerate responsible development and deployment of nanotechnology for economic benefit and national security. To take stock of the progress of the NNI, Congress, in P. L. 108-153, the 21st Century Nanotechnology Research and Development Act, directed the National Research Council to carry out a review of the program every three years. This report presents the results of the first of those reviews, which addresses the economic impact of nanotechnology developments and provides a benchmark of U.S. R&D efforts relative to those undertaken by foreign competitors. In addition, the report offers an assessment of the current status of responsible development of nanotechnology and comments on the feasibility of molecular self-assembly.

Report in Brief
book coverCondensed-Matter and Materials Physics: The Science of the World Around Us: An Interim Report   (BPA)
Released 0000-00-00

As part of the 2010 physics decadal survey project, DOE and NSF requested the NRC to assess opportunities, over roughly the next decade, in condensed matter and materials physics (CMMP). The study is to review recent accomplishments and new opportunities; identify potential future impact of CMMP; consider its contributions to national needs; assessing priorities for tools and facilities; analyze current research and funding; and make recommendations for realizing the full benefit of CMMP. This interim report provides a summary of the early assessment of eight important challenges facing CMMP research in the coming decade and a brief review of the international situation. The final report will present a detailed discussion of these challenges including recommendations for addressing them.

book coverHandbook of Frequency Allocations and Spectrum Protection for Scientific Uses   (BPA)
Released 2007-03-29

The electromagnetic spectrum is a vital part of our environment. Information encoded in the spectrum of radiation arriving at earth from the universe is the means by which we learn about its workings and origin. Radiation collected from the Earth s land, oceans, biosphere, and atmosphere provide us with much of the data needed to better understand this environment. Wise use of the spectrum is necessary if we are to continue these advances in scientific understanding. To help guide this effort, the NSF and NASA asked the NRC to develop a set of principles for fostering effective allocation and protection of spectral bands for scientific research. This handbook contains practical information in this connection including a description of regulatory bodies and issues, a discussion of the relevant scientific background, a list of science spectrum allocations in the United States, and an analysis of spectrum protection issues.

book coverRenewing U.S. Telecommunications Research   (CSTB)
Released 2006-09-01

The modern telecommunications infrastructure made possible by research performed over the last several decades is an essential element of the U.S. economy. The U.S. position as a leader in telecommunications technology, however, is at risk because of the recent decline in domestic support of long-term, fundamental telecommunications research. To help understand this challenge, the National Science Foundation asked the NRC to assess the state of telecommunications research in the United States and recommend ways to halt the research decline. This report provides an examination of telecommunications research support levels, focus, and time horizon in industry, an assessment of university telecommunications research, and the implications of these findings on the health of the sector. Finally, it presents recommendations for enhancing U.S. telecommunications research efforts.

Report in Brief
book coverControlling the Quantum World: The Science of Atoms, Molecules, and Photons   (BPA)
Released 2007-05-21

As part of the Physics 2010 decadal survey project, the Department of Energy and the National Science Foundation requested that the National Research Council assess the opportunities, over roughly the next decade, in atomic, molecular, and optical (AMO) science and technology. In particular, the National Research Council was asked to cover the state of AMO science, emphasizing recent accomplishments and identifying new and compelling scientific questions. Controlling the Quantum World, discusses both the roles and challenges for AMO science in instrumentation; scientific research near absolute zero; development of extremely intense x-ray and laser sources; exploration and control of molecular processes; photonics at the nanoscale level; and development of quantum information technology. This book also offers an assessment of and recommendations about critical issues concerning maintaining U.S. leadership in AMO science and technology.

book coverInstrumentation for a Better Tomorrow: Proceedings of a Symposium in Honor of Arnold Beckman   (BPA)
Released 2006-07-11

On November 15, 2004, the National Academies sponsored a symposium at the Beckman Center in honor of Arnold O. Beckman. The symposium concentrated on the wide-ranging practical applications of scientific instrumentation as was the focus of much of Arnold Beckman s career. The report begins with two presentations: a remembrance by Arnold Beckman s daughter, Pat, and an overview of his life and accomplishments by Arnold Thackray, President of the Chemical Heritage Foundation. The next section contains presentations on the application of instrumentation in seven, diverse areas: organic chemistry, molecular and systems biology, synchrotron x-ray sources, nanoscale chemistry, forensics, and clinical medicine. Finally, there is a summary of a panel discussion on the evolving relationship between instrumentation and research.

book coverRevealing the Hidden Nature of Space and Time: Charting the Course for Elementary Particle Physics   (BPA)
Released 2006-10-12

As part of the Physics 2010 decadal survey project, the National Research Council was asked by the Department of Energy and the National Science Foundation to recommend priorities for the U.S. particle physics program for the next 15 years. The challenge faced in this study was to identify a compelling leadership role for the United States in elementary particle physics given the global nature of the field and the current lack of a long-term and distinguishing strategic focus. Revealing the Hidden Nature of Space and Time provides an assessment of the scientific challenges in particle physics, including the key questions and experimental opportunities, the current status of the U.S. program and the strategic framework in which it sits and a set of strategic principles and recommendations to sustain a competitive and globally relevant U.S. particle physics program.

book coverProceedings from the Workshop on Biomedical Materials at the Edge:Challenges in the Convergence of Technologies   (NMAB)
Released 0000-00-00

Recent advances in biomedical materials technology hold the promise of a revolution in clinical medicine. These advances are being made possible by a convergence of technologies arising from a wide array of scientific discoveries. This convergence, however, is presenting new challenges as well as new opportunities. To explore these findings and to discuss possible ways to overcome the challenges, a workshop on this topic was held under the auspices of the NRC's Roundtable on Biomedical Engineering Materials and Applications. This report and accompanying CD provides a summary and the proceedings of the workshop. They present discussions of the context for new biomedical materials and of the three emerging technologies that were covered at the workshop: stem cells as biomaterials of the future, biomolecular materials composites, and superamolecular/nanoscale engineering and design.