CSTL MEMBER BIOGRAPHIES
Thomas D. Albright is Professor and Conrad T. Prebys Chair in Vision Research at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies, where he joined the faculty in 1986. Albright is also Director of the Salk Institute Center for the Neurobiology of Vision, Adjunct Professor of Psychology and Neurosciences at the University of California, San Diego, and Visiting Centenary Professor at the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore.
Albright is an authority on the neural basis of visual perception, memory and visually guided behavior, probing the relationship between the activity of brain cells and perceptual state. His laboratory seeks to understand how visual perception is affected by attention, behavioral goals, and memories of previous experiences. His discoveries address the ways in which context influences visual perceptual experience and the mechanisms of visual associative memory and visual imagery. An important goal of this work is the development of therapies for blindness and perceptual impairments resulting from disease, trauma or developmental disorders of the brain. A second aim of Dr. Albright’s work is to use our growing knowledge of brain, perception and memory to inform design in architecture and the arts, and to leverage societal decisions and public policy.
Albright received a Ph.D. in psychology and neuroscience from Princeton University in 1983. He is a recipient of numerous honors for his work, including the National Academy of Sciences Award for Initiatives in Research. Albright is a member of the National Academy of Sciences, a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and an associate of the Neuroscience Research Program. He is currently president of the Academy of Neuroscience for Architecture, a member of the National Academy of Sciences Committee on Science, Technology, and Law, and serves on the Scientific Advisory Committee for the Indian National Brain Research Center.
Ann M. Arvin is Vice Provost and Dean of Research at Stanford University and the Lucile Salter Packard Professor of Pediatrics (Infectious Diseases) and Professor of Microbiology & Immunology. Her responsibilities as Vice Provost include serving as the cognizant academic dean for Stanford’s eighteen major university-wide interdisciplinary laboratories, centers and institutes and overseeing university research policies, compliance with research regulations pertaining to human and animal research and laboratory safety, the Office of Technology Licensing/Industry Contracts Office and shared facilities. Her research laboratory investigates the molecular mechanisms of human herpes virus infections, focusing on varicella-zoster virus, and T cell immune responses to viral vaccines and has had continuous NIH funding since 1985. Her work has been recognized by election to the American Academy of Arts & Sciences, the National Academy of Medicine, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and the Association of American Physicians. She has received the Distinguished Graduate Award from the University of Pennsylvania’s School of Medicine, the Walter Hewlett Award from Stanford University School of Medicine, the John F. Enders Award of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, and the E. Mead Johnson Award for Pediatric Research, among others. She was chief of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Division at the Packard Children’s Hospital from 1984-2006. Her recent and current national service includes the National Academy of Sciences Board on Life Sciences, the President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology working group on H1N1 influenza, the Institute Director’s Advisory Council of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and the NAS/NRC Committee on Responsible Science and the Committee on Science, Technology and Law.
Dr. Arvin is a graduate of Brown University, A.B. Philosophy, Brandeis University, M.A. Philosophy, and the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, and completed postdoctoral fellowship training at the University of California San Francisco and Stanford University.
David Baltimore (NAS/NAM), former president of the California Institute of Technology (1997-2006), is President Emeritus and the Robert Andrews Millikan Professor of Biology and is one of the world's most influential biologists. He has contributed widely to the understanding of cancer, AIDS and the molecular basis of the human body's immune response and has profoundly influenced national science policy on such issues as the AIDS epidemic and research in genetic engineering. In 1975 he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his research into viral replication that provided the key to understanding the life cycle of retroviruses. His present research focuses on control of inflammatory and immune responses as well as on the use of gene therapy methods to treat HIV and cancer in a program called “Engineering Immunity”. In addition, he co-directs the Joint Center for Translational Medicine, an activity that joins Caltech and UCLA in a program to translate basic science discoveries into clinical realities.
Dr. Baltimore has played an important role in the development of American biotechnology since his involvement in the 1970’s in the formation of Collaborative Genetics. He helped found other companies, most recently Calimmune and Immune Design and presently serves on the Board of Directors at several companies and non-profits including the Broad Foundation and the Broad institute, and Amgen and Regulus Therapeutics. He is a scientific advisor to the Ragon Institute and the biotech company Pacific Biosciences. He is a Science Partner to the venture capital firm The Column Group and until recently, was a Director of the Swiss investment company BB Biotech. He is past-Chair of the American Association of the Advancement of Science and was most recently named Riken Honorary Fellow. He is the 1999 recipient of the National Medal of Science and he has published more than 650 peer-reviewed articles.
Claude Canizares (NAS) is the Bruno Rossi Professor of Physics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). At MIT since 1971, he has served as Vice President (2013-2015), Vice President for Research & Associate Provost (2006-2013), Associate Provost (2001-2006), and Director of the Center for Space Research (1990-2002). He oversaw MIT Lincoln Laboratory from 2001 to 2014. Professor Canizares is a principal investigator on NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and Associate Director of its science center. He has also worked on several other space astronomy missions and is author or co-author of more than 230 scientific papers.
Professor Canizares’ service outside MIT has included the Department of Commerce’s National Advisory Council on Innovation and Entrepreneurship and the Emerging Technology and Research Advisory Committee and the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine Committee on Federal Research Regulations and Reporting Requirements: A New Framework for Research Universities in the 21st Century. He served as chair of the Academies’ Space Studies Board and was a member of the NASA Advisory Council and the Air Force Scientific Advisory Board, among others. He is also a member of the L-3 Communications, Inc. Board of Directors. Professor Canizares is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and the International Academy of Astronautics and is a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the American Physical Society, and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. He has also received several awards including decoration for Meritorious Civilian Service to the United States Air Force, the Goddard Medal, and two NASA public service medals.
Joe S. Cecil, Ph.D. (Psychology), Northwestern University; J.D., Northwestern University, is a Project Director in the Division of Research at the Federal Judicial Center. Currently he is directing the Center’s Program on Scientific and Technical Evidence. As part of this program he is responsible for judicial education and training in the area of scientific and technical evidence and served as principal editor of the first two editions of the center’s Reference Manual on Scientific Evidence which is the primary source book on evidence for federal judges. He has also published several articles on the use of court-appointed experts. He is currently directing a research project that examines the difficulties that arise with expert testimony in federal courts, with an emphasis on clinical medical testimony and forensic science evidence. Other areas of research interest include federal civil and appellate procedure, jury competence in complex civil litigation, and assessment of rule of law in emerging democracies. Dr. Cecil serves on the editorial boards of social science and legal journals. He previously served on the National Academies’ Panel on Confidentiality and Data Access and the Committee on Identifying the Needs of the Forensic Sciences Community. He was also a member the Committee on Science, Technology, and Law's subcommittee on Access to Research Data: Balancing Risks and Opportunities.
R. Alta Charo, J.D. is on the faculty of the Law School and the Department of Medical History and Bioethics at the Medical School at the University of Wisconsin at Madison. She also serves on the faculty of the UW Masters in Biotechnology Studies program and lectures in the MPH program of the Department of Population Health Sciences.
Professor Charo (B.A. biology, Harvard 1979; J.D. Columbia, 1982) is an elected member (2004) of the World Technology Network and (2005) the Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters. And in 2006 she was elected to membership in the National Academy of Medicine.
Professor Charo has served on several expert advisory boards of organizations with an interest in stem cell research, including CuresNow, the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation, the International Society for Stem Cell Research and WiCell, as well as on the advisory board to the Wisconsin Stem Cell Research Program. From 2005-2009 she was a member of the ethics standards working group of the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine. Also in 2005, she helped to draft the National Academies' Guidelines for Embryonic Stem Cell Research, and in 2006 she was appointed to co-chair the National Academies' Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research Advisory Committee.
Professor Charo's advisory committee service for the federal government includes the 1994 NIH Human Embryo Research Panel, and (1996-2001) President Clinton's National Bioethics Advisory Commission where she participated in drafting its reports on "Cloning Human Beings"(1997); "Research Involving Persons with Mental Disorders that May Affect Decisionmaking Capacity"(1998); "Research Involving Human Biological Materials: Ethical Issues and Policy Guidance"(1999); "Ethical Issues in Human Stem Cell Research"(1999); "Ethical and Policy Issues in International Research: Clinical Trials in Developing Countries" (2001); and "Ethical and Policy Issues in Research Involving Human Participants" (2001).
At the National Academies, from 2001-2008 she was a member of the Board on Life Sciences. She served as its liaison to the Committee on Research Standards and Practices to Prevent Destructive Applications of Biotechnology as well as its committee to develop national voluntary guidelines for stem cell research. She also served as a member of the National Academy of Medicine's Committee on Smallpox Vaccination Program Implementation and since 2006 she has served on its Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice. In 2005-2006, she was a member of the committee to review the FDA and the U.S. national system for the assurance of drug safety.
Harry T. Edwards was appointed to the U.S. Court of Appeals in February 1980, served as Chief Judge from September 15, 1994, until July 15, 2001, and took senior status on November 3, 2005. He graduated from Cornell University in 1962 and the University of Michigan Law School in 1965. Judge Edwards went into private practice with Seyfarth, Shaw, Fairweather & Geraldson in Chicago from 1965 to 1970. He then moved to the academy and was a tenured member of the faculties at the University of Michigan Law School, where he taught from 1970 to 1975 and 1977 to 1980, and at Harvard Law School, where he taught from 1975 to 1977. He also taught at the Harvard Institute for Educational Management between 1976 and 1982. He served as a member and then Chairman of the Board of Directors of AMTRAK from 1978 to 1980, and also served as a neutral labor arbitrator under a number of major collective bargaining agreements during the 1970s. In 2006, he was appointed the Co-Chair of the Committee on Identifying the Needs of the Forensic Science Community established by the National Academy of Sciences. Judge Edwards has co-authored five books and published scores of law review articles on federal courts, legal education, professionalism, judicial administration, labor law, equal opportunity, and higher education law. His most recent book, Edwards, Elliott, & Levy, Federal Standards of Review (2d ed., 2013), was published by Thomson Reuters. Since joining the court, he has taught law at Harvard, Michigan, Duke, Pennsylvania, Georgetown, and NYU School of Law. He is presently a Professor of Law at NYU School of Law, where he has taught since 1990.
Charles Elachi (NAE) is Professor of Electrical Engineering and Planetary Science, Emeritus at the California Institute of Technology. He is former director of the NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Elachi was Principal Investigator on numerous research and development studies and flight projects sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. He is the author of over 230 publications in the fields of space and planetary exploration, Earth observation from space, active microwave remote sensing, electromagnetic theory, and integrated optics, and he holds several patents in those fields. In addition, he has authored three textbooks in the field of remote sensing.
In his 30 year career at JPL, Dr. Elachi played the lead role in developing the field of spaceborne imaging radar from a small research area to a major field of scientific research and application. As a result, JPL and NASA became the world leaders in the field of spaceborne imaging radars, and over the last decade, developed Seasat, SIR-A, SIR-B, SIR-C, Magellan, SRTM and the Cassini Radar. He received numerous national and international awards for his leadership in this field.
During the late 80's and 90's, as the Director of Space and Earth Science programs, Dr. Elachi was responsible for the definition and development of JPL flight instruments and missions for Solar System Exploration, the Origins program, Earth Observation and Astrophysics. During this period more than 45 flight missions and instruments were conceived, developed, and flown. In the mid to late 90s. Dr. Elachi chaired a number of national and international committees which developed NASA roadmaps for the exploration of neighboring Solar Systems (1995), our Solar System (1997), and Mars (1998).
Dr. Elachi has received numerous awards, including the Takeda Award (2002), the NASA Outstanding Leadership Medal (2002), the Wernher Von Braun Award (2002), the UCLA Department of Earth and Space Science Distinguished Alumni Award (2002), Dryden Award (2000,), the NASA Distinguished Service Medal (1999), the COSPAR Nordberg Medal (1996), the Nevada Medal (1995), NASA Outstanding Leadership Medal (1994), the IEEE Medal of Engineering Excellence (1992), the IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Distin- guished Achievement Award (1987), the W.T. Pecora Award (1985), the NASA Exceptional Scientific Medal (1982), and the ASP Autometric Award (1980 and 1982).
In 1989, at the age of 42, he was elected to the National Academy of Engineering. In 1993-1995 he was a member of the NAE 4th Decadal Committee. In 1995, he chaired the NAE membership committee. He served on numerous NAE committees. He is a fellow of IEEE and the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, and is a member of the International Academy of Astronautics. Elachi received a B.S. in physics from the University of Grenoble, France and the Diplome Ingenieur in engineering from the Polytechnic Institute, Grenoble in 1968 where he graduated first in the class, and M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in electrical sciences from the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena in 1969 and 1971, respectively. He later received an MBA from USC (1978) and an M.S. degree in geology from UCLA (1983).
Jeremy D. Fogel is a federal judge for the United States District Court for the Northern District of California. He became Director of The Federal Judicial Center (FJC) on October 3, 2011.Born in San Francisco, Judge Fogel received a B.A. (with Great Distinction) in religious studies from Stanford University in 1971. He received a J.D. cum laude from Harvard Law School in 1974. He was in private practice in San Jose, California from 1974 to 1978 and was Founder and Directing Attorney of the Mental Health Advocacy Project, Santa Clara County Bar Association Law Foundation.
Fogel served as a judge on the Santa Clara County Municipal Court from 1981 to 1986. He was appointed as a judge at the Superior Court of Santa Clara County in 1986 and remained there until 1998. Fogel was Presiding Judge, Santa Clara County Municipal Court, from 1984-85; Supervising Judge, Family Law Division, Santa Clara Superior Court, from 1987-88 and in 1995; Supervising Judge, Probate/Mental Health Division, 1991; and Civil Team Leader and Law and Motion Judge, Santa Clara Superior Court from 1992-94 and from 1996-98. In 1998, he was appointed to the United States District Court for the Northern District of California
Judge Fogel was a member of the executive board of the California Judges Association from 1988-91; Vice-President, 1990-91; Chair, Judicial Ethics Committee, 1987-88; Chair, Judicial Discipline Advisory Panel (confidential counseling service for judges facing discipline), 1992-98. He was Chair, Planning Committee, California Continuing Judicial Studies Program from 1995-97. Fogel was a faculty member of the California Continuing Judicial Studies Program and California Judicial College (alternative dispute resolution, psychology, ethics, family law, sexual harassment awareness and prevention, domestic violence, and judicial excellence) from 1987-2009. He was mediation trainer and member, Advisory Committee on ADR Education, Federal Judicial Center, 2002-2009 and faculty, FJC Advanced Patent Program from 2005-present. He has been a member of international legal exchange delegations to various countries in the Middle East, Eastern Europe, Latin America, and East and South Asia (alternative dispute resolution, case management, intellectual property rights and judicial ethics) from 1999-present. Judge Fogel is a frequent lecturer on ethics, discipline and professional conduct for both Bench and Bar. He has been Lecturer, Stanford University Law School (psychology of litigation) from 2003-present (on leave while at FJC).
Judge Fogel is the recipient of the President’s Award for Outstanding Service to the California Judiciary, California Judges Association, 1997; the Judge of the Year Award, Santa Clara County Trial Lawyers Association, 1997, 2005 and 2011; and of the “LACY Honors” Award, Legal Advocates for Children and Youth, Santa Clara County Bar Association Law Foundation, 1997. He is the recipient of the Special Award for Exemplifying Highest Standards of Professionalism in the Judiciary, Santa Clara County Bar Association, 2002. He was named Justice of the Year, San Francisco Trial Lawyers Association and one of California’s 100 most influential lawyers by Daily Journal Corporation in 2007.
Henry T. Greely is Deane F. and Kate Edelman Johnson Professor of Law and Professor, by courtesy, of Genetics at Stanford University.
Professor Greely specializes in ethical, legal, and social issues arising from advances in the biosciences, particularly from genetics, neuroscience, and human stem cell research. He directs the Stanford Center for Law and the Biosciences, chairs the California Advisory Committee on Human Stem Cell Research, and serves on the Neuroscience Forum of the National Academy of Medicine. From 2007 to 2010 he was a co-director of the Law and Neuroscience Project. In 2006, he was elected a fellow of the American Association for Advancement of Science.
Professor Greely graduated from Stanford in 1974 and from Yale Law School in 1977. He served as a law clerk for Judge John Minor Wisdom on the United States Court of Appeals and for Justice Potter Stewart of the United States Supreme Court. After working during the Carter Administration in the Departments of Defense and Energy, he entered private practice in Los Angeles in 1981 as a litigator with the law firm of Tuttle & Taylor, Inc. He began teaching at Stanford in 1985.
Michael Imperiale is Arthur F. Thurnau Professor of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Michigan.
Dr. Imperiale joined the Department of Microbiology and Immunology in 1984 as the Arthur F. Thurnau Assistant Professor of Microbiology and Immunology and was subsequently promoted to Associate Professor in 1990 and Professor in 1996. He is currently the Arthur F. Thurnau Professor and Associate Chair of Microbiology and Immunology. In 2010 Dr. Imperiale was elected as a Fellow of the American Academy of Microbiology and in 2011 he was elected as a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Before joining the University of Michigan, Dr. Imperiale carried out research training as a postdoctoral fellow at The Rockefeller University, where he first became interested in DNA tumor viruses, studying gene regulation in the human pathogen, adenovirus. He received his undergraduate and graduate training at Columbia University, receiving a B.A. in 1976, M.A. in 1978, and Ph.D. in 1981, all in biological sciences. Currently, Dr. Imperiale’s research interests focus on the study of how DNA tumor viruses interact with the host cell.
Dr. Imperiale was appointed in 2015 as Founding Editor-in-Chief of mSphere, and also serves as an Editor of mBio. He formerly served on the National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity, and currently sits on the NASA Planetary Protection Subcommittee.
Robert S. Langer is an Institute Professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (there are 11 Institute Professors at MIT; being an Institute Professor is the highest honor that can be awarded to a faculty member). His h-index of 210 is the highest of any engineer in history and he has 1,080 issued and pending patents worldwide. His patents have licensed or sublicensed to over 300 companies. He served as Chairman of the FDA’s Science Board (its highest advisory board) from 1999-2002. Langer is also one of very few individuals ever elected to the National Academy of Medicine, the National Academy of Engineering, the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Inventors. He is one of only four living people to ever receive both the United States National Medal of Science and the United States National Medal of Technology and Innovation. In 2015, Dr. Langer received the Queen Elizabeth Prize for Engineering. He has also received the Charles Stark Draper Prize (considered the engineering Nobel Prize), Albany Medical Center Prize, the Wolf Prize for Chemistry, the Millennium Technology Prize, the Priestley Medal (highest award of the American Chemical Society), the Gairdner Prize, the Kyoto Prize, the Lemelson-MIT prize (for being “one of history’s most prolific inventors in medicine”), and the Breakthrough Prize in Life Sciences. He holds 24 honorary doctorates including honorary degrees from Harvard and Yale.
Goodwin Liu is Associate Justice, California Supreme Court. Mr. Liu was appointed by Governor Jerry Brown on July 26, 2011, and rated “exceptionally well-qualified” by the California Commission on Judicial Nominees Evaluation. Before his judicial appointment, Liu was a law professor at UC Berkeley School of Law (Boalt Hall). An acclaimed scholar and teacher, Liu is a nationally recognized expert on constitutional law, education law and policy, civil rights, and the Supreme Court.
The son of Taiwanese immigrants, Justice Liu grew up in Sacramento, where he attended public schools. He went to Stanford University and earned a bachelor’s degree in biology in 1991. He attended Oxford University on a Rhodes Scholarship and earned a masters degree in philosophy and physiology. Upon returning to the United States, he went to Washington, D.C. to help launch the AmeriCorps national service program and worked for two years as a senior program officer at the Corporation for National Service.
Justice Liu graduated from Yale Law School in 1998, becoming the first in his family to earn a law degree. He clerked for Judge David Tatel on the U.S. Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit and then worked as Special Assistant to the Deputy Secretary of the U.S. Department of Education, where he developed and coordinated K-12 education policy. He went on to clerk at the U.S. Supreme Court for Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg during the October 2000 Term. In 2001, he joined the appellate litigation practice of O’Melveny & Myers in Washington, D.C., and worked on an array of antitrust, white collar, insurance, product liability, and pro bono matters.
Judith Miller is the Chair of the ABA Cybersecurity Legal Task Force, and is also a member of the Defense Science Board's Task Force on Cyber Deterrence. She is active in a variety of public service and professional activities. She was Senior Vice President, General Counsel and a member of the Board of Directors of the Bechtel Group from January 2006 to January 2010. Prior to joining the Bechtel Group, she was a partner with Williams & Connolly LLP in Washington, D.C. Her practice included a wide range of complex civil litigation and business related criminal litigation, corporate and individual officer counseling, internal investigations, as well as issues affecting the defense industry. She returned to the firm in January 2000, after having been the then longest serving General Counsel of the U.S. Department of Defense (1994-99). She is a Yale Law School" graduate, and clerked for Associate Justice Potter Stewart and U.S. Court of Appeals Judge Harold Leventhal. Ms. Miller is a past chair (2007-08) of the American Bar Association’s Section of Litigation and served on its Executive Committee and Council. She is a member of the Defense Science Board, the Council of the American Law Institute, the Executive Committee of the Atlantic Council of the United States, and the International Senior Lawyers Project Board. She is also a trustee of Beloit College (from which she also received an honorary Doctor of Laws degree); and served as a member of the American Bar Association’s Commission on Ethics 20/20, the Standing Committee on Law and National Security; the Markle Foundation Task Force on National Security in the Information Age; and the National Academy of Sciences Committee on Science , Security and Prosperity. Ms. Miller is a recipient of the U.S. Department of Defense Medal for Distinguished Public Service and the Bronze Palm to that Medal. She was the Women's Bar Association of the District of Columbia 2006 Woman Lawyer of the Year.
Jennifer Mnookin, J.D., Ph.D., is Dean and David G. Price Professor of Law at the University of California, Los Angeles School of Law. She joined the UCLA faculty in 2005; her previous academic appointments include Professor of Law and Barron F. Black Research Professor at the University of Virginia School of Law, and Visiting Professor of Law at the Harvard Law School. She teaches Evidence; Torts; Scientific and Expert Evidence; as well as seminars in topics relating to expert evidence and law and popular culture. From 2007-2009, she served as Vice Dean for Faculty and Research.
Mnookin researches and writes primarily in the area of evidence, particularly expert and scientific evidence, and the use of forensic science in court. She has written on a variety of evidence-related subjects, including, among others, Daubert and the appropriate standards for expert evidence; forms of forensic science including latent fingerprint examination and handwriting identification; DNA profiling; expert evidence and the Confrontation Clause; documentary films and legal evidence; and the history of expert evidence. Mnookin’s most recent publications include “The Need for a Research Culture in the Forensic Sciences” (with co-authors), 58 UCLA Law Review 725 (2011); The Ira M. Belfer Lecture: “The Courts, The National Academy of Sciences, and the Future of Forensic Science,” 75 Brooklyn Law Review 1209 (2010), and “The Use of Technology in Human Expert Domains: Challenges and Risks Arising From the Use of Automated Fingerprint Identification Systems in Forensic Science” (with Itiel Dror), Law, Probability & Risk (2010).
Professor Mnookin received her AB from Harvard University, her JD from the Yale Law School, and a PhD in the History and Social Study of Science and Technology from MIT.
David A. Relman (NAM), MD, is the Thomas C. and Joan M. Merigan Professor in the Departments of Medicine, and of Microbiology and Immunology at Stanford University, and Chief of Infectious Diseases at the Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Health Care System in Palo Alto, California. He is also Co-Director of the Center for International Security and Cooperation and Senior Fellow at the Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies at Stanford University.
Dr. Relman’s primary research focus is the human indigenous microbiota (microbiome), and in particular, the nature and mechanisms of variation in patterns of microbial diversity and function within the human body, and the basis of microbial community resilience. His work was some of the first to employ modern molecular methods in the study of the microbiome, and provided the first in-depth sequence-based analyses of microbial community structure in humans. During the past few decades, his research has also included pathogen discovery and the development of new strategies for identifying previously-unrecognized microbial agents of disease. He has served as an advisor to a number of agencies and departments within the U.S. Government on matters pertaining to host-microbe interactions, emerging infectious diseases, and biosecurity. He co-chaired a widely-cited 2006 study by the National Academies of Sciences (NAS) on “Globalization, Biosecurity, and the Future of the Life Sciences”, and served as vice-chair of a 2011 National Academies study of the science underlying the FBI investigation of the 2001 anthrax mailings. He currently serves as a member of the National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity, a member of the Science, Technology & Engineering Advisory Panel for Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (2012-), as Chair of the Forum on Microbial Threats at the National Academy of Medicine (NAS) (2007-), and as immediate past-President of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.
Dr. Relman received an S.B. (Biology) from MIT (1977), M.D. (magna cum laude) from Harvard Medical School (1982), completed his clinical training in internal medicine and infectious diseases at Massachusetts General Hospital, served as a postdoctoral fellow in microbiology at Stanford University, and joined the faculty at Stanford in 1994. He received an NIH Director’s Pioneer Award in 2006, was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Microbiology in 2003 and the American Association for Advancement of Science in 2010, and was elected a Member of the National Academy of Medicine in 2011.
Martine A. Rothblatt is Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, United Therapeutics. Dr. Rothblatt founded United Therapeutics in 1996 and has served as chairman and chief executive officer since the inception of the company. Prior to creating United Therapeutics, Dr. Rothblatt founded and served as chairman and chief executive officer of Sirius Satellite Radio and was principally responsible for several other unique applications of satellite communications technology. She also represented the radio astronomy interests of the National Academy of Sciences' Committee on Radio Frequencies before the Federal Communications Commission. On behalf of the International Bar Association, she led efforts to present the United Nations with a draft Human Genome Treaty. She moved to biotechnology from satellite technology and started United Therapeutics to find a cure or better treatment for the pulmonary hypertension that affects one of her daughters. Dr. Rothblatt received a combined law and Master of Business Administration degree from the University of California, Los Angeles. She earned her Ph.D. in medical ethics from the Royal London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary College, University of London. Her book, "Your Life or Mine: How Geoethics Can Resolve the Conflict Between Public and Private Interests in Xenotransplantation," was published by Ashgate in 2004. Dr. Rothblatt is a member of the International Institute of Space Law, the International Academy of Astronautics and the International Bar Association. She was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2008.
Joshua R. Sanes (NAS) is Professor of Molecular and Cellular Biology and Paul J. Finnegan Family Director, Center for Brain Science at Harvard University. Sanes received a BA from Yale, where he was Scholar of the House. He earned a PhD in Neurobiology from Harvard in 1976. Following postdoctoral work at University of California, San Francisco, he joined the faculty of Washington University, where he served on the faculty for over 20 years and held an Endowed Chair of Neurobiology. He returned to Harvard in 2004 as Professor of Molecular and Cellular Biology and founding Director of the Center for Brain Science.
Dr Sanes is a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, recipient of the Alden Spencer Award of Columbia University, and a member of the US National Academy of Sciences. He has served on the National Advisory Council of the National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke (NIH), the Council of the Society for Neuroscience, and advisory panels for the Muscular Dystrophy Association, the Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) Association, the Klingenstein Neuroscience Fund, the Searle Scholars Fund, the Stowers Institute and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute.
William B. Schultz is a Partner at Zuckerman Spaeder LLP. Formerly, he served as General Counsel of the Department of Health and Human Services between March 2011 and June 2016 (Acting General Counsel, March 2011-April 2013), where he was legal counsel to two HHS Secretaries on all legal matters and managed an office of 500 lawyers with attorneys at 8 offices and in 10 regions across the country. The Office of General Counsel is responsible for all litigation where HHS is a party, for ensuring that regulations and policy decisions are consistent with the law, for reviewing legal issues involving appropriations, and for ensuring that ethical rules are followed.
From 2001 until March 2011, Schultz was also a Partner at Zuckerman Spaeder LLP, where he represented nonprofit organizations, state and local governments, individuals, generic drug companies and small biotechnology companies. From 1999 through 2000, Schultz was Deputy Assistant Attorney General at the U.S. Department of Justice, where he was responsible for overseeing all Civil Division appellate litigation and the Department’s Tobacco Litigation Team. From 1994 to 1998, he was the Deputy Commissioner for Policy for the Food and Drug Administration, where he was the principal advisor to the Commissioner on all significant policy issues and was responsible for development and management of all regulations. From 1989 to 1994, he was the Counsel to the Subcommittee on Health and the Environment (Rep. Henry A. Waxman, Chairman), Committee on Energy and Commerce, U.S. House of Representatives, where he worked on health care, FDA, tobacco and trade legislation, and was responsible for drafting and negotiating the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act, the Safe Medical Devices Act and the Prescription Drug User Fees Act. From 1976 to 1989, he was an attorney with the Public Citizen Litigation Group, where he litigated law reform cases on state and federal constitutional law, antitrust and administrative law, voting rights, product liability, nuclear power, and food and drug law, and where he argued dozens of appellate cases, including several in the U.S. Supreme Court.
Schultz began his career as a law clerk to Judge William B. Bryant, U.S. District Court, District of Columbia. For almost 10 years, he was an adjunct professor at Georgetown University Law Center, where he taught civil litigation and food and drug law. He received his B.A. from Yale University and his J.D. from the University of Virginia School of Law.
Susan S. Silbey is Leon and Anne Goldberg Professor of Humanities, Professor of Sociology and Anthropology, and Professor of Behavioral and Policy Sciences, Sloan School of Management at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Professor Silbey is interested in the governance, regulatory and audit processes in complex organizations. Her current research focuses on the creation of management systems for containing risks, including ethical lapses, as well as environment, health and safety hazards.
Previous books include The Common Place of Law: Stories from Everyday Life (with Patricia Ewick) (1998), In Litigation: Do the 'Haves' Still Come Out Ahead (with Herbert Kritzer) (2003), Law and Science (I): Epistemological, Evidentiary, and Relational Engagements, and Law and Science (II): Regulation of Property, Practices, and Products (2008).
Professor Silbey is the recipient of numerous prizes and awards including a John Simon Guggenheim Foundation Fellowship (2009), Doctor Honoris Causa from Ecole Normale Superiere Cachan in Paris (2006) and the Harry Kalven Jr. Prize for advancing the sociology of law (2009). She is Past President of the Law & Society Association, and a fellow of the American Academy of Political and Social Science.
David S. Tatel, J.D., is a Judge on the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit. Before this appointment by President Clinton in 1994, Tatel was for fifteen years partner and head of the education group at Hogan & Hartson in Washington, D.C. From 1977 to 1979 he was director of the Office for Civil Rights in the U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare under President Carter. Judge Tatel was a member of the Board of Directors for the Spencer Foundation, which he chaired from 1990 to 1997, and he is currently a member of the Board of Directors for the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, which he chaired from 2006 to 2009.
Judge Tatel received his BA degree from the University of Michigan (1963), and JD from the University of Chicago Law School (1966).
David Vladeck is Professor and Co-Director, Institute for Public Representation, Georgetown Law School.
Professor Vladeck holds a B.A. degree from New York University, J.D. from Columbia University, and LL.M. from Georgetown.
Professor Vladeck teaches federal courts, civil procedure, administrative law, and seminars in First Amendment litigation, and co-directs the Institute for Public Representation, a clinical law program. Professor Vladeck recently returned to the Law Center after serving for nearly four years as the Director of the Federal Trade Commission's Bureau of Consumer Protection. At the FTC, he supervised the Bureau's more than 430 lawyers, investigators, paralegals and support staff in carrying out the Bureau's work to protect consumers from unfair, deceptive or fraudulent practices. Before joining the Law Center faculty full-time in 2002, Professor Vladeck spent over 25 years with Public Citizen Litigation Group, a nationally-prominent public interest law firm, handling and supervising complex litigation. He has briefed and argued a number of cases before the U.S. Supreme Court and more than sixty cases before federal courts of appeal and state courts of law resort. He is a Senior Fellow of the Administrative Conference of the United States, an elected member of the American Law Institute, and a scholar with the Center for Progressive Reform. Professor Vladeck frequently testifies before Congress and writes on administrative law, preemption, First Amendment, and access to justice issues.
Susan Wessler (NAS) is the University of California President's Chair and Distinguished Professor of Genetics at the University of California Riverside. In 2011 she was elected Home Secretary of the National Academy of Sciences, the first women to hold this position in the 150 year history of the National Academy. She is a molecular geneticist known for her contributions to the field of transposon biology, specifically on the roles of plant transposable elements in gene and genome evolution. A native of New York City, she received a bachelor's degree in biology from SUNY Stony Brook (1974), a Ph.D. in biochemistry from Cornell University (1980) and was a postdoctoral fellow at the Carnegie Institution of Washington (1980-1982). She began her career at the University of Georgia in 1983 where she remained until moving to UC Riverside in 2010.
Wessler is co-author of over 120 research articles. She is an Associate Editor of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences and is on the Editorial Board of Current Opinions in Plant Biology and on the Board of Reviewing Editors of the journal Science.
Wessler has contributed extensively to educational initiatives, including co-authorship of the widely used genetics textbook, Introduction to Genetic Analysis. As a Howard Hughes Medical Institute Professor (2006), she adapted her research program for the classroom by developing the Dynamic Genome Courses where incoming freshman can experience the excitement of scientific discovery.
She is the recipient of several awards including the inaugural Distinguished Scientist Award (2007) from the Southeastern Universities Research Association (SURA), the Stephen Hales Prize (2011) from the American Society of Plant Biologists, and the Excellence in Science Award from FASEB (2012). She is a member of the National Academy of Sciences (1998), the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (2007), and the American Philosophical Society (2013).
Michelle A. Williams (NAM) is Dean of the Faculty at the Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health. She is distinguished epidemiologist and award-winning educator known for her influential studies of maternal and child health around the world. Formerly, she was the Stephen B. Kay Family Professor of Public Health and chair of the Epidemiology Department at the Harvard Chan School.
The principal investigator on several international research projects and training grants funded by the National Institutes of Health, and co-author of more than 400 published research papers, Williams is also the faculty director of the Harvard Catalyst’s Population Health Research Program and the Health Disparities Research Program. Her scholarship is especially known for its creative integration of epidemiological, biological, and molecular approaches to a range of public health challenges, and her teaching and mentoring have been recognized with awards from Harvard, the University of Washington, the American Public Health Association, and the White House.
A 1984 graduate of Princeton University, where she majored in biology, Williams went on to receive an M.S. in civil engineering from Tufts University in 1986. Continuing her studies at the Harvard School of Public Health, she earned her S.M. in population science in 1988 and her Sc.D. in epidemiology in 1991. After a postdoctoral research fellowship at the University of Washington School of Public Health and Community Medicine, she joined the UW faculty as an assistant professor of epidemiology in 1992.
CSTL STAFF BIOGRAPHIESAnne-Marie Mazza, Senior Director. B.A., Economics; M.A., History and Public Policy; Ph.D., Public Policy, The George Washington University. Dr. Mazza joined the National Academies in 1995. She has served as Senior Program Officer with both the Committee on Science, Engineering and Public Policy and the Government-University-Industry Research Roundtable. In 1999 she was named the first director of the Science, Technology, and Law Program. Between October 1999 and October 2000, she divided her time between the STL Program and the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy, where she served as a Senior Policy Analyst.
Steven Kendall, Program Officer. B.A., Art History, Kent State University; M.A. Victorian Art & Architecture, University of London, Ph.D., Art History, University of California, Santa Barbara. Dr. Kendall has contributed to numerous Academy reports including Positioning Synthetic Biology to Meet the Challenges of the 21st Century (2013); Perspectives on Research with H5N1 Avian Influenza: Scientific Inquiry, Communication, Controversy (2012); Review of the Scientific Approaches Used During the FBI’s Investigation of the 2001 Anthrax Mailings (2011), Managing University Intellectual Property in the Public Interest (2010); and Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forward (2009). Prior to joining The National Academies in 2007, he worked at the Smithsonian American Art Museum and The Huntington in San Marino, California.
Karolina Konarzewska is Program Coordinator for the Committee on Science, Technology, and Law. Ms. Konzarzewska received a B.A. in Political Science from the College of Staten Island, City University of New York and an M.A. in International Relations, New York University. Prior to joining The National Academies, she worked at various research institutions in Washington, DC where she covered political and economic issues pertaining to Europe, Russia, and Eurasia.