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Board Members and Meetings


Announcement: New Board Chair appointed. 


About the SSB


The Space Studies Board (SSB) was established in 1958 to serve as the focus of the interests and responsibilities in space research for the National Academies. The SSB provides an independent, authoritative forum for information and advice on all aspects of space science and applications, and it serves as the focal point within the National Academies for activities on space research. It oversees advisory studies and program assessments, facilitates international research coordination, and promotes communications on space science and science policy between the research community, the federal government, and the interested public. The SSB also serves as the U.S. National Committee for the International Council for Science Committee on Space Research (COSPAR).

Origins of the Space Studies Board:

Letter announcing the formation of the Space Science Board
(Page 1 and Page 2), from Detlev W. Bronk, president of the National Academy of Sciences, to Lloyd V. Berkner, president of the Associated Universities, Inc.

1958 Press Release


Board Meetings
May 2-4, 2017 Washington, DC 

May 2, 2017 Civil Space Symposium Agenda (Joint activity with ASEB)

May 3-4, 2017  Board Meeting Agenda I View Presentations


November 1-2 (3), 2017 Irvine, CA
May 1-2 (3), 2018 Washington, DC
November 7-8, 2018  Irvine, CA
April 30-May 1, 2019  Washington, DC
November 6-7, 2019  Irvine, CA
April 28-29, 2020  Washington, DC
November 4-5, 2020  Irvine, CA


Archive of past board meetings


Current Members

Fiona Harrison, Chair, California Institute of Technology
Robert D. Braun, Vice Chair, University of Colorado Boulder
David N. Spergel, Vice Chair, Princeton University and Center for Computational Astrophysics at the Simons Foundation
James G. Anderson, Harvard University
Jeff M. Bingham, Consultant
Jay C. Buckey, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth
Mary Lynne Dittmar, Dittmar Associates
Joseph Fuller Jr., Futron Corporation
Thomas R. Gavin,California Institute of Technology
Sarah Gibson, National Center for Atmospheric Research
Wesley T. Huntress, Carnegie Institution of Washington
Anthony C. Janetos, Boston University
Chryssa Kouveliotou, The George Washington University
Dennis P. Lettenmaier, University of California, Los Angeles
Rosaly M. Lopes, Jet Propulsion Laboratory
David J. McComas, Princeton University
Larry Paxton, Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory
Saul Perlmutter, Lawrence Berkeley  National Laboratory
Eliot Quataert, University of California, Berkeley
Barbara Sherwood Lollar, University of Toronto
Harlan E. Spence, University of New Hampshire
Mark H. Thiemens, University of California, San Diego
Meenakshi Wadhwa, Arizona State University

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Former Space Studies Board Chairs

2014-2016 David N. Spergel, Princeton University and Center for Computational Astrophysics at the Simons Foundation
2008-2014 Charles F. Kennel, Chair, Scripps Institution of Oceanography at the University of California, San Diego
2003-2008 Lennard A. Fisk, University of Michigan
2000–2003 John H. McElroy, (deceased) University of Texas at Arlington
1994–2000 Claude R. Canizares, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
1988–1994 Louis J. Lanzerotti, New Jersey Institute of Technology
1982–1988 Thomas M. Donahue, (deceased) University of Michigan
1976-1982 A.G.W. Cameron, (deceased) Harvard College Observatory
1973–1976 Richard M. Goody, Harvard University
1970–1973 Charles H. Townes, (deceased) University of California at Berkeley
1962–1969 Harry H. Hess, (deceased) Princeton University
1958-1962 Lloyd V. Berkner, (deceased) Graduate Research Center, Dallas, Texas

Former Space Studies Board Vice Chairs 

2010-2014 John Klineberg, Vice Chair, Space Systems/Loral (retired)
2006-2010 A. Thomas Young, Vice Chair, Lockheed Martin Corporation (retired) 
2000–2006 George A. Paulikas, The Aerospace Corporation (retired)

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Executive Committee

The Space Studies Board's Executive Committee (XCOM) is a subset of the full Board, and acts on the Board's behalf between its regular meetings. The XCOM assists the chair with strategic planning, consults on Board and committee membership, and develops agendas for Board meetings. The XCOM usually meets, separate from the full Board, in late summer.


To Be Determined

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Alan Epstein
Pratt & Whitney
(Chair, ASEB)
Athena Coustenis
National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS) of France
(Chair, ESSC) 

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SSB Member Biographies

(NAS), Chair, is the Benjamin M. Rosen Professor of Physics, and the Kent and Joyce Kresa Leadership Chair of the Division of Physics and Mathematics at the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena. She received her Ph.D. in physics from the University of California, Berkeley, and went to Caltech in 1993 as a Robert A. Millikan Prize Fellow in Experimental Physics. Harrison's primary research interests are in experimental and observational high-energy astrophysics. She also has an active observational program in gamma-ray, X-ray and optical observations of gamma-ray bursts, active galaxies, and neutron stars. Dr. Harrison is the principal investigator of NASA's Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR), a small explorer-class mission launched in 2012. She was awarded the Presidential Early Career Award in 2000, was named one of America's Best Leaders by U.S. News and the Kennedy School of Government in 2008, and received the NASA Outstanding Public Leadership Medal in 2013. In 2015, she was awarded the Bruno Rossi Prize of the High Energy Astrophysics Division of the American Astronomical Society, and in 2016 she won the Harrie Massey Award from the Committee on Space Research. She was elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and the National Academy of Sciences in 2014. Harrison is a member on the Division Committee on Engineering and Physical Sciences, was a member of the Space Studies Board, and chaired the Committee on an Assessment of the Astrophysics Focused Telescope Assets (AFTA) Mission Concepts. She also served as a member of the decadal survey committee on astronomy and astrophysics that authored the 2010 report, New Worlds New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics.
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ROBERT D. BRAUN (NAE), Vice Chair, is the Dean of the College of Engineering and Applied Science at the University of Colorado Boulder. He is also a faculty member in the Department of Aerospace Engineering Sciences, holding the Glenn Murphy Chair. He previously served as the David and Andrew Lewis Professor of Space Technology at the Georgia Institute of Technology. Dr. Braun’s research efforts focus on the design of advanced flight systems and technologies for planetary exploration. He has worked extensively in the areas of entry system design, planetary atmospheric flight, and space mission architecture development and has contributed to the design, development, test, and operation of several robotic space flight systems. In 2010 and 2011, he served as the first NASA chief technologist in more than a decade. In this capacity, he was the senior agency executive responsible for technology and innovation policy and programs. Earlier in his career, Dr. Braun served on the technical staff of the NASA Langley Research Center. He is a NAE member, an American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) fellow and the author or co-author of over 300 technical publications in the fields of planetary exploration, atmospheric entry, multidisciplinary design optimization, and systems engineering. Dr. Braun has a B.S. in aerospace engineering from the Pennsylvania State University, an M.S. in astronautics from George Washington University, and a Ph.D. in aeronautics and astronautics from Stanford University. He previously served as co-chair of the NRC’s Committee on Review of the NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts and as a member of the Committee on the Planetary Science Decadal Survey: Mars Panel, the Committee on New Opportunities in Solar System Exploration, and the Committee on Human Spaceflight: Technical Panel. He is presently a member of the NRC Committee on the Future of Center-Based, Multidisciplinary Engineering Research and the NRC Committee for Earth Science and Applications from Space.
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DAVID N. SPERGEL (NAS), Vice Chair, is Charles Young Professor of Astronomy on the Class of 1897 Foundation and Chair at Princeton University. He is also the director of the Center for Computational Astrophysics at the Simons Foundation. He was the W.M. Keck Distinguished Visiting Professor of Astrophysics at the Institute for Advanced Study. Dr. Spergel has made major contributions to cosmology, astroparticle physics, galactic structure, and instrumentation. He led the theoretical analysis for the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) and for the Atacama Cosmology Telescope, invented novel coronagraphs for planet detection, originated and explored the concept of self-interacting dark matter, and showed that the Milky Way is a barred galaxy. He was an Alfred P. Sloan Research Fellow and a Presidential Young Investigator and received the following awards: NSF Presidential Young Investigator Award, the Helen B. Warner Prize, the Bart Bok Prize, the AAS Second Century Lecturer, a MacArthur Fellowship, the Shaw Prize in Astrophysics, and shared the Gruber Prize as a member of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) science team. He is a member of the American Astronomical Society and the International Astronomical Union (IAU), and a fellow of the American Physical Society. He is currently co-chair of the WFIRST-AFTA science team. Dr. Spergel served on the National Science Foundation’s Advisory Committee for Astronomical Sciences, the Theory, Experimental and Laboratory Astrophysics Subcommittee, and the Scientific Advisory Board for the Hayden Planetarium. He is the editor of the Princeton Series in Astrophysics. He is an ex-officio member of the NASA Advisory Council. He received an A.B. (astronomy summa cum laude, Phi Beta Kappa) from Princeton University; he was a Harvard Travelling Scholar at Oxford University; and he received an A.M. in astronomy and a Ph.D. in astronomy from Harvard University. His NRC service includes the following committees: Committee on Astronomy and Astrophysics (co-chair); Committee on the Assessment of a Plan for U.S. Participation in Euclid (chair); Committee to Review the Science Requirements for the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA); Astro2010 Panel on Cosmology and Fundamental Physics (chair); Committee on Physics of the Universe; Committee on Gravitational Physics; member of the Organizing Committee for the Eighth and Ninth Annual Symposiums on Frontiers of Science; and the Panel on Cooperation with the USSR in High Energy Astrophysics.
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JAMES G. ANDERSON (NAS) is the Philip S. Weld Professor of Atmospheric Chemistry at Harvard University. His research interests include energy and environmental systems, atmospheric and climate modeling, and oceans and geophysics. His research group focuses on three domains in the physical sciences: (1) chemical reactivity viewed from the microscopic perspective of electron structure, molecular orbitals and reactivities of radical-radical and radical-molecule systems; (2) chemical catalysis sustained by free radical chain reactions that dictate the macroscopic rate of chemical transformation in Earth’s stratosphere and troposphere; and (3) mechanistic links between chemistry, radiation, and dynamics in the atmosphere that control climate. He joined the faculty of Harvard University in 1978 as the Robert P. Burden Professor of Atmospheric Chemistry; in 1982 he was appointed the Philip S. Weld Professor of Atmospheric Chemistry. Anderson served as Chairman of the Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology from July 1998 through June 2001. He was elected to the National Academy of Sciences, the American Philosophical Society and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and a frequent contributor to National Research Council Reports. He is a Fellow of the American Geophysical Union and the American Association for the Advancement of Sciences Arthur L. Day Prize and Lectureship; the E.O. Lawrence Award in Environmental Science and Technology; the American Chemical Society’s Gustavus John Esselen Award for Chemistry in the Public Interest; and the University of Washington’s Arts and Sciences Distinguished Alumnus Achievement Award. In addition, he received the United Nations Vienna Convention Award for Protection of the Ozone Layer in 2005; The United Nations Earth Day International Award; Harvard University’s Ledlie Prize for Most Valuable Contribution to Science by a Member of the Faculty; and the American Chemical Society’s National Award for Creative Advances in Environmental Science and Technology. He earned his B.S. in physics from the University of Washington and his Ph.D. in physics and Astrogeophysics from the University of Colorado. In addition to the Space Studies Board he has most recently served on the NRC’s Survey Steering Committee for Earth Science and Applications from Space: A Community Assessment and Strategy for the Future and the Committee on Global Change Research.
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JEFF M. BINGHAM is a consultant. He is retired from the U.S. Senate where he served as chief of staff for Senator Jake Garn (R-UT), from December 1974 to August 1990 and throughout that service was heavily involved in the Senator's space-related activity, as Ranking Member and Chairman of the Senate VA-HUD-IA Subcommittee on Appropriations, which had responsibility for NASA appropriations. From September of 1990 to April 1991, Mr. Bingham was a NASA consultant and participant in the Synthesis Group, chaired by former astronaut General Tom Stafford, charged with developing alternative architectures for missions to the moon and mars under the Space Exploration Initiative. From May 1991 to July 1994, Mr. Bingham was a senior policy analyst for Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), and supported the Johnson Space Center in strategic planning and exploration policy activities. In 1994, Mr. Bingham became the legislative coordinator for the International Space Station Program, serving in that role until September 1996. From April 1996 to April 1999, he managed the Space Station Information Center (aka "War Room") at NASA Headquarters. In December 2000, Mr. Bingham supported the Bush-Cheney NASA Transition Team, and in January 2001 was appointed by the White House Personnel Office as special assistant to NASA chief of staff Courtney A. Stadd. From May 2001 to May 2002, Mr. Bingham served as acting associate administrator, then as associate administrator for legislative affairs, at NASA Headquarters. In May 2002, he was appointed senior advisor/special assistant to the NASA administrator for policy and history. Mr. Bingham left NASA in April, 2004, and spent a year writing, speaking and consulting. In April, 2005, Mr. Bingham accepted the appointment as Staff director for the Subcommittee on Science and Space of the U.S. Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, which had authorization and oversight jurisdiction for NASA and the National Science Foundation. With the reorganization of the 110th Congress, Mr. Bingham became the senior republican staff member and staff director of the reconstituted Subcommittee on Space, Aeronautics and Related Sciences. In the 111th Congress Mr. Bingham assumed the role of senior advisor on space and aeronautics, republican staff, of the full committee on commerce, science, and transportation, with additional lead responsibility for space programs in the jurisdiction of the subcommittee. During his tenure at the committee, Mr. Bingham had the lead republican staff responsibility for preparing the content and securing the passage and enactment of the 2005, 2008 and 2010 NASA Authorization Acts, which established the foundation and authority for NASA’s evolving—and current—programs. He has a B.S. in political science from the University of Utah.
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JAY C. BUCKEY is a professor of medicine at Dartmouth’s Geisel School of Medicine and an adjunct professor of engineering at the Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth College. He directs the Space Medicine Innovations lab at Dartmouth, which performs research for NASA, the NIH, and the Office of Naval Research. His research and clinical interests include visual changes in astronauts, decompression sickness, peripheral and central hearing assessment, cardiovascular physiology, space-related bone loss, psychological training using multimedia, virtual reality, and hyperbaric medicine. He started and currently runs the hyperbaric medicine clinical program at the Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, which, along with clinical applications also performs research on new uses for hyperbaric oxygen. He is board certified in Internal Medicine, Aerospace Medicine, and Undersea and Hyperbaric Medicine. For the National Space Biomedical Research Institute, he serves as an Associate Team Lead for the Cardiovascular Alterations team. In 1993, he served as an alternate payload specialist astronaut for the dedicated life sciences research mission Spacelab Life Sciences 2. In 1998, Dr. Buckey flew in space as a payload specialist astronaut on the STS-90 Neurolab mission. After the mission, he co-edited a book, The Neurolab Spacelab Mission: Neuroscience Research in Space, published in 2003, which summarized the mission’s results. He is the author of Space Physiology (Oxford University Press, 2006), a practical handbook designed to help physicians and astronauts maintain crewmembers’ health in space. Dr. Buckey also served as a flight surgeon in the U.S. Air Force Reserve. He was awarded the Laurence R Young Bioastronautics Investigator Award, the Joseph Kerwin Award for Achievements in Space Medicine, the Jeffrey P. Sutton Scientific Achievement Award, and the Luigi Napolitano book award for Space Physiology. He received his M.D. from Cornell University Medical College. He served as a member of the Academies Committee on Space Biology and Medicine, and the Task Group on Research on the International Space Station.

MARY LYNNE DITTMAR is CEO and senior consultant of Dittmar Associates, Inc., an engineering and consulting firm headquartered in Houston, Texas with operations in Washington, D.C. Previously, Dr. Dittmar managed International Space Station Mission Operations and Spaceflight Training for the Boeing Company and later served as Boeing’s chief scientist and senior manager for their Commercial Space Payloads Program. More recently she has served as an executive consultant for a variety of aerospace companies and for NASA. She specializes in models for public/private partnerships, commercialization, strategic planning, strategic communications, and organizational alignment and development. Dr. Dittmar is published in a variety of fields and is the author of The Market Study for Space Exploration, a groundbreaking demographic analysis of American attitudes toward NASA and human spaceflight. She has written a number of papers on the space economy and on the impact of regulatory frameworks on emerging sectors such as the commercial spaceflight industry. In 2013 she led development of the Strategic Plan for the International Space Station National Laboratory. Dr. Dittmar earned a Ph.D. in human factors from the University of Cincinnati. She has served on the NRC’s Committee on Human Spaceflight.
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JOSEPH FULLER, JR. is the retired founder, president, and CEO of Futron Corporation, a leader in providing decision management solutions to aerospace, telecommunications, and other technology enterprises. Before founding Futron, Mr. Fuller spent 20 years at NASA as an aerospace systems engineer, project manager, and senior executive. He is experienced in the design, development, and operations of both human-piloted and robotic spacecraft. Today, through his company, he is actively engaged in wide-ranging government, commercial, and international aerospace initiatives. Mr. Fuller is a recipient of the NASA Exceptional Service Medal and a former member of the Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board of the NRC. He currently serves on NOAA’s Advisory Committee on Commercial Remote Sensing, NASA’s Project Management (APPEL) Mission Operations Working Group, and on the board of the Challenger Center for Science Education. He has a B.S. in physics from Texas Southern University and an M.B.A. from the University of Houston. He has served on a number of NRC activities including: Committee on Cost Growth in NASA Earth and Space Science Missions; Committee on NASA's Beyond Einstein Program: An Architecture for Implementation; and Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board.
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THOMAS R. GAVIN is special assistant to the director of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) at the California Institute of Technology. Prior to his current role, he was the interim director for solar system exploration at JPL. In addition, Mr. Gavin served as associate director for flight projects and mission success at JPL to provide oversight of flight projects and the mission success organization. Prior to that appointment he was director of the Space Science Flight Projects Directorate which included the development of Genesis, Stardust, Mars 2001 Odyssey, Mars Exploration Rovers, SPITZER and GALEX Projects. In June 1990 he was appointed Spacecraft System Manager for the Cassini Mission (currently in orbit of Saturn) and remained in that position until the successful launch of Cassini 1997. Mr. Gavin received NASA's Exceptional Service Medal in 1981 for his work on Voyager, NASA's Medal for Outstanding Leadership in 1991 for Galileo and in 1999 for Cassini. Mr. Gavin received the NASA Distinguished Service Medal in 2004 in recognition of outstanding and sustained engineering and management contributions to space exploration, and the American Astronautical Society 2005 Randolph Lovelace II Award for leading the management, design, and operations of all JPL and NASA robotic scientific spacecraft missions since from 2001 until retirement in 2009. He received NASA’s Outstanding Leadership Medal in 2007 for his leadership in the development of NPR 7120.5, a policy document that affects all of NASA’s space flight missions. In 2009 he received a second Distinguished Service Medal for his contributions to NASA. He holds a B.S. in chemistry from Villanova University. His previous NRC committee service is with the Space Studies Board.
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SARAH GIBSON is a senior scientist at the High Altitude Observatory (HAO) of the National Center for Atmospheric Research in Boulder, Colorado. She is head of the Long-term Solar Variability (LSV) Section of HAO. Dr. Gibson’s positions prior to her arrival at HAO included a 1-year visit to Cambridge University as a NATO/NSF post-doctoral fellow, and nearly 4 years at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center—first as a National Research Council (NRC) associate and then as a research assistant professor at the Catholic University of America. Her research centers on solar drivers of the terrestrial environment, from short-term space weather drivers such as coronal mass ejections (with emphasis on precursor magnetic structure), to long-term solar cycle variation (with emphasis on the Sun-Earth system at solar minimum). She has led and coordinated international working groups on both of these subjects for the International Space Science Institute (ISSI) and International Astronomical Union (IAU). Dr. Gibson was the recipient of the AAS-SPD 2005 Karen Harvey Prize. She is currently a member of the Steering Committee of IAU Division E (Sun and Heliosphere) and the Solar Physics Journal Editorial Board, and in past years was a scientific editor for the Astrophysical Journal, and served on the Heliophysics Subcommittee of the NASA Advisory Council and the AURA Solar Observatory Council. Dr. Gibson obtained her Ph.D. in astrophysics from the University of Colorado, Boulder. She served on the NRC Committee for a Decadal Strategy for Solar and Space Physics (Heliophysics), the Committee on Solar and Space Physics, the Committee to Review NASA Science Mission Directorate 2014 Science Plan, the Committee on Distributed Arrays of Small Instruments for Research and Monitoring in Solar-Terrestrial Physics: A Workshop, and the Astro2010 Panel on Radio, Millimeter, and Submillimeter from the Ground.
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WESLEY T. HUNTRESS, JR., is director emeritus of the Geophysical Laboratory of the Carnegie Institution of Washington having retired from this position in 2008. Dr. Huntress began his career at Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) as an NRC resident associate before joining JPL permanently in 1969 as a research scientist specializing in ion chemistry and astrochemistry. At JPL, Dr. Huntress and his research group gained international recognition for their pioneering studies of chemical evolution in interstellar clouds, comets, and planetary atmospheres. In addition, he served as a co-investigator for the Ion Mass Spectrometer experiment in the Giotto Halley’s Comet mission, as the Coma Interdisciplinary Scientist for the Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby mission, and as JPL study scientist for the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite and Cassini missions. In 1990 Dr. Huntress was appointed as director of NASA’s Solar System Exploration Division, and in 1993 he became the NASA Associate Administrator for Space Science before leaving for Carnegie in 1998. Dr. Huntress was president of the Planetary Society (2001-2006) and member of its board of directors until 2012. He is the recipient of a number of honors, including the NASA Distinguished Service and Exceptional Public Service Medals. Dr. Huntress served as chair of the NASA Advisory Council Science Committee until 2013. Dr. Huntress earned his B.S. in chemistry at Brown University in 1964, and his Ph.D. in chemical physics at Stanford University in 1968. His NRC experience includes membership on the Division Committee on Engineering and Physical Sciences, the Solar System Exploration Survey Steering Group, and as a member of the Committee on Planetary Science Decadal Survey: 2013-2022.
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ANTHONY C. JANETOS is the director of the Frederick S. Pardee Center for the Study of the Longer Range Future and professor of Earth and Environment at Boston University. Previously, he served as director of the Joint global Change Research Institute at the University of Maryland, where for six years he oversaw an interdisciplinary team of natural scientists, engineers and social scientists committed to understanding the problems of global climate change and their potential solutions. Earlier, he was a senior research fellow at the h. John Heinz III Center for Science, Economics, and the Environment. In 1999, he joined the World Resources Institute as senior vice president and chief of program. Previously, he served as senior scientist for the Land Cove and Land Use Change Program in NASA’s Office of Earth Science and was program scientist for the Landsat 7 mission. He had many years of experience in managing scientific research programs on a variety of ecologic and environmental topics, including air pollution effects on forests, climate change impacts, land-use change, ecosystem modeling, and the global carbon cycle. He was a co-chair of the U.S. National Assessment of the Potential Consequences of climate Variability and Change and an author of Land-Use, Land-Use Change, and Forestry (an IPCC special report) and global Biodiversity Assessment. Dr. Janetos received his B.S. in biology from Harvard University and his M.S. and Ph.D. in biology from Princeton University. Prior NRC experience includes serving on the survey committee for the 2007 decadal survey on Earth science and applications from space, the Committee on Ecological Impacts of Climate Change, the Committee on Socioeconomic Scenarios for Climate Change Impact and Response Assessments and the Climate Research Committee. Dr. Janetos is currently a member of the Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate.
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CHRYSSA KOUVELIOTOU (NAS) is a professor of astrophysics in the Department of Physics at the George Washington University (GWU). She recently retired from her position as a senior scientist for High-Energy Astrophysics at NASA/MSFC to join GWU, where she will build and lead a new center of Astrophysics, focusing on Time Domain Astronomy in multiple wavelengths, including data from space missions (such as Fermi, Swift, XMM, Chandra, NuSTAR, HST) and ground based observatories (such as VLA, LOFAR, WSRT, VLT, Gemini). Dr. Kouveliotou’s research interests include high-energy astrophysical transients, in particular gamma ray bursts and magnetars, which she discovered in 1998; she has also published papers in X-ray binaries, solar flares and merging galaxy clusters. Dr. Kouveliotou has been a co-investigator of BATSE/CGRO, Fermi/GBM, and she is an affiliated scientist of Swift. She is currently supported by NASA for her participation in two working groups of the European Space Agency’s ATHENA mission. She is the recipient of the Descartes Prize, the Rossi and Heinemann Prizes, and the NASA Exceptional Service Medal; she holds two honorary degrees from Sussex University and from the University of Amsterdam; she is an American Physics Society and American Association for the Advancement of Science fellow. She served in the AAS/HEAD, and she is currently the senior vice president of the American Astronomical Society. She has held several committee and board positions and she recently chaired the NASA Astrophysics Roadmap Team. She earned her Ph.D. from the Technical University of Munich in Germany for astrophysics. She has served on the NRC’s U.S. National Committee for the International Astronomical Union, the U.S. Liaison Committee for the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics, and the Committee on Astronomy and Astrophysics.
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DENNIS P. LETTENMAIER (NAE) is a distinguished professor at University of California, Los Angeles.His research and area of expertise is hydrological modeling and prediction; water and climate; and hydrologic remote sensing. Prior to his time at UCLA, Dr. Lettenmaier was a professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering at the University of Washington 1976-2014. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Washington in 1975. Dr. Lettenmaier was the chair of the Water Resources subpanel and steering committee member for the 2007 Decadal Survey of Earth Science and Applications from Space. He is an author or co-author of over 300 journal articles. He was the first chief editor of the American Meteorological Society Journal of Hydrometeorology, and is a past president of the Hydrology Section of the American Geophysical Union. He is a fellow of the American Geophysical Union, the American Meteorological Society, and the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and is a member of the National Academy of Engineering. He earned his Ph.D. from University of Washington. He has served on the Academies Special Fields and Interdisciplinary Engineering Peer Committee, the Committee on the Implementation of a Sustained Land Imaging Program, and the Committee on the Assessment of NASA's Earth Science Programs.

ROSALY M. LOPES is a senior research scientist and manager of the Planetary Science Section at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology (JPL). She has been at JPL in various positions since 1991. Prior to that, she was a postdoctoral fellow at JPL. Dr. Lopes was a member of the Galileo Flight Project, a mission to Jupiter, responsible for observations of Jupiter's volcanic moon Io, using Galileo's Near-infrared mapping spectrometer. She has been a member of the Cassini Flight Project, with the role of investigation scientist on the Cassini Titan Radar Mapper Team. She researches the geology of Titan, Saturn's largest moon, particularly its strange ice volcanoes. Dr. Lopes has written more than one hundred and twenty peer-reviewed scientific publications and seven books. She was elected fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and fellow of the Geological Society of America for her contributions to the studies of volcanism on Earth and the planets. She is also an elected member of the International Academy of Astronautics. She chairs the Outer Planets Task Group of the International Astronomical Union's working group for planetary system nomenclature. She served as elected chair of the Division for Planetary Sciences of the American Astronomical Society, the world's largest organization for professional planetary scientists. Dr. Lopes won the American Astronomical Society's Carl Sagan medal for excellence in communicating science to the public. Among her other awards are the Lowell Thomas award for exploration from The Explorers Club, the Wings Women of Discovery Air and Space award, the NASA Exceptional Service Medal, the Women at Work Medal of Excellence, the Latinas in Science medal from the Comision Feminil Mexicana Nacional, and the 1997 Woman of the Year in Science and Technology Award from the Miami-based GEMS television. She obtained a Ph.D. from University College London, researching volcanism on Earth and Mars. Dr. Lopes has served on the Academies Committee on New Opportunities in Solar System Exploration and the Committee on Planetary Protection Standards for Icy Bodies in the Outer Solar System.

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DAVID J. MCCOMAS is Princeton University vice president for the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) and professor of Astrophysical Sciences. He is the principal investigator for NASA’s Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) Mission, the Two Wide-Angle Imaging Neutral-Atom Spectrometers (TWINS) Explorer Mission-of-Opportunity, the Integrated Science Investigation of the Sun (ISʘIS) on Solar Probe Plus and the Ulysses Solar Wind Observations Over the Poles of the Sun (SWOOPS) experiment; he is also the lead co-investigator for the Solar Wind Electron Proton Alpha Monitor (SWEPAM) instrument on the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) and the solar wind analyzer and for the New Horizons mission to Pluto (SWAP) as well as co-investigator on numerous other space missions. Dr. McComas has invented a variety of instruments and missions for space applications and holds six patents. He is an author of over 550 scientific papers in the refereed literature spanning topics in heliospheric, magnetospheric, solar, and planetary science as well as space instrument and mission development. These papers have generated over 22,000 citations. Previously Dr. McComas was assistant vice president of the Space Science and Engineering Division at the Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) in San Antonio, Texas, and an adjoint professor in the joint University of Texas, San Antonio - Southwest Research Institute graduate program in physics, which he helped to establish. Dr. McComas served as the founding director of the Center for Space Science and Exploration (CSSE) at Los Alamos National Laboratory. He was concurrently the NASA program manager at Los Alamos and served as the group leader for Space and Atmospheric Sciences. Dr. McComas is a fellow of the American Physical Society (APS), American Geophysical Union (AGU) and the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). He has received numerous awards and accolades including the 2014 COSPAR Space Science Award, a NASA Exceptional Public Service Medal, and AGU’s James B. Macelwane Medal. Dr. McComas serves on the board of directors of the Brookhaven National Laboratory Science Associates and of the Dyslexic Advantage. He recently served on the NASA Advisory Council (NAC) and chaired the NAC Science Committee (NAC-SC), and has served on numerous other committees and panels for NASA, AGU, the University of California, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and the State of New Mexico. This service included chairing NASA’s Sun-Earth Connections Advisory Subcommittee (SECAS) and Solar Probe and Solar Probe Plus Science and Technology Definition Teams, as well as serving as a member of NASA’s Space Science Advisory Committee (SScAC) and on the ESA/NASA Solar Orbiter Science Definition Team. He received his B.S. in Physics from Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Ph.D. in Geophysics and Space Physics from UCLA. He has previously served on the Academies Task Group on Research Prioritization, the Committee on Solar-Terrestrial Research and the Committee on Space Science Technology Planning.

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LARRY PAXTON is a member of the principal professional staff at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) and the head of the Geospace and Earth Science group. Dr. Paxton is the principal investigator on seven instruments that have flown in space. His research interests include space science, space technology, satellite- and ground-based mission design, the implications of global climate change for the stability of nations; and innovation. He is particularly interested in new instruments that characterize the geospace environment. He has published over 260 papers on these subjects. He is an Academician member of the International Academy of Astronautics and the president of the American Geophysical Union’s Space Physics and Aeronomy section (2017-2019). Awards include JHU/APL Publication of the Year Awards; JHU/APL Government Purpose Invention of the Year Nominee; and Best Paper – 7th IAA Symposium on Small Satellites for Earth Observation. Other recent relevant experience includes JHU’s Global Water Institute and the JHU Earth Environment Sustainability and Health Institute as well as the NASA Heliophysics Roadmap Committee; NSF Aeronomy Review Panel and NSF Aeronomy Committee of Visitors; chair of IAA Commission 4 and Small Satellite Program Committee. He earned his Ph.D. in astrophysical, planetary, and atmospheric sciences from the University of Colorado in Boulder. He has served on several committees of the Academies, including the Committee on the Effects of Solar Variability on Earth's Climate: A Workshop, and the Committee on a Decadal Strategy for Solar and Space Physics (Heliophysics) Panel on Atmosphere-Ionosphere-Magnetosphere Interactions.

SAUL PERLMUTTER (NAS) is a professor of physics at the University of California, Berkeley and a senior scientist at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Dr. Perlmutter heads the Supernova Cosmology Project at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and it was this team that found evidence of the accelerating expansion of the universe based on observing Type Ia supernova in the distant universe. His research findings have led to new understandings of the nature of the universe, including dark matter and dark energy. For this work, he was awarded the 2011 Nobel Prize in Physics, shared jointly with Riess and Schmidt. Dr. Perlmutter is also a lead investigator in the Supernova/Acceleration Probe project, which aims to build a satellite dedicated to finding and studying more supernovae in the distant universe. He is director of the Berkeley Center for Cosmological Physics (BCCP) as well as the Berkeley Institute for Data Sciences (BIDS). He is a member of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences, and fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and a fellow of the American Physics Society. He is also a member of the National Academy of Sciences. He received his Ph.D. in physics at the University of California, Berkeley.
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ELIOT QUATAERT is a professor of astronomy and physics at University of California, Berkeley and the director of Berkeley's Theoretical Astrophysics Center. Dr. Quataert is an astrophysics theorist who works on a wide range of problems, from the astrophysics of stars and black holes to how galaxies form. He has received a number of awards for his research, including the Sloan Fellowship, Packard Fellowship, Simons Investigator position, and the Helen B. Warner Prize of the AAS. He is also a highly regarded teacher and public lecturer. Dr. Quataert received his Ph.D. in astronomy from Harvard University. He served on the Academies Astro2010 Panel on Stars and Stellar Evolution, the Committee on Plasma 2010: An Assessment of and Outlook for Plasma and Fusion Science, as well as the Plasma Science (standing) Committee.

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BARBARA SHERWOOD LOLLAR (CC, FRSC) is a university professor in Earth sciences at the University of Toronto. She is research chair in Isotopes of the Earth and Environment, and director of the Stable Isotope Laboratory. Dr. Sherwood Lollar has published extensively in research on stable isotope geochemistry, the fate of fluids and gases (CO2, CH4, and H2) in ancient fracture waters in the Earth’s crust, and the nature of deep subsurface microbial life. She specializes in principles for distinguishing the origin and fate of methane (abiotic, thermogenic, and biotic) and in analog research related to astrobiology and the preservation of subsurface life in deep saline fracture waters in the Earth’s crust. She has been a recipient of many academic awards including most recently the 2012 Eni Award for Protection of the Environment, the 2012 Geological Society of America Geomicrobiology and Geobiology Division Award, and the 2016 NSERC John C. Polanyi Research Award (one of Canada’s highest honors for research). She was named a fellow of the American Geophysical Union in 2015. She has served on science advisory working groups including the NASA/ESA Joint Science Working Group (JSWG) 2018 Joint Rover Mission; the MEPAG E2E-iSAG committee for the 2018 Mars Rover Mission, and the NASA Mid-Range Rover Science Analysis Group (MRR-SAG 2009). In Canada she has served on the Canadian Space Agency - Space Exploration Advisory Committee and Space Exploration Planetary Consultation Committee, and as Board member for the Natural Sciences and Engineering Council of Canada (NSERC). She earned her Ph.D. in Earth sciences from the University of Waterloo and undergraduate degree in Geological sciences from Harvard University. She has served as a member of the Academies Committee on Astrobiology and Planetary Sciences, the Committee on the Origin and Evolution of Life, and the Committee on Astrobiology Strategy for the Exploration of Mars.

HARLAN E. SPENCE is the director of the Institute for the Study of Earth, Oceans, and Space, and also professor of physics, at the University of New Hampshire (UNH). Dr. Spence leads a research group that studies the physics of cosmic plasmas, from the Sun's corona to interplanetary space to Earth's upper atmosphere, using experimental and modeling techniques. Dr. Spence and his research team develop and use physics-based, numerical models to understand the powerful dynamics of interacting solar and planetary plasmas ("space weather") and the resultant deleterious effects on space technologies and astronauts. Dr. Spence was co-investigator on two energetic particle instruments on the NASA Polar satellite and is co-investigator on a suite of energetic particle instruments on the recently launched NASA Magnetospheric Multiscale mission. He is deputy principal investigator on a cosmic ray sensor on NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter mission and is principal investigator of a comprehensive charged particle instrument suite on NASA's Van Allen Probes mission. Finally, Spence is principal investigator of the NSF FIREBIRD-II CubeSat mission exploring the physics of relativistic electrons which reach Earth's upper atmosphere from the radiation belts. Dr. Spence worked at The Aerospace Corporation. Dr. Spence joined the faculty at Boston University as an assistant professor of astronomy and moved up through the ranks to full professor and department chair before moving to UNH. He is a recipient of an NSF Young Investigator Award, received the Wisneski Award for Excellence in Teaching at Boston University, received two Editor’s Citations for Excellence in Refereeing from AGU publications, and has earned numerous NASA Group Achievement Awards. Spence earned his Ph.D. in geophysics and space physics from the University of California, Los Angeles. He served on the Academies Committee on Solar and Space Physics, the Solar-Wind Magnetospheric Interactions Decadal Survey Panel, and the Steering Committee of 2013-2022 Decal Survey in Solar and Space Physics.
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MARK H THIEMENS (NAS) is dean of physical sciences, Distinguished Professor of Chemistry, and Chancellor's Associates Chair in the department of chemistry and biochemistry at the University of California, San Diego. His research is centered on use of the mass independent fractionation process for stable isotopes to study the origin and evolution of the solar system, definition of the source and transformation of greenhouse gases in the troposphere, chemistry of the stratosphere and mesosphere, chemistry of the ancient Martian atmosphere, and the origin and evolution of oxygen-ozone and life in the Earth's Precambrian. He earned his Ph.D. in geophysics from Florida State University. His extensive NRC service includes membership on the Board on Energy and Environmental Systems, PNAS Editorial Board, and the Committee on the Review of Planetary Protection Requirements for Mars Sample-Return Missions.
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is director of the Center for Meteorite Studies and professor of geological sciences at the School of Earth and Space Exploration at Arizona State University. Her research interests focus on deciphering the origin and evolution of the solar system and planetary bodies through geochemical and isotopic investigations. She uses high-precision mass spectrometric techniques to study a wide range of solar system materials including meteorites of martian and asteroidal origin, Moon rocks (from the Apollo missions and lunar meteorites), and other samples returned by spacecraft missions. Dr. Wadhwa is a recipient of the Guggenheim Fellowship (2005) and the Nier Prize of the Meteoritical Society (2000), which is awarded for outstanding research by a young scientist. Asteroid 8356 has been named 8356 Wadhwa in recognition of her contributions to planetary science. She recently chaired NASA’s Curation and Analysis Planning Team for Extraterrestrial Materials. She has a Ph.D. in Earth and Planetary Sciences from Washington University. Dr. Wadhwa has served on several NRC committees, including the NRC Committee on the Origins and Evolution of Life, the Committee on an Astrobiology Strategy for the Exploration of Mars, and the Committee on the Review of Planetary Protection Requirements for Mars Sample-Return Missions.
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