NRC Study Process, NRC Decadal Surveys, Astronomy and Astrophysics, Earth Science and Applications from Space, Intellectual Perspective, Science Policy
CHARLES F. KENNEL (NAS) is a distinguished professor of atmospheric science emeritus in the Scripps Institution of Oceanography at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD). Dr. Kennel was the founding director of the UCSD Environment and Sustainability Initiative, an all-campus effort embracing teaching, research, campus operations, and public outreach, and is now chair of its international advisory board. His research covers plasma physics, space plasma physics, solar-terrestrial physics, plasma astrophysics, and environmental science and policy. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the American Philosophical Society, and the International Academy of Astronautics. He was a member of the NASA Advisory Council from 1998 to 2006, its chair from 2001-2005, and is presently chair of the California Council on Science and Technology. He has had visiting appointments to the International Centre for Theoretical Physics (Trieste), the National Center for Atmospheric Research (Boulder), the Ecole Polytechnique (Paris), California Institute of Technology (Pasadena), Space Research Institute (Moscow), and the University of Cambridge (U.K.). He is a recipient of the James Clerk Maxwell Prize (American Physical Society), the Hannes Alfven Prize (European Geophysical Society), the Aurelio Peccei Prize (Accademia Lincei), and the NASA Distinguished Service and Distinguished Public Service Medals. He was the 2007 C.P. Snow Lecturer at Christ’s College, Cambridge (U.K.). He earned his Ph.D. in astrophysical sciences from Princeton University. Dr. Kennel has served on numerous NRC committees and boards including the Committee on NASA’s Beyond Einstein Program: An Architecture for Implementation (co-chair), the Committee on Global Change Research (chair), the Committee on Fusion Science Assessment (chair), the Board on Physics and Astronomy (chair), the Panel to Review the National Space Science Data Center/World Data Center-A for Rockets and Satellites, the Committee on Cooperation with the USSR in Solar Activity, Solar Wind, Terrestrial Effects, and Solar Acceleration (co-chair), the Plasma Science Committee (chair), and the Air Force Physics Research Committee. He most recently served on the 2010 astronomy and astrophysics decadal survey follow-on—the Panel on Implementing Recommendations from New Worlds, New Horizons Decadal Survey. Dr. Kennel is chair of the NRC’s Space Studies Board.
NRC Study Process, NRC Decadal Surveys, Astronomy and Astrophysics, Intellectual Perspective, Science Policy
ALAN DRESSLER (NAS) is an observational astronomer at the Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science. His principal areas of research cover the formation and evolution of galaxies and the study of star populations of distant galaxies. Dr. Dressler has made significant contributions in understanding galaxy formation and evolution, including effects of the environment on galaxy morphology. He was a leader in the identification of the "great attractor" that causes a large distortion of the Hubble expansion. From 1993 to 1995, Dr. Dressler chaired the AURA committee "HST & Beyond: Exploration and the Search for Origins" that presented NASA with “A Vision for Ultraviolet-Optical-Infrared Space Astronomy.” Dr. Dressler is a member of the National Academy of Sciences. He served on the NRC Committee on Setting Priorities for NSF-Sponsored Large Research Facility Projects and he chaired the Panel on Optical and Infrared Astronomy from the Ground of the 2000 Astronomy and Astrophysics Survey Committee. Dr. Dressler also chaired the Astro2010 Panel on Electromagnetic Observations from Space and was a member of the Astro2010 follow-on—the Panel on Implementing Recommendations from New Worlds, New Horizons Decadal Survey. Dr. Dressler now serves on the NRC’s Space Studies Board.
NRC Study Process, NRC Decadal Surveys, Astronomy and Astrophysics, Planetary Science, Cost and Technical Evaluation, Science Policy
A. THOMAS YOUNG (NAE) is retired executive vice president of Lockheed Martin. He is currently chair of the board of SAIC. Mr. Young previously was president and chief operating officer of Martin Marietta Corporation. Prior to joining industry, Mr. Young worked for 21 years at NASA. At NASA, he directed the Goddard Space Flight Center, was deputy director of the Ames Research Center, and directed the Planetary Program in the Office of Space Science at NASA Headquarters. Mr. Young received high acclaim for his technical leadership in organizing and directing national space and defense programs, especially the Viking program. He is currently a fellow of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) and of the American Astronautical Society (AAS) and a member of the National Academy of Engineering. Mr. Young previously served as the vice chair of the NRC’s Space Studies Board and has extensive NRC experience. Prior NRC committee service includes membership on the Planetary Science Decadal Survey steering committee, the Astro2010 Decadal Survey Committee and subsequent follow-on Panel on Implementing Recommendations from New Worlds, New Horizons Decadal Survey, and the Committee on Assessment of Impediments to Interagency Cooperation on Space and Earth Science Missions.
NRC Study Process, NRC Decadal Surveys, Astronomy and Astrophysics
PAUL L. SCHECHTER (NAS) is the William A.M. Burden Professor of Astrophysics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Dr. Schechter’s research interests are galaxies, clusters of galaxies, the distribution of dark matter, and active optics. He is also familiar with observational techniques such as microlensing and gravitation lensing. Prior to joining the faculty at MIT, Dr. Schechter held postdoctoral positions at the Institute for Advanced Study and the University of Arizona, a faculty position at Harvard, and staff positions at Kitt Peak National Observatory and the Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science. He has carried out optical observations of the mirages produced by extragalactic gravitational potentials using the Hubble Space Telescope and ground-based telescopes. He also helped develop the active optics system for the Carnegie Institute of Washington’s Magellan Telescopes. Dr. Schechter is a member of the National Academy of Sciences. He received his B.S. in physics and mathematics from Cornell University and his Ph.D. in physics from the California Institute of Technology. He was a member of the Astro2010 Panel on Electromagnetic Observations from Space and is currently a member of the Board on Physics and Astronomy. Dr. Schechter is currently the co-chair of the SSB and BPA [standing] Committee on Astronomy and Astrophysics.
Earth Science and Applications from Space
STACEY W. BOLAND is a senior systems engineer at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and is the Observatory System Engineer for the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) Earth System Science Pathfinder mission. Dr. Boland is also a cross-disciplinary generalist specializing in Earth-mission concept development and systems engineering and mission architecture development for advanced (future) Earth observing mission concepts. She was awarded NASA’s Exceptional Achievement Medal in 2009. She served as a consultant for the following NRC studies: Earth Science and Applications from Space: A Community Assessment and Strategy for the Future; Options to Ensure the Climate Record from the NPOESS and GOES-R Spacecraft; and A Strategy to Mitigate the Impact of Sensor Descopes and Demanifests on the NPOESS and GOES-R Spacecraft. Dr. Boland received her B.S. in physics from the University of Texas, Dallas, and her M.S. and Ph.D. in mechanical engineering from California Institute of Technology. Dr. Boland served as a member on the NRC Committee on Assessment of Impediments to Interagency Cooperation on Space and Earth Science Missions, and she recently completed service on the Committee on the Assessment of NASA’s Earth Science Program—the midterm assessment of the 2007 Earth science and applications from space decadal survey. She is currently a member of the Space Studies Board [standing] Committee on Earth Science and Applications from Space.
WILLIAM B. GAIL is co-founder and chief technology officer of Global Weather Corporation, a private-label provider of precision weather forecasts to businesses within the energy, media, and transportation sectors. Dr. Gail was previously director in the Startup Business Group at Microsoft with responsibility for enabling breakthroughs in consumer software (having held similar positions within the public sector and virtual Earth organizations). Prior positions include vice president of the Mapping Products Division at Vexcel Corporation (where he initiated Vexcel’s 2006 acquisition by Microsoft) and director of Earth Science Programs at Ball Aerospace (responsible for developing spaceborne instruments/missions for Earth science and meteorology). He serves or has served on a variety of corporate and organizational boards including Peak Weather Resources Inc., Women in Aerospace, Imaging Notes magazine, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Advisory Committee on Commercial Remote Sensing (acting), and the NASA Applied Sciences Program Advisory Group. He has also served as associate editor for the SPIE Journal of Applied Remote Sensing and as director of industry relations for the IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Society. Dr. Gail received his B.A. in physics and his Ph.D. in electrical engineering from Stanford University, where his research focused on plasma physics in Earth's magnetosphere. During this period, he spent a year as cosmic ray field scientist at South Pole Station. Dr. Gail has served on numerous NRC committees, including the Committee to Review the NASA Earth Science Enterprise Strategic Plan and the steering committee of the 2007 Earth science and applications from space decadal survey. He is currently a member of the Committee on the Assessment of the National Weather Service’s Modernization Program.
ANTHONY C. JANETOS is director of the Joint Global Change Research Institute of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and the University of Maryland. Earlier, he was a senior research fellow and vice president at the H. John Heinz III Center for Science, Economics, and the Environment. At the World Resources Institute, Dr. Janetos served as senior vice president and chief of programs. He has also served as senior scientist for the Land-Cover and Land-Use Change Program in NASA’s Office of Earth Science and was program scientist for the Landsat 7 mission. He had many years of experience in managing scientific research programs on a variety of ecological and environmental topics, including air-pollution effects on forests, climate change impacts, land-use change, ecosystem modeling, and the global carbon cycle. Dr. Janetos received his B.S. in biology from Harvard University and his M.S. and Ph.D. in biology from Princeton University. He was a co-chair of the U.S. National Assessment of the Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Change and an author of Land-Use, Land-Use Change, and Forestry (an IPCC special report) and Global Biodiversity Assessment. Prior NRC experience includes serving on the steering committee for the 2007 decadal survey on Earth science and applications from space, the Committee on Ecological Impacts of Climate Change, the Climate Research Committee, and the Committee on the Socioeconomic Scenarios for Climate Change Impact and Response Assessments. Dr. Janetos recently completed service on the Committee on the Assessment of NASA’s Earth Science Program—the midterm assessment of the 2007 Earth science and applications from space decadal survey, and he is currently a member of the Space Studies Board and the Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate.
Solar and Space Physics
STEVEN J. BATTEL is president of Battel Engineering, providing engineering, development, and review services to NASA, the Department of Defense, and university and industrial clients. His areas of specialization include program management, cost and schedule evaluation, systems engineering, advanced technology development, spacecraft avionics, power systems, high-voltage systems, precision electronics, and scientific instrument design. Mr. Battel was a member of the Hubble Space Telescope External Readiness Review Team for SM-2, SM3A, and SM3B; the AXAF/Chandra Independent Assessment Team; the TDRS-H/I/J Independent Review Team; the Mars Polar Lander Failure Review Board; and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory Genesis Failure Review Board. Prior to becoming president of Battel Engineering, he worked as an engineer, researcher, and manager at the University of Michigan, the Lockheed Palo Alto Research Laboratory, the University of California, Berkeley, and the University of Arizona’s Lunar and Planetary Laboratory. In April 2012, Mr. Battel was elected to a 3-year term as a member of the AURA Space Telescope Institute Council. He served on the NRC Committee on NASA Astrophysics Performance Assessment and the Committee on Assessment of Options for Extending the Life of the Hubble Space Telescope, the [steering] Committee on Decadal Survey on Astronomy and Astrophysics 2010, and on the [standing] Committee on Earth Studies. He recently completed service on the Space Studies Board and is currently a member of the [steering] Committee on a Decadal Strategy for Solar and Space Physics (Heliophysics).
J. TODD HOEKSEMA is a senior research scientist in the W.W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory at Stanford University. His professional experience includes research administration, system and scientific programming, and the design, construction, and operation of instruments to measure solar magnetic and velocity fields from both ground and space. He is co-investigator and magnetic team lead for the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory and the instrument scientist for the Michelson Doppler Imager instrument on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory, which was launched by NASA and the European Space Agency. He has been associated with the Wilcox Solar Observatory at Stanford for three sunspot cycles. His primary scientific interests include the physics of the Sun and the interplanetary medium, solar-terrestrial relations, the large-scale solar and coronal magnetic fields, solar velocity fields and rotation, helioseismology, and education and public outreach. Dr. Hoeksema was chair of the Solar Physics Division of AAS and has served on the heliophysics subcommittee of the NASA Advisory Council Science Committee. He has served for 4 years as a solar physics discipline scientist at NASA. Dr. Hoeksema led NASA's Heliophyiscis Roadmap team in 2005. He has been awarded the NASA distinguished public service medal and is a member of the AAS, American Geophysical Union (AGU), International Astronomical Union, American Scientific Affiliation, and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. In addition, for several years Dr. Hoeksema was the vice chair of Commission E.2 of the Committee on Space Research. He earned his Ph.D. in applied physics from Stanford University. He recently served on the NRC’s Astro2010 Decadal Survey’s Panel on Optical and Infrared Astronomy from the Ground, and he is a member of the [steering] Committee on a Decadal Strategy for Solar and Space Physics (Heliophysics).
ROBERT P. LIN (NAS) is a professor of the Graduate School in the Physics Department at the University of California, Berkeley, a chair professor at Kyung Hee University, Korea, and former director of the Space Sciences Laboratory (SSL) at Berkeley. Dr. Lin’s research interests span experimental space physics, planetary science, and high-energy astrophysics—in particular, how particles are accelerated in the astrophysical plasmas, specifically in solar flares, the interplanetary medium, and Earth’s magnetosphere. His approach is to develop and fly innovative instruments for spacecraft, rockets, and balloons. He is presently leading the Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) mission, the 3D Plasma & Energetic Particle investigation on the Wind spacecraft, and the SupraThermal Electron investigation on the STEREO mission; and he is developing instrumentation for the MAVEN (Mars Atmosphere & Volatiles Evolution) mission, the Cubesat for Ions, Neutrals, Electrons & Magnetic fields (CINEMA) mission, and the Gamma-Ray Imager/Polarimeter for Solar Flares balloon instrument. Dr. Lin is a member of the National Academy of Sciences. He obtained his B.S. from California Institute of Technology and his Ph.D. in physics in from the University of California, Berkeley. Dr. Lin has served on several NRC committees, including the Committee on NASA's Suborbital Research Capabilities and the Committee on Solar and Space Physics. He is currently a member of the Panel on Solar and Heliospheric Physics of the Decadal Strategy for Solar and Space Physics (Heliophysics) and a member of the Space Studies Board. In addition, Dr. Lin is the U.S. Representative to the U.S. National Committee for the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) of ICSU, and also a vice president of COSPAR.
STEPHEN MACKWELL is the director of the Lunar and Planetary Institute in Houston, Texas. Prior to his appointment, Dr. Mackwell served as the director of the Bayerisches Geoinstitut at the University of Bayreuth, Germany. He has served as program director for geophysics in NSF’s Division of Earth Sciences (1993-1994); as member, group chief, and panel chair of the review panel for NASA’s Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program; as expert reviewer for the Department of Energy’s Geosciences Research Program (1993); and as expert consultant for NSF’s Division of Earth Sciences (1995). Dr. Mackwell conducts laboratory-based research into the physical, chemical, and mechanical properties of geological materials under conditions relevant to the mantle and crust of Earth and other terrestrial planets. He received his Ph.D. in earth sciences from the Australian National University. He served on the NRC Committee on New Opportunities in Solar System Exploration, the Committee to Review Near-Earth-Object Surveys and Hazard Mitigation Strategies, and the Committee on the Planetary Science Decadal Survey. He current serves on the NRC [standing] Committee on Astrobiology and Planetary Science.
RALPH L. McNUTT, JR., is a physicist, member of the principal professional staff, and science and analysis branch scientist (space science) at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory. Dr. McNutt is currently the project scientist and a co-investigator on the MESSENGER Discovery mission to Mercury, a co-investigator on the New Horizons mission to Pluto, co-investigator on the Integrated Science Investigation of the Sun (ISIS) investigation on Solar Probe Plus, and a co-investigator on the Voyager Plasma Science and Low-Energy Charged Particles experiments. He is also a member of the Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer Team for the Cassini Orbiter spacecraft. Dr. McNutt has worked on the physics of the magnetospheres of the outer planets, the outer heliosphere (including solar wind dynamics and properties of very-low-frequency radiation), Pluto’s atmosphere, pulsars, high-current electron beams, the physics of active experiments in the mesosphere/thermosphere (artificial aurora), and the solar neutrino problem. He received his Ph.D. in physics from MIT and is a member of the International Academy of Astronsutics. Dr. McNutt co-chaired the NRC Committee on Radioisotope Power Systems: An Imperative for Maintaining U.S. Leadership in Space Exploration. He recently completed service on the [steering] Committee on Planetary Science Decadal Survey: 2013-2022.