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Commissioned Papers

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The Supply Chain for Middle-Skill Jobs: Education, Training, and Certification Pathways (forthcoming 2016)

Defining Skilled Technical Work
Jonathan Rothwell, Brookings Institution

Middle Skill Workers in Today's Job Market
Alicia Sasser-Modestino, Northeastern University

Pathways or Pipelines: Keeping High School Students' Future Options Open While Developing Technical Skills and Knowledge
David Stern, UC Berkeley

Community College Pathways
Melinda Mechur Karp, Teachers College, Columbia University

Are Employers Providing Enough Training? Theory, Evidence, and Policy Implications
Robert Lerman, Urban Institute, American University and IZA 

Apprenticeship Pathways to Skilled Technical Jobs
Andrea Messing-Mathie, Northern Illinois University

Federally-funded Workforce Development
Carolyn Heinrich, Vanderbilt University

Pathways to Middle-Skill Allied Health Care Occupations
Bianca K. Frogner and Sue Skillman, University of Washington

Analysis of Army Veteran Unemployment Benefits and Transition Assistance
Susan Payne Carter and Brian J. Miller, U.S. Military Academy

Information Resources to Facilitate Middle Skills Workforce Development
Andrew Reamer, George Washington University
Competing on Innovation: Implications for Building the Middle-Skill Talent Pipeline
Robert Sheets, George Washington University and Jason Tyszko, U.S. Chamber of Commerce Foundation

Patent Challenges for Standard-Setting in the Global EconomyPatent Challenges for Standard-Setting in the Global Economy: Lessons from Information and Communications Technology (2013)

Intellectual Property and Standards in Brazil
Denis Borges Barbosa 

A Study of IPR Policies and Practices of a Representative Group of Standard Setting Organizations Worldwide
Rudi Bekkers and Andrew Updegrove

Shaking Grounds? Technology Standards in China
Dan Breznitz and Michael Murphree

Survey of Bioinformatics Standards
Jorge L. Contreras

Materials Sustainability Standards and Intellectual Property
Jorge L. Contreras and Charles R. McManis

E-Government Acquisition Processes in the US, EU, Japan, and India
Laura DeNardis

Patents and Intellectual Property Management in Nanotechnology Standardization: A NIST Perspective
Ajit Jillavenkatesa, H. Evans, and H. Wixon

Patent Transfers in the Information Age:  FRAND Commitments and Transparency
Jay P. Kesan and Carol M. Haynes

Intellectual Property and ICT Standards in India
T. Ramakrishna, S.K. Murthy, and Saurabh Malhatra
Synthetic Biology and Intellectual Property
Andrew W. Torrance and Linda J. Kahl

Cooperation between Patent Offices and Standards Developing Organizations
George T. Willingmyre

Copyright in the Digital EraCopyright in the Digital Era: Building Evidence for Policy (2013)

The Impact of Digitization on Business Models in Copyright-Driven Industries: A Review of the Economic Issues

Lisa Cameron and Coleman Bazelon

Christian Handke
Mark J. McCabe
Rachel Soloveichik and David Wasshausen
* Note: This revised version of the paper posted on 5/7/2013 replaces an earlier reviewed version on which the STEP committee relied on when writing its report, Copyright in the Digital Era: Building Evidence for Policy. In this version of the paper, the Bureau of Economic Affairs decided to substitute the term "entertainment originals" for "artistic originals" and revised upward the depreciation rate on those assets. As a result, some of the figures in the paper do not precisely match those in the report.

Research ImpactsMeasuring the Impacts of Federal Investments in Research

Promises and Limitations of Performance Measures
Irwin Feller

The Impact of Publicly Funded Biomedical and Health Research: A Review
Bhaven N. Sampat


MUIP coverManaging University Intellectual Property in the Public Interest

A Preliminary View of University of California Data on Disclosures, Licensing, and Patenting
Kyriakos Drivas, Zhen Lei, and Brian Wright

Legal Context of University Intellectual Property and Technology Transfer
Sean O'Connor, Gregory D. Graff, and David E. Winickoff

Organizational Structure as a Determinant of Academic Patent and Licensing Behavior: A Survey of American Research Universities
Maryann P. Feldman and Janet Bercovitz