CSTL MEMBER BIOGRAPHIES
Thomas D. Albright is Professor and Conrad T. Prebys Chair in Vision Research at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies, where he joined the faculty in 1986. Albright is also Director of the Salk Institute Center for the Neurobiology of Vision, Adjunct Professor of Psychology and Neurosciences at the University of California, San Diego, and Visiting Centenary Professor at the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore.
Albright is an authority on the neural basis of visual perception, memory and visually guided behavior, probing the relationship between the activity of brain cells and perceptual state. His laboratory seeks to understand how visual perception is affected by attention, behavioral goals, and memories of previous experiences. His discoveries address the ways in which context influences visual perceptual experience and the mechanisms of visual associative memory and visual imagery. An important goal of this work is the development of therapies for blindness and perceptual impairments resulting from disease, trauma or developmental disorders of the brain. A second aim of Dr. Albright’s work is to use our growing knowledge of brain, perception and memory to inform design in architecture and the arts, and to leverage societal decisions and public policy.
Albright received a Ph.D. in psychology and neuroscience from Princeton University in 1983. He is a recipient of numerous honors for his work, including the National Academy of Sciences Award for Initiatives in Research. Albright is a member of the National Academy of Sciences, a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and an associate of the Neuroscience Research Program. He is currently president of the Academy of Neuroscience for Architecture, a member of the National Academy of Sciences Committee on Science, Technology, and Law, and serves on the Scientific Advisory Committee for the Indian National Brain Research Center.
Ann M. Arvin is Vice Provost and Dean of Research at Stanford University and the Lucile Salter Packard Professor of Pediatrics (Infectious Diseases) and Professor of Microbiology & Immunology. Her responsibilities as Vice Provost include serving as the cognizant academic dean for Stanford’s eighteen major university-wide interdisciplinary laboratories, centers and institutes and overseeing university research policies, compliance with research regulations pertaining to human and animal research and laboratory safety, the Office of Technology Licensing/Industry Contracts Office and shared facilities. Her research laboratory investigates the molecular mechanisms of human herpes virus infections, focusing on varicella-zoster virus, and T cell immune responses to viral vaccines and has had continuous NIH funding since 1985. Her work has been recognized by election to the American Academy of Arts & Sciences, the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and the Association of American Physicians. She has received the Distinguished Graduate Award from the University of Pennsylvania’s School of Medicine, the Walter Hewlett Award from Stanford University School of Medicine, the John F. Enders Award of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, and the E. Mead Johnson Award for Pediatric Research, among others. She was chief of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Division at the Packard Children’s Hospital from 1984-2006. Her recent and current national service includes the National Academy of Sciences Board on Life Sciences, the President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology working group on H1N1 influenza, the Institute Director’s Advisory Council of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and the NAS/NRC Committee on Responsible Science and the Committee on Science, Technology and Law.
Dr. Arvin is a graduate of Brown University, A.B. Philosophy, Brandeis University, M.A. Philosophy, and the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, and completed postdoctoral fellowship training at the University of California San Francisco and Stanford University.
David Baltimore (NAS/IOM), former president of the California Institute of Technology (1997-2006), is President Emeritus and the Robert Andrews Millikan Professor of Biology and is one of the world's most influential biologists. He has contributed widely to the understanding of cancer, AIDS and the molecular basis of the human body's immune response and has profoundly influenced national science policy on such issues as the AIDS epidemic and research in genetic engineering. In 1975 he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his research into viral replication that provided the key to understanding the life cycle of retroviruses. His present research focuses on control of inflammatory and immune responses as well as on the use of gene therapy methods to treat HIV and cancer in a program called “Engineering Immunity”. In addition, he co-directs the Joint Center for Translational Medicine, an activity that joins Caltech and UCLA in a program to translate basic science discoveries into clinical realities.
Dr. Baltimore has played an important role in the development of American biotechnology since his involvement in the 1970’s in the formation of Collaborative Genetics. He helped found other companies, most recently Calimmune and Immune Design and presently serves on the Board of Directors at several companies and non-profits including the Broad Foundation and the Broad institute, and Amgen and Regulus Therapeutics. He is a scientific advisor to the Ragon Institute and the biotech company Pacific Biosciences. He is a Science Partner to the venture capital firm The Column Group and until recently, was a Director of the Swiss investment company BB Biotech. He is past-Chair of the American Association of the Advancement of Science and was most recently named Riken Honorary Fellow. He is the 1999 recipient of the National Medal of Science and he has published more than 650 peer-reviewed articles.
Barbara E. Bierer, M.D., a hematologist-oncologist, is Professor of Medicine at Harvard Medical School and the Brigham and Women’s Hospital. From 2003-2014, she served as Senior Vice President, Research, at the BWH and was the institutional official for human subjects and animal research, for biosafety and for research integrity at the BWH. She initiated the Brigham Research Institute and the Brigham Innovation Hub (iHub), a focus for entrepreneurship and innovation. In addition, she was the Co-Chair of the Partners HealthCare Committee on Conflict of Interest. Dr. Bierer established and directed the Center for Faculty Development and Diversity at the BWH; for these efforts, she was the first recipient of the HMS Harold Amos Faculty Diversity Award in 2008. Dr. Bierer is the Program Director of the Regulatory Foundations, Law and Ethics Program of the Harvard Catalyst, the Harvard Clinical and Translational Science Award. Dr. Bierer co-founded and now leads, as faculty co-director, the Multi-Regional Clinical Trials (MRCT) Center at Harvard, a University-wide and collaborative effort to improve standards for the planning and conduct of clinical trials in the developing world.
In addition to her academic responsibilities, Dr. Bierer served on the Board of Directors of both the Association for Accreditation of Human Research Protection Programs (AAHRPP) and the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (FASEB). She served as the Chair of the Secretary’s Advisory Committee for Human Research Protections, Department of Health and Human Services from 2008-2012. She is currently a member of the National Academy of Sciences’ Committee on Science, Technology and the Law. She serves on the Board of Directors of Public Responsibility in Medicine and Research (PRIM&R), dedicated to promoting the ethical conduct of biomedical and behavioral research; Management Sciences for Health (MSH), an international organization working in partnership globally to strengthen health care, local capability, and access; and the Edward P Evans Foundation, a foundation supporting biomedical research. She has authored or co-authored over 180 publications and is on the editorial boards of a number of journals including Current Protocols of Immunology.
Dr. Bierer received a B.S. from Yale University and an M.D. from Harvard Medical School.
Claude Canizares (NAS) is Vice President and the Bruno Rossi Professor of Physics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He has responsibility for MIT’s major international partnerships. He is the Associate Director of the Chandra X-ray Observatory Center and a principal investigator on NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, having led the development of the Chandra High Resolution Transmission Grating Spectrometer. Canizares’s main research interests are high resolution x-ray spectroscopy and plasma diagnostics of supernova remnants and clusters of galaxies, X-ray studies of dark matter, X-ray properties of quasars and active galactic nuclei, and observational cosmology. He is author or co-author of more than 230 scientific papers.
Canizares earned his BA, MA and PhD in physics from Harvard University. He came to MIT as a postdoctoral fellow in the Physics Department in 1971 and joined the faculty in 1974. Canizares has received several awards, including decoration for Meritorious Civilian Service to the United States Air Force, two NASA Public Service Medals, and the Goddard Medal of the American Astronautical Society.
Arturo Casadevall (IOM), M.D., Ph.D. is Chair, W. Harry Feinstone Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Public Health and Visiting Professor of Medicine and Microbiology and Immunology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine. Formerly, he was Leo and Julia Forchheimer Professor of Microbiology and Immunology; Chair, Department of Microbiology and Immunology; and Professor, Department of Medicine at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine. He received his B.A. from Queens College, CUNY, and M.S., M.D. and Ph.D. degrees from New York University. The laboratory has a multidisciplinary research program spanning several areas of basic immunology and microbiology to address these general questions, which has resulted over 460 publications. His laboratory studies are focused on two microbes: the fungus Cryptococcus neoformans, a ubiquitous environmental microbe that is a frequent cause of disease in immunocompromised individuals and Bacillus anthracis, which a major agent of biological warfare. He is a fellow of the American Academy of Microbiology and was elected to the American Society for Clinical Investigation, to the American Association of Physicians and as a fellow of the AAAS. Dr. Casadevall has served on numerous advisory committees to the NIH including study sections, strategic planning for the NIAID and the blue ribbon panel on response to bioterrorism. He currently co-chairs the Board of Scientific Counselors for the NIAID and is former a member of the National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity (NSABB). He is the founding editor of the first ASM general journal, mBio and serves on the editorial boards of several journals, and has been the recipient of numerous awards, most recently the Solomon A. Berson Medical Alumni Achievement Award in Basic Science-NYU School of Medicine 2005, IDSA Kass Lecturer in 2008 and the ASM William Hinton Award for mentoring scientists from underrepresented groups.
Joe S. Cecil, Ph.D. (Psychology), Northwestern University; J.D., Northwestern University, is a Project Director in the Division of Research at the Federal Judicial Center. Currently he is directing the Center’s Program on Scientific and Technical Evidence. As part of this program he is responsible for judicial education and training in the area of scientific and technical evidence and served as principal editor of the first two editions of the center’s Reference Manual on Scientific Evidence which is the primary source book on evidence for federal judges. He has also published several articles on the use of court-appointed experts. He is currently directing a research project that examines the difficulties that arise with expert testimony in federal courts, with an emphasis on clinical medical testimony and forensic science evidence. Other areas of research interest include federal civil and appellate procedure, jury competence in complex civil litigation, and assessment of rule of law in emerging democracies. Dr. Cecil serves on the editorial boards of social science and legal journals. He previously served on the National Academies’ Panel on Confidentiality and Data Access and the Committee on Identifying the Needs of the Forensic Sciences Community. He was also a member the Committee on Science, Technology, and Law's subcommittee on Access to Research Data: Balancing Risks and Opportunities.
R. Alta Charo, J.D. is on the faculty of the Law School and the Department of Medical History and Bioethics at the Medical School at the University of Wisconsin at Madison. She also serves on the faculty of the UW Masters in Biotechnology Studies program and lectures in the MPH program of the Department of Population Health Sciences.
Professor Charo (B.A. biology, Harvard 1979; J.D. Columbia, 1982) is an elected member (2004) of the World Technology Network and (2005) the Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters. And in 2006 she was elected to membership in the Institute of Medicine.
Professor Charo has served on several expert advisory boards of organizations with an interest in stem cell research, including CuresNow, the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation, the International Society for Stem Cell Research and WiCell, as well as on the advisory board to the Wisconsin Stem Cell Research Program. From 2005-2009 she was a member of the ethics standards working group of the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine. Also in 2005, she helped to draft the National Academies' Guidelines for Embryonic Stem Cell Research, and in 2006 she was appointed to co-chair the National Academies' Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research Advisory Committee.
Professor Charo's advisory committee service for the federal government includes the 1994 NIH Human Embryo Research Panel, and (1996-2001) President Clinton's National Bioethics Advisory Commission where she participated in drafting its reports on "Cloning Human Beings"(1997); "Research Involving Persons with Mental Disorders that May Affect Decisionmaking Capacity"(1998); "Research Involving Human Biological Materials: Ethical Issues and Policy Guidance"(1999); "Ethical Issues in Human Stem Cell Research"(1999); "Ethical and Policy Issues in International Research: Clinical Trials in Developing Countries" (2001); and "Ethical and Policy Issues in Research Involving Human Participants" (2001).
At the National Academies, from 2001-2008 she was a member of the Board on Life Sciences. She served as its liaison to the Committee on Research Standards and Practices to Prevent Destructive Applications of Biotechnology as well as its committee to develop national voluntary guidelines for stem cell research. She also served as a member of the Institute of Medicine's Committee on Smallpox Vaccination Program Implementation and since 2006 she has served on its Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice. In 2005-2006, she was a member of the committee to review the FDA and the U.S. national system for the assurance of drug safety.
Harry T. Edwards was appointed to the U.S. Court of Appeals in February 1980, served as Chief Judge from September 15, 1994, until July 15, 2001, and took senior status on November 3, 2005. He graduated from Cornell University in 1962 and the University of Michigan Law School in 1965. Judge Edwards went into private practice with Seyfarth, Shaw, Fairweather & Geraldson in Chicago from 1965 to 1970. He then moved to the academy and was a tenured member of the faculties at the University of Michigan Law School, where he taught from 1970 to 1975 and 1977 to 1980, and at Harvard Law School, where he taught from 1975 to 1977. He also taught at the Harvard Institute for Educational Management between 1976 and 1982. He served as a member and then Chairman of the Board of Directors of AMTRAK from 1978 to 1980, and also served as a neutral labor arbitrator under a number of major collective bargaining agreements during the 1970s. In 2006, he was appointed the Co-Chair of the Committee on Identifying the Needs of the Forensic Science Community established by the National Academy of Sciences. Judge Edwards has co-authored five books and published scores of law review articles on federal courts, legal education, professionalism, judicial administration, labor law, equal opportunity, and higher education law. His most recent book, Edwards, Elliott, & Levy, Federal Standards of Review (2d ed., 2013), was published by Thomson Reuters. Since joining the court, he has taught law at Harvard, Michigan, Duke, Pennsylvania, Georgetown, and NYU School of Law. He is presently a Professor of Law at NYU School of Law, where he has taught since 1990.
Drew Endy runs the world's first "fabless" genetic engineering lab in the new Bioengineering program at Stanford University and previously helped start the Biological Engineering major at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. His Stanford research team develops genetically encoded computers and redesigns genomes. Dr. Endy co-founded the BioBricks Foundation as a public-benefit charity supporting free-to-use standards and technology that enable the engineering of biology. He co-organized the International Genetically Engineered Machines (iGEM) competition and the BIOFAB International Open Facility Advancing Biotechnology (BIOFAB). He is a new voting member of the U.S. National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity (NSABB). He chaired the 2003 Synthetic Biology Study as a member of DARPA ISAT, served as an ad hoc member of the U.S. NIH Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee, and co-authored the 2007 "Synthetic Genomics: Options for Governance" report with colleagues from the Center for Strategic & International Studies and the J. Craig Venter Institute. Esquire named Endy one of the 75 most influential people of the 21st century. He lives in Menlo Park, CA with his wife and Stanford Bioengineering colleague Professor Christina Smolke.
Marcus Feldman, Ph.D., is the Wohlford Professor of Biology at Stanford University and External Professor at the Santa Fe Institute. He directs the Morrison Institute for Population and Resource Studies and is Co-Director of Stanford’s Center for Computational, Evolutionary and Human Genomics. Feldman’s specific areas of research include the evolution of complex genetic systems that can undergo both natural selection and recombination, the evolution of modern humans using models for the dynamics of molecular polymorphisms, especially DNA variants, cultural evolution, and the evolution of learning as one interface between modern methods in artificial intelligence and models of biological processes, including communication. He is the author of more than 500 scientific papers and ten books on evolution, ecology, mathematical biology, and demography, adding significantly to the greater database over the years.
In 2003 his work received the “Paper of the Year” award for biomedical science from The Lancet. Feldman served as academic director of Bridging the Rift, a project to develop collaborations between Israeli and Jordanian scientists. In addition to his teaching, research, writing, and directing, he has been managing editor of Theoretical Population Biology and associate editor of Genetics, Human Genomics, Annals of Human Genetics, Annals of Human Biology, and Complexity. He is a former editor of The American Naturalist. Feldman is a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences and a member of the National Academy of Sciences and the American Philosophical Society. The Hebrew University of Jerusalem and Tel Aviv University have awarded him an honorary doctorate of philosophy, and Beijing Normal University and Xi’an Jiaotong University have each appointed him honorary professor.
Jeremy D. Fogel is a federal judge for the United States District Court for the Northern District of California. He became Director of The Federal Judicial Center (FJC) on October 3, 2011.
Born in San Francisco, Judge Fogel received a B.A. (with Great Distinction) in religious studies from Stanford University in 1971. He received a J.D. cum laude from Harvard Law School in 1974. He was in private practice in San Jose, California from 1974 to 1978 and was Founder and Directing Attorney of the Mental Health Advocacy Project, Santa Clara County Bar Association Law Foundation.
Fogel served as a judge on the Santa Clara County Municipal Court from 1981 to 1986. He was appointed as a judge at the Superior Court of Santa Clara County in 1986 and remained there until 1998. Fogel was Presiding Judge, Santa Clara County Municipal Court, from 1984-85; Supervising Judge, Family Law Division, Santa Clara Superior Court, from 1987-88 and in 1995; Supervising Judge, Probate/Mental Health Division, 1991; and Civil Team Leader and Law and Motion Judge, Santa Clara Superior Court from 1992-94 and from 1996-98. In 1998, he was appointed to the United States District Court for the Northern District of California
Judge Fogel was a member of the executive board of the California Judges Association from 1988-91; Vice-President, 1990-91; Chair, Judicial Ethics Committee, 1987-88; Chair, Judicial Discipline Advisory Panel (confidential counseling service for judges facing discipline), 1992-98. He was Chair, Planning Committee, California Continuing Judicial Studies Program from 1995-97. Fogel was a faculty member of the California Continuing Judicial Studies Program and California Judicial College (alternative dispute resolution, psychology, ethics, family law, sexual harassment awareness and prevention, domestic violence, and judicial excellence) from 1987-2009. He was mediation trainer and member, Advisory Committee on ADR Education, Federal Judicial Center, 2002-2009 and faculty, FJC Advanced Patent Program from 2005-present. He has been a member of international legal exchange delegations to various countries in the Middle East, Eastern Europe, Latin America, and East and South Asia (alternative dispute resolution, case management, intellectual property rights and judicial ethics) from 1999-present. Judge Fogel is a frequent lecturer on ethics, discipline and professional conduct for both Bench and Bar. He has been Lecturer, Stanford University Law School (psychology of litigation) from 2003-present (on leave while at FJC).
Judge Fogel is the recipient of the President’s Award for Outstanding Service to the California Judiciary, California Judges Association, 1997; the Judge of the Year Award, Santa Clara County Trial Lawyers Association, 1997, 2005 and 2011; and of the “LACY Honors” Award, Legal Advocates for Children and Youth, Santa Clara County Bar Association Law Foundation, 1997. He is the recipient of the Special Award for Exemplifying Highest Standards of Professionalism in the Judiciary, Santa Clara County Bar Association, 2002. He was named Justice of the Year, San Francisco Trial Lawyers Association and one of California’s 100 most influential lawyers by Daily Journal Corporation in 2007.
Henry T. Greely is Deane F. and Kate Edelman Johnson Professor of Law and Professor, by courtesy, of Genetics at Stanford University.
Professor Greely specializes in ethical, legal, and social issues arising from advances in the biosciences, particularly from genetics, neuroscience, and human stem cell research. He directs the Stanford Center for Law and the Biosciences, chairs the California Advisory Committee on Human Stem Cell Research, and serves on the Neuroscience Forum of the Institute of Medicine. From 2007 to 2010 he was a co-director of the Law and Neuroscience Project. In 2006, he was elected a fellow of the American Association for Advancement of Science.
Professor Greely graduated from Stanford in 1974 and from Yale Law School in 1977. He served as a law clerk for Judge John Minor Wisdom on the United States Court of Appeals and for Justice Potter Stewart of the United States Supreme Court. After working during the Carter Administration in the Departments of Defense and Energy, he entered private practice in Los Angeles in 1981 as a litigator with the law firm of Tuttle & Taylor, Inc. He began teaching at Stanford in 1985.
Michael Greenberger, J.D. is Professor of Law at the University of Maryland, where he teaches a course entitled "Futures, Options and Derivatives." Professor Greenberger serves as the Technical Advisor to the United Nations Commission of Experts of the President of the UN General Assembly on Reforms of the International Monetary and Financial System. He has recently been named to the International Energy Forum’s Independent Expert Group that provided recommendations for reducing energy price volatility to the IEF’s 12th Ministerial Meeting in March 2010.
Professor Greenberger was a partner for more than 20 years in the Washington, D.C. law firm of Shea & Gardner, where he served as lead litigation counsel before courts of law nationwide, including the United States Supreme Court. In 1997, Professor Greenberger left private practice to become the Director of the Division of Trading and Markets at the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC) where he served under CFTC Chairperson Brooksley Born. In that capacity, he was responsible for supervising exchange traded futures and derivatives. After service at the CFTC, Professor Greenberger served as Counselor to the United States Attorney General in 1999, and then became the Justice Department's Principal Deputy Associate Attorney General.
In May 2002, Professor Greenberger became the founding director of the University of Maryland Center for Health and Homeland Security (CHHS), which now has a staff more than 70 professionals working on a broad range of homeland security and emergency response issues for federal, state and local government agencies, as well as medical researchers. Professor Greenberger also teaches a seminar entitled "Homeland Security and the Law of Counterterrorism" at the School of Law, and in 2014 developed the first of its kind class on “National Security, Electronic Surveillance and Bulk Data Collection: The Withering of the Fourth Amendment.”
Professor Greenberger is a Phi Beta Kappa graduate of Lafayette College and the University of Pennsylvania Law School, where he served as Editor-in-Chief of the Law Review. He is a life member of the American Law Institute and he has served on the Board of Governors of the D.C. Bar and as a board member of three nonprofit public interest organizations. Professor Greenberger has also served on the D.C. Circuit Advisory Committee on Procedures and as a mediator for the United States Courts for the District of Columbia.
Benjamin W. Heineman, Jr. was GE’s Senior Vice President-General Counsel from 1987-2003, and then Senior Vice President for Law and Public Affairs from 2004 until his retirement at the end of 2005. He is currently Senior Fellow at Harvard Law School’s Program on the Legal Profession and its Program on Corporate Governance, Senior Fellow at the Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs at Harvard’s Kennedy School of Government and Lecturer in Law at Yale Law School. A Rhodes Scholar, editor-in-chief of the Yale Law Journal and law clerk to Supreme Court Justice Potter Stewart, Mr. Heineman was assistant secretary for policy at the Department of Health, Education and Welfare and practiced public interest law and constitutional law prior to his service at GE. His book, High Performance with High Integrity, was published in June, 2008 by the Harvard Business Press. He writes and lectures frequently on business, law, public policy and international affairs. He is also the author of books on British race relations and the American presidency.
He is a member of the American Philosophical Society, a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, a member of the National Academy of Science’s Committee on Science, Technology and Law. He is recipient of the American Lawyer’s Lifetime Achievement Award and the Lifetime Achievement Award of Board Member Magazine. He was named one of the top 50 Innovators in Law in the Past 50 Years by the American Lawyer, one of America’s 100 most influential lawyers by the National Law Journal, one of the 100 most influential individuals on business ethics by Ethisphere Magazine and one of the 100 most influential people in corporate governance by the National Association of Corporate Directors. He serves on the boards of Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (chair of patient care committee), the Center for Strategic and International Studies (chair of program committee), Transparency International-USA (chair of program committee) and the Committee for Economic Development. He is a member of the board of trustees of Central European University. He has served on an international panel advising the President of the World Bank on governance and anti-corruption, and given the Oliver Smithies Lectures at Oxford University. He is a graduate of Harvard College (BA – high honors in history), Oxford University (B.Litt – political sociology) and Yale Law School (J.D.).
Michael Imperiale is Arthur F. Thurnau Professor of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Michigan.
Dr. Imperiale joined the Department of Microbiology and Immunology in 1984 as the Arthur F. Thurnau Assistant Professor of Microbiology and Immunology and was subsequently promoted to Associate Professor in 1990 and Professor in 1996. He is currently the Arthur F. Thurnau Professor and Associate Chair of Microbiology and Immunology. In 2010 Dr. Imperiale was elected as a Fellow of the American Academy of Microbiology and in 2011 he was elected as a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Before joining the University of Michigan, Dr. Imperiale carried out research training as a postdoctoral fellow at The Rockefeller University, where he first became interested in DNA tumor viruses, studying gene regulation in the human pathogen, adenovirus. He received his undergraduate and graduate training at Columbia University, receiving a B.A. in 1976, M.A. in 1978, and Ph.D. in 1981, all in biological sciences. Currently, Dr. Imperiale’s research interests focus on the study of how DNA tumor viruses interact with the host cell.
Dr. Imperiale is a member of the National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity, a position he has held since 2005. He also serves as an editor of the Journal of Virology, PLos Pathogens, and mBio.
Greg Kisor is Chief Technologist, Intellectual Ventures. Mr. Kisor focuses on a variety of projects relating to intellectual property and invention. In the past at IV, Mr Kisor has also held the roles of vice president of technology, vice president of licensing, vice president of investor relations and chief portfolio architect.
Before joining IV, Mr Kisor spent 10 years at Intel Corporation, where he held numerous jobs, including principal engineer and head patent technologist and strategist. As head patent technologist and strategist, he was responsible for IP strategy, portfolio development and patent assertions, and was a key participant in licence negotiations.
Before his role as patent technologist at Intel, Mr Kisor was the lead architect for many of Intel’s products, including video and data conferencing, Java implementations and digital video strategy. He was chairman of the US JPEG Committee and has held many high positions in international standards, including head of delegation to the International Standards Organisation/International Electrotechnical Commission JTC1 SC29 Image Compression Committees and delegate to many groups, including the European Telecommunications Standards Institute, Ecma International, the Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers, the Internet Engineering Task Force and the International Telecommunication Union. Mr Kisor has also held engineering and lead architect positions at National Semiconductor and IBM. He currently holds 16 patents with many more pending, and received his BSEE from Brigham Young University.
Robert S. Langer is an Institute Professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (there are 11 Institute Professors at MIT; being an Institute Professor is the highest honor that can be awarded to a faculty member). His h-index of 210 is the highest of any engineer in history and he has 1,080 issued and pending patents worldwide. His patents have licensed or sublicensed to over 300 companies. He served as Chairman of the FDA’s Science Board (its highest advisory board) from 1999-2002. Langer is also one of very few individuals ever elected to the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Inventors. He is one of only four living people to ever receive both the United States National Medal of Science and the United States National Medal of Technology and Innovation. In 2015, Dr. Langer received the Queen Elizabeth Prize for Engineering. He has also received the Charles Stark Draper Prize (considered the engineering Nobel Prize), Albany Medical Center Prize, the Wolf Prize for Chemistry, the Millennium Technology Prize, the Priestley Medal (highest award of the American Chemical Society), the Gairdner Prize, the Kyoto Prize, the Lemelson-MIT prize (for being “one of history’s most prolific inventors in medicine”), and the Breakthrough Prize in Life Sciences. He holds 24 honorary doctorates including honorary degrees from Harvard and Yale.
Goodwin Liu is Associate Justice, California Supreme Court. Mr. Liu was appointed by Governor Jerry Brown on July 26, 2011, and rated “exceptionally well-qualified” by the California Commission on Judicial Nominees Evaluation. Before his judicial appointment, Liu was a law professor at UC Berkeley School of Law (Boalt Hall). An acclaimed scholar and teacher, Liu is a nationally recognized expert on constitutional law, education law and policy, civil rights, and the Supreme Court.
The son of Taiwanese immigrants, Professor Liu grew up in Sacramento, where he attended public schools. He went to Stanford University and earned a bachelor’s degree in biology in 1991. He attended Oxford University on a Rhodes Scholarship and earned a masters degree in philosophy and physiology. Upon returning to the United States, he went to Washington, D.C. to help launch the AmeriCorps national service program and worked for two years as a senior program officer at the Corporation for National Service.
Professor Liu graduated from Yale Law School in 1998, becoming the first in his family to earn a law degree. He clerked for Judge David Tatel on the U.S. Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit and then worked as Special Assistant to the Deputy Secretary of the U.S. Department of Education, where he developed and coordinated K-12 education policy. He went on to clerk at the U.S. Supreme Court for Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg during the October 2000 Term. In 2001, he joined the appellate litigation practice of O’Melveny & Myers in Washington, D.C., and worked on an array of antitrust, white collar, insurance, product liability, and pro bono matters.
Jennifer Mnookin, J.D., Ph.D. is David G. Price and Dallas P. Price Professor of Law at the University of California, Los Angeles. She joined the UCLA faculty in 2005; her previous academic appointments include Professor of Law and Barron F. Black Research Professor at the University of Virginia School of Law, and Visiting Professor of Law at the Harvard Law School. She teaches Evidence; Torts; Scientific and Expert Evidence; as well as seminars in topics relating to expert evidence and law and popular culture. From 2007-2009, she served as Vice Dean for Faculty and Research.
Mnookin researches and writes primarily in the area of evidence, particularly expert and scientific evidence, and the use of forensic science in court. She has written on a variety of evidence-related subjects, including, among others, Daubert and the appropriate standards for expert evidence; forms of forensic science including latent fingerprint examination and handwriting identification; DNA profiling; expert evidence and the Confrontation Clause; documentary films and legal evidence; and the history of expert evidence. Mnookin’s most recent publications include “The Need for a Research Culture in the Forensic Sciences” (with co-authors), 58 UCLA Law Review 725 (2011); The Ira M. Belfer Lecture: “The Courts, The National Academy of Sciences, and the Future of Forensic Science,” 75 Brooklyn Law Review 1209 (2010), and “The Use of Technology in Human Expert Domains: Challenges and Risks Arising From the Use of Automated Fingerprint Identification Systems in Forensic Science” (with Itiel Dror), Law, Probability & Risk (2010).
Professor Mnookin received her AB from Harvard University, her JD from the Yale Law School, and a PhD in the History and Social Study of Science and Technology from MIT.
R. Gregory Morgan is Vice President and General Counsel, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Mr. Morgan joined MIT as the Institute's first General Counsel in January, 2007. He serves as a senior advisor to the President and is the Institute's chief legal officer, responsible for shaping MIT's approach to legal and regulatory affairs.
Before coming to MIT, Mr. Morgan practiced law in Los Angeles, California for 25 years. He was the co-managing partner of the law firm Munger, Tolles & Olson LLP. Before joining the Munger Tolles firm in 1981, he clerked for Judge J. Edward Lumbard on the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit and for Justice Lewis F. Powell Jr. on the U.S. Supreme Court. As a corporate transactional partner practicing in the area of securities law and mergers and acquisitions, he represented businesses in acquisitions, dispositions and complex financings in the United States and abroad. He also served as a counselor to senior management and boards of directors on issues of corporate strategy, conflicts of interest and related-party transactions, and internal investigations.
Mr. Morgan graduated from the University of California at Los Angeles and the University of Michigan Law School, where he was article and book review editor for the Michigan Law Review. He has taught law at the UCLA and USC law schools and has been a lecturer at the UCLA business school.
Alan B. Morrison, LL.B., Harvard Law School, spent most of his professional career at the Public Citizen Litigation Group in Washington, D.C., which he founded with Ralph Nader in 1972. He is currently the Associate Dean for Public Interest and Public Service at the George Washington University School of Law. Mr. Morrison was Special Counsel to the Attorney General for the District of Columbia from September 2007 to January 2008. Before becoming Special Counsel to the Attorney General, he spent three years as a Senior Lecturer at Stanford Law School where he has taught courses in the fields of litigation, administrative law and legal ethics. He has also taught at the law schools at Harvard, NYU and the University of Hawaii and is a member of the American Law Institute. Prior to his work at Public Citizen he was an associate in a law firm and an Assistant U.S. Attorney in New York City. Mr. Morrison was a commissioned officer in the U.S. Navy after he graduated from Yale College. In 1999-2000 he was President of the American Academy of Appellate Lawyers. Mr. Morrison has served two previous terms on the National Academies Science, Technology, and Law Panel, and was a member of its Subcommittee on Ensuring the Quality of Information Disseminated by the Federal Government. (NAS/NAE) is Dean of Harvard University’s School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS); John A. and Elizabeth S. Armstrong Professor of Engineering and Applied Sciences; and Professor of Physics.
Harriet Rabb, JD, is Vice President and General Counsel to the Rockefeller University. Ms. Rabb was also at Columbia Law School as a clinical professor, head of the clinical program and a member of the faculty during the course of her affiliation of more than two decades there. In 1991, she was named the first George M. Jaffin Professor of Law and Social Responsibility and, in 1992, added the title of vice dean of the law faculty. In 1998, she was the recipient of the Law School’s Lawrence A. Wien Prize for Social Responsibility.
In 1993, Ms. Rabb was confirmed by the United States Senate to serve as general counsel for the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services under Secretary Donna Shalala. As chief legal officer of the Department, Ms. Rabb was responsible for legal matters involving, among other agencies, the National Institutes of Health, the Centers for Disease Control, the Food and Drug Administration, the Health Care Financing Administration (now the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services) and the Administration for Children and Families. Ms. Rabb led the Department’s legal efforts on health policy issues, including human stem cell research, pandemic influenza, tobacco, assisted reproductive technology, tissue and organ allocation, fetal tissue and human embryo research, informed consent and various aspects of vaccines. In 2001, Ms. Rabb was named to her current position as vice president and general counsel to The Rockefeller University.
John S. Reed began his career at Citicorp in 1965 after earning his master’s degree in management from the MIT Sloan School of Management. He remained at the bank for 35 years, being named the Chairman and CEO in 1984. During his 35-year tenure at Citi he became known as an innovator; he is credited with raising the bank’s profile in Asia and Latin America, pushing for the worldwide use of automated teller machines (ATMs), and promoting the marketing of credit cards in the United States.
He was also at the helm of Citicorp in 1998 when Sandy Weill, head of the insurance and investment firm Travelers Group, approached him about a possible merger between the two companies. The two came to an agreement to create the largest conglomerate ever, Citigroup. The deal was in violation of the Depression-era Glass-Steagall Act, but due in part to Weill’s connections in Washington, legislation was passed the following year making the merger legal. Reed served as co-chair of Citigroup from its creation in 1998 until his retirement in 2000. He later served as the interim CEO at the New York Stock Exchange, where he established new governance protocols as the NYSE became a public entity. Since 2010, he has served as the Chairman of the MIT Corporation, the governing body of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The same year, he testified before the Senate Banking Committee and came out in support of the Volcker Rule, a regulation that would restrict U.S. banks from taking part in speculative investments that do not benefit consumers. The Volcker Rule has been compared to the Glass-Steagall Act, the same law that Reed worked to repeal in order to make the Citigroup merger legal. Today, Reed continues to be a vocal supporter of strong financial reform.
David A. Relman (IOM), MD, is the Thomas C. and Joan M. Merigan Professor in the Departments of Medicine, and of Microbiology and Immunology at Stanford University, and Chief of Infectious Diseases at the Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Health Care System in Palo Alto, California. He is also Co-Director of the Center for International Security and Cooperation and Senior Fellow at the Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies at Stanford University.
Dr. Relman’s primary research focus is the human indigenous microbiota (microbiome), and in particular, the nature and mechanisms of variation in patterns of microbial diversity and function within the human body, and the basis of microbial community resilience. His work was some of the first to employ modern molecular methods in the study of the microbiome, and provided the first in-depth sequence-based analyses of microbial community structure in humans. During the past few decades, his research has also included pathogen discovery and the development of new strategies for identifying previously-unrecognized microbial agents of disease. He has served as an advisor to a number of agencies and departments within the U.S. Government on matters pertaining to host-microbe interactions, emerging infectious diseases, and biosecurity. He co-chaired a widely-cited 2006 study by the National Academies of Sciences (NAS) on “Globalization, Biosecurity, and the Future of the Life Sciences”, and served as vice-chair of a 2011 National Academies study of the science underlying the FBI investigation of the 2001 anthrax mailings. He currently serves as a member of the National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity, a member of the Science, Technology & Engineering Advisory Panel for Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (2012-), as Chair of the Forum on Microbial Threats at the Institute of Medicine (NAS) (2007-), and as immediate past-President of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.
Dr. Relman received an S.B. (Biology) from MIT (1977), M.D. (magna cum laude) from Harvard Medical School (1982), completed his clinical training in internal medicine and infectious diseases at Massachusetts General Hospital, served as a postdoctoral fellow in microbiology at Stanford University, and joined the faculty at Stanford in 1994. He received an NIH Director’s Pioneer Award in 2006, was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Microbiology in 2003 and the American Association for Advancement of Science in 2010, and was elected a Member of the Institute of Medicine in 2011.
Martine A. Rothblatt is Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, United Therapeutics. Dr. Rothblatt founded United Therapeutics in 1996 and has served as chairman and chief executive officer since the inception of the company. Prior to creating United Therapeutics, Dr. Rothblatt founded and served as chairman and chief executive officer of Sirius Satellite Radio and was principally responsible for several other unique applications of satellite communications technology. She also represented the radio astronomy interests of the National Academy of Sciences' Committee on Radio Frequencies before the Federal Communications Commission. On behalf of the International Bar Association, she led efforts to present the United Nations with a draft Human Genome Treaty. She moved to biotechnology from satellite technology and started United Therapeutics to find a cure or better treatment for the pulmonary hypertension that affects one of her daughters. Dr. Rothblatt received a combined law and Master of Business Administration degree from the University of California, Los Angeles. She earned her Ph.D. in medical ethics from the Royal London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary College, University of London. Her book, "Your Life or Mine: How Geoethics Can Resolve the Conflict Between Public and Private Interests in Xenotransplantation," was published by Ashgate in 2004. Dr. Rothblatt is a member of the International Institute of Space Law, the International Academy of Astronautics and the International Bar Association. She was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2008.
Joshua R. Sanes (NAS) is Professor of Molecular and Cellular Biology and Paul J. Finnegan Family Director, Center for Brain Science at Harvard University. Sanes received a BA from Yale, where he was Scholar of the House. He earned a PhD in Neurobiology from Harvard in 1976. Following postdoctoral work at University of California, San Francisco, he joined the faculty of Washington University, where he served on the faculty for over 20 years and held an Endowed Chair of Neurobiology. He returned to Harvard in 2004 as Professor of Molecular and Cellular Biology and founding Director of the Center for Brain Science.
Dr Sanes is a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, recipient of the Alden Spencer Award of Columbia University, and a member of the US National Academy of Sciences. He has served on the National Advisory Council of the National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke (NIH), the Council of the Society for Neuroscience, and advisory panels for the Muscular Dystrophy Association, the Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) Association, the Klingenstein Neuroscience Fund, the Searle Scholars Fund, the Stowers Institute and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute.
David S. Tatel, J.D., is a Judge on the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit. Before this appointment by President Clinton in 1994, Tatel was for fifteen years partner and head of the education group at Hogan & Hartson in Washington, D.C. From 1977 to 1979 he was director of the Office for Civil Rights in the U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare under President Carter. Judge Tatel was a member of the Board of Directors for the Spencer Foundation, which he chaired from 1990 to 1997, and he is currently a member of the Board of Directors for the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, which he chaired from 2006 to 2009.
Judge Tatel received his BA degree from the University of Michigan (1963), and JD from the University of Chicago Law School (1966).
David Vladeck is Professor and Co-Director, Institute for Public Representation, Georgetown Law School.
Professor Vladeck holds a B.A. degree from New York University, J.D. from Columbia University, and LL.M. from Georgetown.
Professor Vladeck teaches federal courts, civil procedure, administrative law, and seminars in First Amendment litigation, and co-directs the Institute for Public Representation, a clinical law program. Professor Vladeck recently returned to the Law Center after serving for nearly four years as the Director of the Federal Trade Commission's Bureau of Consumer Protection. At the FTC, he supervised the Bureau's more than 430 lawyers, investigators, paralegals and support staff in carrying out the Bureau's work to protect consumers from unfair, deceptive or fraudulent practices. Before joining the Law Center faculty full-time in 2002, Professor Vladeck spent over 25 years with Public Citizen Litigation Group, a nationally-prominent public interest law firm, handling and supervising complex litigation. He has briefed and argued a number of cases before the U.S. Supreme Court and more than sixty cases before federal courts of appeal and state courts of law resort. He is a Senior Fellow of the Administrative Conference of the United States, an elected member of the American Law Institute, and a scholar with the Center for Progressive Reform. Professor Vladeck frequently testifies before Congress and writes on administrative law, preemption, First Amendment, and access to justice issues.
Anne-Marie Mazza, Director. B.A., Economics; M.A., History and Public Policy; Ph.D., Public Policy, The George Washington University. Dr. Mazza joined the National Academies in 1995. She has served as Senior Program Officer with both the Committee on Science, Engineering and Public Policy and the Government-University-Industry Research Roundtable. In 1999 she was named the first director of the Science, Technology, and Law Program. Between October 1999 and October 2000, she divided her time between the STL Program and the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy, where she served as a Senior Policy Analyst.
CSTL STAFF BIOGRAPHIES
Steven Kendall, Program Officer. B.A., Art History, Kent State University; M.A. Victorian Art & Architecture, University of London, Ph.D., Art History, University of California, Santa Barbara. Dr. Kendall has contributed to numerous Academy reports including Positioning Synthetic Biology to Meet the Challenges of the 21st Century (2013); Perspectives on Research with H5N1 Avian Influenza: Scientific Inquiry, Communication, Controversy (2012); Review of the Scientific Approaches Used During the FBI’s Investigation of the 2001 Anthrax Mailings (2011), Managing University Intellectual Property in the Public Interest (2010); and Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forward (2009). Prior to joining The National Academies in 2007, he worked at the Smithsonian American Art Museum and The Huntington in San Marino, California.
Karolina Konarzewska is Program Coordinator for the Committee on Science, Technology, and Law. Ms. Konzarzewska received a B.A. in Political Science from the College of Staten Island, City University of New York and an M.A. in International Relations, New York University. Prior to joining The National Academies, she worked at various research institutions in Washington, DC where she covered political and economic issues pertaining to Europe, Russia, and Eurasia.