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Workshop on the Growth of Computer Science Undergraduate Enrollments
Computer Science and Telecommunications Board
Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

 Board on Higher Education and the Workforce
Division on Policy and Global Affairs


On August 15th, 2016, the Academies’ Committee on the Growth of Computer Science Undergraduate Enrollments convened an information-gathering workshop. This public workshop was designed as a mechanism for the committee to gather data, input, and perspectives to inform their broader study. The workshop agenda (with download links for panelist slides) and panelist biographies follow below.



9:00                 Welcome, Overview of Study, and Goals for Workshop

                        Jared Cohon, Carnegie Mellon University, Committee Co-Chair


9:05                 Centrality and Dimensions of Computing

                        Moderator: Susanne Hambrusch, Purdue University, Committee Co-Chair
Avi Rubin, Johns Hopkins University

Alfred Spector, Two Sigma Investments

          Changing Nature of CS and its Impact on Undergraduate Education

Victoria Stodden, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

          Dimensions of Computing: A Data Science Perspective

Jeannette M. Wing, Microsoft Research

          Computational Thinking for All


10:30                Break


10:45               Workforce Trends and Industry Needs

                        Moderator: Michael McPherson, Spencer Foundation

Richard Freeman, Harvard University

          CS Degrees: Normal Science Job Market Cycles or the New “Reading and Writing Skill”?
 Susan Goldberger, Burning Glass Technologies

          Real Time Labor Market Analysis of Growing Demand for Coding Skills

                        Sarah Sampson, General Electric

                        Michael Wolf, Bureau of Labor Statistics

                                  CS Workforce Trends and Data


12:15 PM           Lunch


1:30                 The Impact of Enrollment Management Strategies on Diversity in Computing

                        Moderator: Valerie Taylor, Texas A&M University
                        Sarita Brown, Excelencia in Education

                                  Latinos & STEM: What We Know & What We Can Do
                        Joanna Goode, University of Oregon

                                  Diversity & Growing Enrollments in CS Education
                        Shirley Malcom, American Association for the Advancement of Science
                        Linda Sax, University of California, Los Angeles

                                  Who’s Filling Up Those Seats in Computing Classes?

3:00                 Break


3:30                 The Role and Future of Computing in Universities

                        Moderator: David Culler, University of California, Berkeley

Thomas Finholt, University of Michigan

                        Greg Morrisett, Cornell University

                                  Cornell’s Computing & Information Science

                        Katherine S. Newman, University of Massachusetts, Amherst

                        Rob Rutenbar, University of Illinois, Urbana Champaign

                                  Building Capacity: Big + Wide + Deep


5:00            Adjourn


Panelist Biographies


Sarita E. Brown is President of Excelencia in Education, a not-for-profit organization accelerating Latino success in higher education by linking research, policy, and practice to serve Latino students. She has spent more than two decades at prominent national educational institutions and at the highest levels of government working to implement effective strategies to raise academic achievement and opportunity for low-income and minority students. She started her career at the University of Texas at Austin by building a national model promoting minority success in graduate education. Coming to the nation’s capital in 1993 to work for educational associations, Ms. Brown was appointed as Executive Director of the White House Initiative for Educational Excellence for Hispanic Americans under President Bill Clinton and U.S. Secretary of Education Richard Riley. Maintaining her commitment to improving the quality of education, Ms. Brown applied her talents and experience to the not-for-profit sector and in 2004, co-founded Excelencia in Education. Ms. Brown currently serves on the Board of Directors of ACT, Catch the Next, Editorial Projects in Education and Excelencia in Education.


Thomas Finholt is a professor and associate dean in the School of Information at the University of Michigan. Finholt joined the university in 1991 as an assistant professor in the Department of Psychology. From 1997-2009, his appointments from assistant research scientist to research professor resided in the School of Information. In 2009, he was appointed as a professor in the School of Information. Finholt was a co-founder and then director of the Collaboratory for Research on Electronic Work (CREW). Starting in the mid-1990s and continuing for twenty years, CREW pioneered the study of human-computer interaction in organizational settings, including research on many applications that are now commonplace, such as videoconferencing and shared document editing. His previous roles in the School of Information include associate dean for research and innovation (2006-2010), senior associate dean for faculty (2010-2012), senior associate dean for academic affairs (2012-2015), acting dean (2013) and interim dean (2015-2016). Finholt received a Bachelor of Arts degree from Swarthmore College and a doctorate in social and decision sciences from Carnegie Mellon University. Prior to completing his Ph.D., he held a National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship. His research focuses on the design, deployment and use of cyberinfrastructure in science and engineering. He was a co-developer of the world's first operational virtual observatory, the Upper Atmospheric Research Collaboratory, which was a finalist in the science category for the 1998 Smithsonian/Computerworld awards. He also helped develop several other key systems for scientific discovery over the internet, including the Space Physics and Aeronomy Research Collaboratory and the George E. Brown Jr. Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation. More recently, Finholt has examined the energy signature of maintaining social networks, how ultra-resolution collaboration technology has accelerated research on “next generation civil infrastructure,” and how federal data policies create friction that impedes data sharing. Since 1992, Finholt has been the principal investigator on grants totaling more than $8 million, and a co-principal investigator on grants totaling more than $9 million, predominantly from NSF. Finholt has co-authored some 50 refereed articles, chapters and conference proceedings.


Richard Freeman holds the Herbert Ascherman Chair in Economics at Harvard University. He is currently serving as Faculty co-Director of the Labor and Worklife Program at the Harvard Law School, and is Senior Research Fellow in Labour Markets at the London School of Economics' Centre for Economic Performance. He directs the National Bureau of Economic Research / Sloan Science Engineering Workforce Projects, and is Co-Director of the Harvard Center for Green Buildings and Cities. Freeman is a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Science and the AAAS. He is currently serving on the AAAS Initiative for Science and Technology. He has served or is serving on 12 Panels and Boards of the U.S. National Academy of Science, including The NAS Panel to Evaluate the National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics Approach to Measuring the Science and Engineering Workforce, The Board of Higher Education and Workforce (BHEW), The Committee on Understanding the Engineering Education-Workforce Continuum (NAE), The Committee on Assuring a Future U.S.-based Nuclear Chemistry Expertise, The Committee on National Statistics Panel on Developing Science, Technology and Innovation Indicators for the Future, The Committee on Capitalizing on the Diversity of the Science and Engineering Workforce in Industry, The Committee on National Needs for Biomedical and Behavioral Scientists, The Committee on Demographic and Economic Impacts of Immigration, and the joint NAS, NAE and IM study on Policy Implications of International Graduate Students and Postdoctoral Scholars in the U.S. United States.

Freeman received the Mincer Lifetime Achievement Prize from the Society of Labor Economics in 2006. In 2007 he was awarded the IZA Prize in Labor Economics. In 2011 he was appointed Frances Perkins Fellow of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. In 2016 he received the Global Equity Organization (GEO) Judges Award, honoring exceptional contribution towards the promotion of of global employee share ownership. Also in 2016, he was named a Distinguished Fellow of the American Economic Association; the award citation describes Richard as "an enormously innovative labor economist who has made pioneering contributions to virtually every aspect of the field."

Professor Freeman's research interests include the job market for scientists and engineers; the transformation of scientific ideas into innovations; Chinese labor markets; the effects of immigration and trade on inequality; and forms of labor market representation and shared capitalism. His recent publications include: Can Labor Standards Improve Under Globalization (2004), Emerging Labor Market Institutions for the 21st Century (2005), America Works: The Exceptional Labor Market (2007), What Workers Want(2007 2nd edition), What Workers Say: Employee Voice in the Anglo American World (2007), International Differences in the Business Practices & Productivity of Firms (2009),Science and Engineering Careers in the United States(2009), Reforming the Welfare State: Recovery and Beyond in Sweden (2010), and Shared Capitalism at Work: Employee Ownership, Profit and Gain Sharing, and Broad-based Stock Options (2010), and The Citizen’s Share: Putting Ownership Back Into Democracy (Yale Univ Press 2013).


Susan Goldberger is an experienced social entrepreneur and business development executive with a passion for technology enabled solutions that boost student academic and career success. At Jobs for Future, a national non-profit organization focused on implementing new educational models and career advancement solutions, she worked with leading states, school districts, and higher education systems to expand college access, and improve career options for low-income students. At Burning Glass Technologies, Goldberger develops and brings to market new products that help education and training institutions align their programs with employer demand, and deliver state-of-the-art career guidance and job placement solutions. Dr. Goldberger also provides strategic advice to product development, data science, and sales teams. Her focus is on design and marketing of a suite of products that deliver state-of-the-art career guidance to students and labor market intelligence, to education institutions seeking to better align their offerings. Dr. Goldberger holds a BA in Philosophy from Brown University, and a PhD in Social Policy from Brandeis University.


Joanna Goode is an Associate Professor of Education Studies at the University of Oregon. Dr. Goode holds a BS in Applied Mathematics with a specialization in Computing, a Masters of Education, and a PhD in Urban Schooling, all from UCLA. She began her career in an urban high school teaching high school mathematics and computer science. As a co-PI for multiple NSF grants, Joanna's research examines how large-scale reforms in computer science education can provide new opportunities and introduce new challenges for broadening participation in computing classrooms. Dr. Goode is a co-author of the book "Stuck in the Shallow End: Education, Race, and Computing", and the designer of the national Exploring Computer Science curriculum and professional development program. She is a member of the ACM's Education Policy Committee.


Shirley Malcom is head of Education and Human Resources Programs at the American Association for the Advancement of Science. She works to improve the quality and increase access to education and careers in STEM fields as well as to enhance public science literacy. Dr. Malcom is a trustee of Caltech, a regent of Morgan State University, and a member of the SUNY Research Council. She is a former member of the National Science Board, the policymaking body of the National Science Foundation, and served on President Clinton’s Committee of Advisors on Science and Technology. Malcom, a native of Birmingham, Alabama, received her PhD in ecology from The Pennsylvania State University, masters in zoology from UCLA and bachelor’s with distinction in zoology from the University of Washington. She holds 16 honorary degrees. Malcom serves on the boards of the Heinz Endowments, Public Agenda, the National Math-Science Initiative and Digital Promise. Internationally, she is a leader in efforts to improve access of girls and women to education and careers in science and engineering and to increase use of S&T to empower women and address problems they face in their daily lives, serving as co-chair of the Gender Advisory Board of the UN Commission on S&T for Development and Gender InSITE, a global campaign to deploy S&T to help improve the lives and status of girls and women. In 2003, Dr. Malcom received the Public Welfare Medal of the National Academy of Sciences, the highest award given by the Academy.


Greg Morrisett is the Dean of Computing and Information Sciences (CIS) at Cornell University, which houses the departments of Computer Science, Information Science, and Statistical Sciences. Previously, he held the Allen B. Cutting Chair in Computer Science at Harvard University from 2004-2015. At Harvard, he also served as the Associate Dean for Computer Science and Electrical Engineering, and as the Director of the Center for Research on Computation and Society. Before Harvard, Morrisett spent eight years on the faculty of Cornell's Computer Science Department. He received his bachelor's degree from the University of Richmond and both his Master's and Doctorate degrees from Carnegie Mellon University.

Professor Morrisett's research focuses on the application of programming language technology for building secure, reliable, and high-performance software systems. A common theme is the focus on systems-level languages and tools that can help detect or prevent common vulnerabilities in software. Past examples include typed assembly language, proof-carrying code, software fault isolation, and control-flow isolation. Recently, his research focuses on building provably correct and secure software, including a focus on cryptographic schemes, machine learning, and compilers.Morrisett is a Fellow of the ACM and has received a number of awards for his research on programming languages, type systems, and software security, including a Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers, an IBM Faculty Fellowship, an NSF Career Award, and an Alfred P. Sloan Fellowship.

He served as Chief Editor for the Journal of Functional Programming and as an associate editor for ACM Transactions on Programming Languages and Systems, Information Processing Letters, and The Journal of the ACM. He currently serves as co-editor-in-chief for the Research Highlights column of Communications of the ACM. In addition, Morrisett has served on the DARPA Information Science and Technology Study (ISAT) Group, the NSF Computer and Information Science and Engineering (CISE) Advisory Council, Microsoft Research's Technical Advisory Board, Microsoft's Trusthworthy Computing Academic Advisory Board, and the Fortify Technical Advisory Board.

Katherine S. Newman is the Provost and Senior Vice Chancellor for Academic Affairs at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst where she is also the Torrey Little Professor of Sociology. Amherst is the flagship campus of the public university system in Massachusetts and is a leading engine of research, economic development, and advanced education. As Provost, Dr. Newman is responsible for the academic mission of the university, including some 80 undergraduate and graduate programs in nine colleges, 1300 faculty members, and some 32,000 students. In 2015, she inaugurated the College of Information and Computer Sciences.

Newman was previously the James Knapp Dean of the Krieger School of Arts and Sciences at Johns Hopkins University; the Malcolm Forbes Class of 1941 Professor of Sociology and Public Affairs at Princeton University; the Dean of Social Science at the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study at Harvard University; and the Malcolm Wiener Professor of Urban Studies in the John F. Kennedy School of Government. She has also taught at Columbia University and the University of California, Berkeley.

Newman is the author of 13 books on topics ranging from urban poverty to middle class economic insecurity to school violence. No Shame in My Game: the Working Poor in the Inner City, received the Robert F. Kennedy Memorial Book Prize and the Sidney Hillman Foundation Book Award. Other notable books include Falling From Grace: Downward Mobility in the Age of Affluence, and The Accordion Family: Boomerang Kids, Anxious Parents and the Private Toll of Global Competition. Her most recent book, published in 2016, is Reskilling America: Learning to Labor in the 21st Century (with Hella Winston), which analyzes the development of career and technical education in the US and the need to return to the apprenticeship model of labor market preparation. Newman’s next book, due out in 2018, focuses on inequality and retirement insecurity.


Avi Rubin is a Professor of Computer Science at Johns Hopkins University and Technical Director of the JHU Information Security Institute. His primary research area is Computer Security, and his latest research focuses on security for healthcare IT systems. Rubin is the Director of the Health and Medical Security (HMS) Lab at Johns Hopkins. He also founded Harbor Labs, a company that provides security consulting, professional training, and technical expertise and testimony in high tech litigation. Dr. Rubin is a frequent speaker on Information Security. Some highlights include TED talks in October, 2011 and September, 2015 about hacking devices, a TED Youth talk, testimony in Congressional hearings, and a high level security briefing at the Pentagon to the Assistant Secretary of the Army and a group of generals.

Prior to joining the faculty at Johns Hopkins, Rubin worked in the Secure Systems Research Department at AT&T Labs - Research. His work there was in the area of cryptography, network security, Web security and secure Internet services. He received my B.S. (‘89), M.S.E. (‘91), and Ph.D. (‘94) in Computer Science from the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor.


Rob A. Rutenbar received his PhD from the University of Michigan in 1984, and then joined the faculty at Carnegie Mellon University. He spent 25 years in Electrical and Computer Engineering at CMU, ultimately holding the Stephen J. Jatras (E'47) Chair. He was the founding Director of the Center for Circuit & System Solutions (called "C2S2"), a large consortium of US schools (e.g., CMU, MIT, Stanford, Berkeley, Caltech, Cornell, Columbia, GaTech, UCLA, etc.) supported by DARPA and the US semiconductor industry, focused on design problems at the end of Moore's Law scaling. In 2010 he moved to the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, where he is Abel Bliss Professor and Head of Computer Science. At Illinois, he pioneered the novel "CS+X" program, which combines a core Computer Science curriculum with a disciplinary "X" curriculum, leading to a Bachelor's degree in "X"; student pipelines for CS+Anthropology, Astronomy, Chemistry, Linguistics, are now underway, with several more CS+X degrees under design. His research has focused in three broad areas: tools and for integrated circuit design; statistics of nanoscale chip designs; and custom architectures for machine learning and perception. In 1998 he founded Neolinear, Inc., to commercialize the first practical synthesis tools for non-digital ICs, and served as Neolinear's Chief Scientist until its acquisition by Cadence [NASDAQ: CDNS] in 2004. In 2006 he founded Voci Technologies Inc., to commercialize enterprise-scale voice analytics. He has won numerous awards, including the IEEE CASS Industrial Pioneer Award and the Semiconductor Research Corporation Aristotle Award. His work has been featured in venues ranging from Slashdot to the Economist magazine.

Sarah Sampson is the Technology Transformation Leader for GE Digital. She's responsible for leading the strategy and execution of GE's global insourcing program, focused on expanding GE's technical IT talent and global footprint across all of its business units. Sarah joined GE in 2009 and has held multiple leadership roles with cross-functional engagements in all of GE's business units in the Americas, Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia.


Linda J. Sax is Professor in the Graduate School of Education & Information Studies at UCLA. She teaches graduate courses in research methodology, evaluation of higher education, and gender issues in higher education. Her research focuses on gender differences in college student development, specifically how institutional characteristics, peer and faculty environments, and forms of student involvement differentially affect male and female college students. She is currently principal investigator on a national, longitudinal study of gender and racial/ethnic diversity in undergraduate computer science, funded by the National Science Foundation, the Anita Borg Institute, the Computing Research Association, Facebook, Google, Microsoft, and Intel. Dr. Sax is the author of more than 90 publications, including The Gender Gap in College: Maximizing the Developmental Potential of Women and Men (Jossey-Bass, 2008), and is the recipient of the 2005 Scholar-in-Residence Award from the American Association of University Women and the 1999 Early Career Award from the Association for the Study of Higher Education.

Alfred Spector is Chief Technology Officer and Head of the Engineering Organization, at Two Sigma. In this role, Dr. Spector leads the technology strategy across the company, with a focus on driving innovation to optimize Two Sigma's investment platform and overall capabilities.  Prior to joining Two Sigma, Dr. Spector spent nearly eight years as Vice President of Research and Special Initiatives, at Google, a group that delivered a range of successful technologies including machine learning, speech recognition, and translation. He was also responsible for Google's open-source initiatives, university-relations programs, and various other technology initiatives.

Prior to Google, Dr. Spector held various senior-level positions at IBM, including Vice President of Strategy and Technology (CTO) for IBM Software and Vice President of Services and Software research across the company. He previously founded and served as CEO of Transarc Corporation, a pioneer in distributed transaction processing and wide-area file systems, and he was an associate professor of computer science at Carnegie Mellon University. Dr. Spector received a Bachelor's Degree in Applied Mathematics from Harvard University and a Ph.D. in Computer Science from Stanford University. He is an active member of the National Academy of Engineering and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.


Victoria Stodden is an associate professor in the School of Information Sciences at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, with affiliate appointments in the School of Law, the Department of Computer Science, the Department of Statistics, the Coordinated Science Laboratory, and the National Center for SuperComputing Applications. She completed both her PhD in statistics and her law degree at Stanford University.

Victoria is an affiliate scholar with the Center for Internet and Society at Stanford Law School. She is also a faculty affiliate of the Meta-Research Innovation Center at Stanford (METRICS).

Her research centers on the multifaceted problem of enabling reproducibility in computational science. This includes studying adequacy and robustness in replicated results, designing and implementing validation systems, developing standards of openness for data and code sharing, and resolving legal and policy barriers to disseminating reproducible research. She is the developer of the "Reproducible Research Standard," a suite of open licensing recommendations for the dissemination of computational results, and winner of the Kaltura Prize for Access to Knowledge Writing.

She is the founder of the open source platform, designed as a pilot project to study the verification of code and data associated with published results, and enable independent and public cloud-based validation of methods and findings. She is also a co-founder of, an open platform connecting data and code to published articles. Victoria was awarded the NSF EAGER grant "Policy Design for Reproducibility and Data Sharing in Computational Science." She is a co-PI on the NSF grant #1541450: CC*DNI DIBBS: Merging Science and Cyberinfrastructure Pathways: The Whole Tale. She is also the creator and curator of SparseLab, a collaborative platform for reproducible computational research in underdetermined systems.

Victoria is a member of the Senate IT Committee at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. She co-chairs the National Science Foundation's Advisory Committee for CyberInfrastructure, and is a member of the NSF's Computer and Information Science and Engineering (CISE) Advisory Committee. She is also a member of the National Institutes for Health's PubMed Central National Advisory Committee. Victoria serves on the National Academies of Science committee on "Responsible Science: Ensuring the Integrity of the Research Process."

She serves on numerous boards including on the the American Geophysical Union Data Science Credentialing Editorial Board, the Committee on Electronic Information and Communication of the International Mathematical Union, Project TIER (Teaching Integrity in Empirical Research), and the Social Science Research Council (SSRC) Digital Culture Program Committee and she is a member of the Advisory Group on Reproducibility to the SC Conference, ACM, and IEEE. She is an Associate Editor for the Annals of Applied Statistics, and Reproducibility Editor for the Journal of the American Statistical Associate, Applications and Case Studies.


Jeannette M. Wing is Corporate Vice President for Microsoft Research. She is Consulting Professor of Computer Science at Carnegie Mellon where she twice served as the Head of the Computer Science Department. She is also Affiliate Faculty in Computer Science and Engineering at the University of Washington. From 2007-2010 she was the Assistant Director of the Computer and Information Science and Engineering Directorate at the National Science Foundation. She received her S.B., S.M., and Ph.D. degrees in Computer Science, all from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Professor Wing's general research interests are in the areas of trustworthy computing, specification and verification, concurrent and distributed systems, programming languages, and software engineering. Her current interests are in the foundations of security and privacy. She was or is on the editorial board of twelve journals, including the Journal of the ACM and Communications of the ACM.

She is currently Chair of the DARPA Information Science and Technology (ISAT) Board and Chair of the AAAS Section on Information, Computing and Communications. She has been a member of many other advisory boards, including: Networking and Information Technology (NITRD) Technical Advisory Group to the President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST), National Academies of Sciences' Computer Science and Telecommunications Board, ACM Council, and Computing Research Association Board. She served as co-chair of NITRD from 2007-2010. She was on the faculty at the University of Southern California, and has worked at Bell Laboratories, USC/Information Sciences Institute, and Xerox Palo Alto Research Laboratories. She received the CRA Distinguished Service Award in 2011 and the ACM Distinguished Service Award in 2014. She is a member of Sigma Xi, Phi Beta Kappa, Tau Beta Pi, and Eta Kappa Nu. She is a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, American Association for the Advancement of Science, the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), and the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE).


Michael Wolf is the Division Chief for Occupational Employment Projections at the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). He leads the development of the National Employment Matrix, the data source for ten-year projections of employment by industry and occupation, and the Occupational Outlook Handbook, a career information resource. He also conducts research on labor market and workforce topics, having published studies on offshore outsourcing and on the job outlook by education. His current research focuses on labor market flows and measuring the demand for education.