How People Learn II: Learners, Contexts, and Cultures
Released in October 2018, this publication from the Board on Behavioral, Cognitive, and Sensory Sciences and the Board on Science Education summarizes research on the science and nature of learning. The report identifies new findings related to neurological processes involved in learning, individual and cultural variability related to learning, and educational technologies. In addition to expanding scientific understanding of the mechanisms of learning and how the brain adapts throughout the lifespan, there have been important discoveries about influences on learning, particularly sociocultural factors and the structure of learning environments. Finally, the report offers specific research objectives in two broad areas to serve as a guide for researchers and funding entities to spur investigations in to levels of analyses, methods, and theoretical frameworks across diverse disciplines to contribute to the study of how people learn.
Sponsors: Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, American Educational Research Association, Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, Institute of Education Sciences of the U.S. Department of Education, Teagle Foundation, William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, and the National Academy of Sciences’ Kellogg Fund and President’s Circle Fund.
How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School (2000) This report examines research about the mind and the brain that provides answers to a number of compelling questions. When do infants begin to learn? How do experts learn and how is this different from non-experts? What can teachers and schools do--with curricula, classroom settings, and teaching methods--to help children learn most effectively? The report considers these findings and their implications for what we teach, how we teach it, and how we assess what our children learn. The book uses exemplary teaching to illustrate how approaches based on what we now know result in in-depth learning. Promoting the Edcuational Succes of Children and Youth Learning English: Promising Futures(2017) This report examines how evidence based on research relevant to the development of DLLs/ELs from birth to age 21 can inform education and health policies and related practices that can result in better educational outcomes. This report makes recommendations for policy, practice, and research and data collection focused on addressing the challenges in caring for and educating DLLs/ELs from birth to grade 12.
Transforming the Workforce for Children Birth Through Age 8: A Unifying Foundation(2015) This report explores the science of child development, particularly looking at implications for the professionals who work with children. The report examines the current capacities and practices of the workforce, the settings in which they work, the policies and infrastructure that set qualifications and provide professional learning, and the government agencies and other funders who support and oversee these systems, and makes recommendations to improve the quality of professional practice and the practice environment for care and education professionals.
Education for Life and Work: Developing Transferable Knowledge and Skills in the 21st Century(2012) This report focuses on the preparations for self-escape from underground coal-mines. The study was set in the context of human-systems integration (HSI), a systems approach that examines the interaction of people, tasks, and equipment and technology in the pursuit of a goal. It recognizes this interaction occurs within, and is influenced by, the broader environmental context. A key premise of human-systems integration is that much important information is lost when various tasks within a system are considered individually or in isolation rather than in interaction with the whole system.
Tell us what you think! We are interested in what you, the reader, has to say about the How People Learn II report. Please share your thoughts and ideas via the study's email HowPeopleLearn2@nas.edu.
Cora Marrett (Chair), University of Wisconsin- Madison Patricia J. Bauer, Emory University Cynthia Beall (NAS), Case Western Reserve Margaret E. Beier, Rice University David B. Daniel, James Madison University Robert L. Goldstone, Indiana University Arthur C. Graesser, University of Memphis Ruth Kanfer, Georgia Institute of Technology Jeffrey D. Karpicke, Purdue University Barbara M. Means, SRI International Douglas L. Medin (NAS), Northwestern University Linda Nathan, Center for Artistry and Scholarship Annemarie Sullivan Palincsar, University of Michigan Daniel L. Schwartz, Stanford University Zewelanji N. Serpell, Viriginia Commonwealth University Mary Helen Immordino-Yang, University of Southern California
Sujeeta Bhatt, Study Director Tina Winters, Associate Program Officer Barbara Wanchisen, Director, BBCSS Heidi Schweingruber, Director, BOSE