Committee on the Neurobiological and Socio-behavioral Science of Adolescent Development and Its Applications
Richard J. Bonnie (NAM) (Chair) is Harrison Foundation Professor of Law and Medicine, Professor of Public Policy, Professor of Psychiatry and Neurobehavioral Sciences, and Director of the Institute of Law, Psychiatry and Public Policy at the University of Virginia. He teaches and writes about health law and policy, bioethics, criminal law, and public policies relating to mental health, substance abuse, and public health. He has co-authored leading textbooks on criminal law and public health law. His first book, The Marijuana Conviction: A History of Marijuana Prohibition in the United States (1974) was republished in 1999 as a “drug policy classic.” Bonnie was elected to the National Academy of Medicine in 1991 and has chaired numerous studies for the National Academies on subjects ranging from elder mistreatment to underage drinking, including the landmark report, Ending the Tobacco Problem: A Blueprint for the Nation (2007). Most recently, he chaired two Academy studies on juvenile justice reform (2013, 2014), studies on the health and well-being of young adults (2014) and the minimum legal age for access to tobacco (2015) as well as a study on policies needed to end the opioid epidemic in the United States (2016). He received the Yarmolinsky Medal in 2002 for his contributions to the National Academies.
Anna Aizer is professor of economics at Brown University. She is a labor and health economist with interests in the area of child health and well-being. She is also co-director of the NBER's program on children. Her current work considers the mechanisms behind the intergenerational transmission of poverty. In particular, she focuses on the roles played by health insurance and access to medical care, domestic violence, exposure to environmental toxins, the role of stress, and poor children's greater interaction with the juvenile justice system in explaining why the children of poor mothers are more likely to grow up to be poor themselves. She completed a postdoctoral fellowship at Princeton University’s Center for Research on Child Wellbeing in 2004. Dr. Aizer received her Ph.D. in economics from the University of California, Los Angeles.
Margarita Alegría (NAM) is chief of the Disparities Research Unit at Massachusetts General Hospital and professor of psychiatry at Harvard Medical School. Dr. Alegría is currently the principle investigator for four National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded research studies: the International Latino Research Partnership; Effects of Social Context, Culture and Minority Status on Depression and Anxiety; Building Community Capacity for Disability Prevention for Minority Elders; and Mechanisms Underlying Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Mental Disorders. She is also the principle investigator for a Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute project: Effectiveness of DECIDE in Patient-Provider Communication, Therapeutic Alliance & Care Continuation. Dr. Alegría has published over 200 papers, editorials, intervention training manuals, and several book chapters, on topics such as improvement of health care services delivery for diverse racial and ethnic populations, conceptual and methodological issues with multicultural populations, and ways to bring the community’s perspective into the design and implementation of health services. She received her Ph.D. in psychology from Temple University.
Claire Brindis (NAM) is director of the Philip R. Lee Institute for Health Policy Studies and a professor in the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Adolescent Medicine and the Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF). She holds the Caldwell B. Eselystyn Chair in Health Policy. She is also Co-Director of the Adolescent and Young Adult Health National Resource Center and Founding Director of the Bixby Center for Global Reproductive Health at UCSF. Dr. Brindis, a native of Argentina, conducts research focused on child, adolescent and women's health policy, as well as on the implementation of health care reform and immigration health. Incorporating a variety of quantitative and qualitative methodologies, including community participatory research, her research focuses on program evaluation and the translation of research into policy at the local, state, and national level. Dr. Brindis’ policy research focuses on how disparities impact health outcomes, including access to quality care and health insurance coverage. Research interests also include consumer engagement in health care system re-design, tracking the implementation of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) on adolescents, young adults, and women, including barriers encountered in enrolling these and other marginalized populations, and research on the health and mental health needs of Dreamers (Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals or DACA). Throughout these and other projects, Dr. Brindis is committed to closing the gap between evidence-based innovation and its application to policy and programs. Dr. Brindis received her Dr. P.H. in public health and behavioral sciences from the University of California, Berkeley.
Elizabeth Cauffman is a professor and chancellor’s fellow in the Department of Psychology and Social Behavior in the School of Social Ecology and holds courtesy appointments in the School of Education and the School of Law at the University of California, Irvine (UCI). At the broadest level, Dr. Cauffman’s research addresses the intersect between adolescent development and juvenile justice. She has published over 100 articles, chapters, and books on a range of topics in the study of contemporary adolescence, including adolescent brain development, risk-taking and decision-making, parent-adolescent relationships, and juvenile justice. Most recently, findings from Dr. Cauffman’s research were incorporated into the American Psychological Association’s amicus briefs submitted to the U.S. Supreme Court in Roper v. Simmons, which abolished the juvenile death penalty, and in both Graham v. Florida and Miller v. Alabama, which placed limits on the use of life without parole as a sentence for juveniles. As part of her larger efforts to help research inform practice and policy, she served as a member of the MacArthur Foundation’s Research Network on Adolescent Development and Juvenile Justice and currently directs the Center for Psychology & Law at UCI. Dr. Cauffman received her Ph.D. in developmental psychology from Temple University and completed a post-doctoral fellowship at the Center on Adolescence at Stanford University.
Mesmin Destin is associate professor at Northwestern University in the School of Education and Social Policy and the Department of Psychology. He is also a fellow of Northwestern’s Institute for Policy Research. Destin directs a multidisciplinary lab group and investigates social psychological mechanisms underlying socioeconomic disparities in educational outcomes during adolescence and young adulthood. Using laboratory and field experiments, Destin studies factors that influence how young people perceive themselves and pursue their futures. At the university level, Destin examines how subtle social experiences and institutional messaging shape the motivation and educational trajectories of low socioeconomic status and first-generation college students. He received his Ph.D. in social psychology from the University of Michigan.
Angela Diaz (NAM) is the Jean C. and James W. Crystal Professor, Department of Pediatrics and Department of Environmental Medicine and Public Health, at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. Dr. Diaz is the director of the Mount Sinai Adolescent Health Center, a unique program that provides comprehensive, interdisciplinary, integrated, medical care, sexual and reproductive health, mental health, and dental and optical services to young people. Under her leadership the center has become one of the largest adolescent-specific health centers in the United States, serving more than 10,000 young people every year for free. The Mount Sinai Adolescent Health Center is a major training site in the field of adolescent health and medicine, with research funded by NIH. Dr. Diaz is a member of the National Academy of Medicine (NAM), where she sits on its governing council, is a member of the Committee for the Health and Medicine Division, and chairs the Board on Children, Youth and Families at the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Dr. Diaz has been a White House Fellow, a member of the Food and Drug Administration Pediatric Advisory Committee, and a member of the Board of Directors of the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene. In 2003, Dr. Diaz chaired the National Advisory Committee on Children and Terrorism for the Department of Health and Human Services. In 2009, she was appointed by Mayor Michael Bloomberg to the New York City Commission for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender and Questioning (LGBTQ) Runaway and Homeless Youth Taskforce. Dr. Diaz is active in public policy and advocacy in the U.S. and has conducted many international health projects in Asia, Central and South America, Europe, and Africa. She earned her M.D. at Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, she completed a MPH from Harvard University, and a Ph.D. in epidemiology from Columbia University.
Nancy E. Hill is the Charles Bigelow professor of education in the Graduate School of Education at Harvard University. She is a developmental psychologist and her research identifies the unique and interactive ways in which race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status influence parenting beliefs, practices and child outcomes, especially among African American, Latino, and Euro-American children. Her research has identified the ways in which similar parenting practices may have different meanings for and impacts on children's mental health and development based on cultural, community, and economic contexts. Recent and ongoing projects include Project Alliance/Projecto Alianzo, a multiethnic study of parental involvement in education at the transition between elementary and middle school; the Middle School Transition Study, which is focused on how family and classroom contexts shape students’ sense of self as they transition to middle school; and Multiethnic, Pooled Data Study, which merges 11 datasets and more than 30,000 students to examine the effects of universal and cultural parenting practices on students' identity development, mental health, and achievement among five ethnic/racial groups. She is the co-founder of the study group on race, culture, and ethnicity, an interdisciplinary group of scientists who develop theory and methodology for defining and understanding the cultural context within diverse families. She received her Ph.D. in developmental psychology from Michigan State University.
Michelle Jackson is assistant professor of sociology at Stanford University and an associate member of Nuffield College, Oxford. Her main research interests lie in social inequality, social mobility, and the sociology of education. Her research aims to understand why social background continues to be such a pervasive force in modern societies. She examines the role of social background in conditioning educational and occupational opportunities, considering both the decisions that individuals make when developing their educational strategies, and the decisions that employers make when they evaluate job applicants with different social backgrounds and educational levels. Dr. Jackson is an editorial board member of Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, the European Sociological Review, and Sociology of Education. She received her Ph.D. in sociology from Nuffield College, Oxford.
Arlene F. Lee is the former executive director of the Maryland Governor’s Office for Children, where she chaired the Children’s Cabinet and worked to support the Governor’s vision for the well-being of Maryland’s children. Prior to joining the Governor’s Office, Arlene served as board director for the Committee on Law and Justice (CLAJ) at the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Prior to joining CLAJ, Ms. Lee was the director of policy at the Center for the Study of Social Policy, where she focused on helping federal and state elected officials develop research-informed policies and funding to improve results for children and families. In this capacity, she oversaw PolicyforResults.org, a leading national resource for results-based policy. She has served as deputy director of the Georgetown University Center for Juvenile Justice Reform, director of the Federal Resource Center for Children of Prisoners, and youth strategies manager for the Governor’s Office of Crime Control and Prevention. Ms. Lee is also the author of numerous articles and coauthored The Impact of the Adoption and Safe Families Act on Children of Incarcerated Parents. She has a J.D. from Washington College of Law, American University. As a result of her work, Ms. Lee was named one of Maryland’s Top 100 Women and has received three Governor’s Citations.
Leslie Leve is associate director of the Prevention Science Institute, associate director of the prevention science graduate programs, and associate vice president for research in the Office of the Vice President for Research and Innovation at the University of Oregon. Her research and teaching interests are focused on child and adolescent development and preventive interventions. She leads federal research grants that focus on developmental pathways and intervention outcomes for children and families. This includes preventive intervention studies with youth in foster care and with adolescents in the juvenile justice system aimed at preventing risk behaviors and improving public health outcomes, and adoption studies that examine the interplay between biological (genetic, hormonal), psychological, and social influences on development. Her work also focuses on outcomes for girls and women. She received her Ph.D. in developmental psychology from the University of Oregon.
Jens Ludwig (NAM) is the McCormick Foundation professor of social service administration, law, and public policy at the University of Chicago Harris School of Public Policy and School of Social Service Administration, director of the University of Chicago Crime Lab, and co-director of the University of Chicago Urban Education Lab. He also serves as a non-resident senior fellow in economic studies at the Brookings Institution, research associate of the National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER), and co-director of the NBER's working group on the economics of crime. His research focuses on social policy, particularly in the areas of urban poverty, crime, and education. In the area of urban poverty, Ludwig has participated since 1995 on the evaluation of a HUD-funded randomized residential-mobility experiment known as Moving to Opportunity, which provides low-income public housing families the opportunity to relocate to private-market housing in less disadvantaged neighborhoods. In the area of crime, Ludwig has written extensively about gun-violence prevention. In the area of education he has written extensively about childhood interventions, and about the role of social conditions in affecting children’s schooling outcomes. He is currently on the editorial boards of American Economic Journal: Policy, the Journal of Quantitative Criminology, and the Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, and was formerly co-editor of the Journal of Human Resources. In 2012 he was elected vice president of the Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management. He is a member for the National Academy of Medicine. Ludwig received his M.A. and Ph.D. in economics from Duke University.
Susan Vivian Mangold is executive director of the Juvenile Law Center. She is professor emeritus at the University at Buffalo School of Law, where she taught for over 20 years and served as vice dean for academics. Her teaching and scholarship focused on children and the law. Ms. Mangold was also chair of the university-wide strategic strength in civic engagement and public policy initiative, and brings her expertise in community-based research to the Juvenile Law Center. She is co-editor of West Publishing’s casebook, Children and the Law: Doctrine, Policy and Practice (6th Edition, 2017). The author of numerous articles on the child welfare system, she was the primary investigator for a project funded by the Public Health Law Research Program of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation to study the impact of different types of funding on long-term outcomes for children in foster care. Ms. Mangold is a graduate of Harvard College where she co-chaired the Big Brother/Big Sister Program, then founded the Cambridge Youth Enrichment Program (now Summer Urban Program) so the little brothers and sisters would have educational and recreational programs in the summers. This experience led to a post-college job as program director at Girls Club (now Girls Inc.) in Massachusetts, providing after-school services to inner city girls, many of whom were involved in the child welfare and justice systems. It was the experience of working with girls involved in the child welfare system that led her to Harvard Law School with the intent of becoming a children’s attorney. During law school, she was executive director of Harvard Legal Aid and co-founder of the Children’s Rights Project. Upon graduation, she received a Harvard Law School Public Interest Fellowship to work at the Juvenile Law Center, where she worked as a staff attorney for five years. Ms. Mangold writes and speaks frequently on current issues impacting older youth in the justice and child welfare systems. She received her J.D. from Harvard Law School.
Bruce S. McEwen (NAS/NAM) is the Alfred E. Mirsky Professor and head of the Harold and Margaret Milliken Hatch Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology at the Rockefeller University in New York. Dr. McEwen's laboratory has carried out groundbreaking research, discovering adrenal steroid receptors and, later, estrogen receptors in the hippocampus, a brain region that mediates memory and mood regulation. These discoveries, now expanded to other brain regions such as amygdala, prefrontal cortex, and nucleus accumbens, showed that circulating stress and sex hormones do more in the brain than just provide feedback to regulate neuroendocrine function, but rather influence cognitive and emotional processes throughout the life course, with major implications for anxiety and depressive disorders. Indeed, he has gone on to show that acute and chronic stress causes remodeling of synapses and dendrites in man anxiety- and depression-related brain regions and that there is neurogenesis throughout life in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampal formation, which is increased by anti-depressant treatments. Dr. McEwen is author of over 1000 publications. He is past president of the Society for Neuroscience and member of the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Medicine. Dr. McEwen has received many awards, including the Dale Medal of the British Endocrine Society, the Karl Spencer Lashley Award, American Philosophical Society, the Scolnick Prize in Neuroscience from MIT, the Ipsen Foundation Prize in Neuronal Plasticity, the Society for Biological Psychiatry Gold Medal and the Thomas W. Salmon Award from the New York Academy of Medicine. Dr. McEwen received his B.A. in chemistry from Oberlin College in 1959 and his Ph.D. in cell biology from The Rockefeller University in 1964.
Stephen T. Russell is the Priscilla Pond Flawn Regents Professor in child development in the Department of Human Development and Family Sciences and a faculty member in the Population Research Center at the University of Texas at Austin. He studies adolescent development, with an emphasis on adolescent sexuality, LGBT youth, and parent-adolescent relationships. Beginning more than 15 years ago, Dr. Russell began a program of research on adolescent sexual orientation, minority stress, and the health and well-being of sexual minorities. He published a series of papers that were the first to document significant health risk among sexual minority adolescents using the Add Health Study. Since then he has continued to study health risk and resilience among LGBT youth and young adults, with an emphasis on gender and cultural difference in sexual minority health. In addition to his expertise in the study of sexual orientation and health, he is an expert in the role of school policies, programs, and practices in supporting adolescent adjustment, achievement, and health. A significant body of Dr. Russell’s work identifies organizational/structural policies and practices that contribute to positive health for sexual and ethnic minorities. He has been involved in community and professional organizations throughout his career, including as Human Relations Commissioner in several cities (Durham, NC; Davis, CA; Tucson, AZ), and currently as chair of the Board of Directors of the Sexuality Information and Education Council of the United States. He has been an elected board member of the National Council on Family Relations, and is past-president of the Society for Research on Adolescence. He received his Ph.D. in sociology from Duke University.
Joanna Lee Williams is an associate professor at the Curry School of Education, University of Virginia and is also affiliated with Youth-Nex: The University of Virginia Center to Promote Effective Youth Development. Williams' research interests focus on race and ethnicity as social contexts for youth development. Specifically, her work examines ethnic identity as a form of positive youth development in the face of discrimination and other stressors, and ethnic identity in relation to youths' beliefs and behaviors. She also has applied interests in understanding diversity, peer relations, and positive outcomes in youth development programs and serves as associate director of research for the Young Women Leaders Program, a mentoring program for middle school girls. She received her Ph.D. in developmental psychology from Temple University.