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The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine
Board on Science Education
Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education


Commissioned Papers

Learning Science in Informal Environments: A Review of the Research Past, Present and Future


How Might Native Science Inform “Informal Science Learning?”

Bryan Brayboy and Angelina Castagno


Diverse Learning and Learner Diversity in “Informal” Science Learning Environments            


Shirley Brice Heath
Assessing Learning in Informal Science Contexts

Michael Brody, Art Bangert and Justin Dillon


Evaluation of Learning in Informal Learning Environments

Institute for Learning Innovation


Lifelong Learning and Technology

Casey Lindberg, Edwin Carstensen, and Laura Carstensen


Interest and Motivation in Informal Science Learning


K. Ann Renninger
Media-based Learning Science in Informal Environments

Saul Rockman, Kristen Bass, Jennifer Borse


Informal Science Learning in Afterschool Settings: A Natural Fit?

Sarah Schwartz and Gil Noam



These papers were commissioned for the Committee on Learning Science in Informal Environments: A Review of the Research Past, Present, and Future through support from the National Science Foundation. These papers were presented at committee meetings between June 2006 and October 2007. Opinions and statements included in the paper are solely those of the individual author, and are not necessarily adopted or endorsed or verified as accurate by the Board on Science Education or the National Academy of Sciences, including the National Academy of Engineering, Institute of Medicine, or National Research Council.

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