Skip to Main Content
The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine
Air Force Studies Board
Current Activities
AFDP Roundtable



 AFSB Members



General Douglas M. Fraser (USAF, retired) retired from the U.S. Air Force in January 2013 after a 37 year career. Since retiring, General Fraser works as a global security consultant for several U.S. defense companies. His last assignment in the U.S. armed forces was as the Commander, U.S. Southern Command, responsible for U.S. military operations in Central and South America and the Caribbean. In this capacity, General Fraser was responsible for leading Department of Defense relief efforts following the 2010 Haiti earthquake. Prior to commanding U.S. Southern Command, he served as the Deputy Commander, U.S. Pacific Command from 2008-2009. General Fraser commanded operational flying units across the U.S. Air Force at the squadron, group, and wing levels. As a general officer, in addition to U.S. Southern Command, he commanded the U.S. Air Force Space Warfare Center and four different organizations in Alaska – Alaskan command, the Alaskan North American Defense Region, Joint Task Force Alaska, and Eleventh Air Force. General Fraser’s staff assignments include two tours in the Pentagon, the first in Headquarters U.S. Air Force and the second in the Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Strategy, Resources and Requirements. He also served on the staff at Headquarters, U.S. Pacific Command and at Headquarters, U.S. Air Force Space Command. He holds a bachelor’s degree in Political Science from the U.S. Air Force Academy and a master’s degree in Political Science from Auburn University at Montgomery. He is also a graduate of the USAF Weapons School, Squadron Officer School, Air Command and Staff College, and the National War College. He is a command pilot with more than 3,300 flying hours, in the F-15, F-15E, F-16 and the C-37.



Vice Chair
Dr. David Whelan (NAE) is a Professor of Practice at UCSD Jacobs School of Engineering in the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department. He retired from the Boeing Defense, Space & Security, Chief Scientist and Vice President, Engineering in 2017. David had responsibility to create, seek out and explore new technology and business growth vectors for the Boeing Company. Boeing's technology and systems span a wide range of government missions ranging from space systems to airborne systems to ground systems to undersea system. Both manned and unmanned systems have been developed to solve Boeing's customer challenges. Leveraging his in-depth knowledge of science, technology, systems and future customer requirements David enabled Boeing to find new solutions to world's most challenging problems. He served as a member of the Board of Directors for Boeing's Madrid Research(3 years) and Technology Center and HRL Laboratories(12 years), the legacy R&D laboratory of the former Hughes Aircraft Company, a LLC jointly owned by Boeing and GM. Prior assignments include the Vice President-General Manager and Deputy to the President of Boeing Phantom Works, the advanced research and development organization of The Boeing Company and started his career with Boeing as the Chief Technology Officer for the Space & Communications Group (S&C) of Boeing. Before joining Boeing, Dr Whelan served as Director of the Tactical Technology Office (SES-5) of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), the Department of Defense's venture capital like organization dedicated to creating new systems and technologies to support our nation's air, land, and naval forces. While at DARPA David created many legacy joint programs with the Air Force, Navy and the Army, most notably, the Discoverer II Space Radar Program, the Army's Future Combat System and the Unmanned Combat Air Vehicle. Previously he worked at the Hughes Aircraft Company as Program Manager and Chief Scientist for the B-2 Bomber Air-to-Air Radar Imaging Program. He also worked as a Physicist for the DOE"s Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) on X-ray lasers and the Advanced Nuclear Weapons program, and he started his career at Northrop where he was one of the key designers of the B-2 Stealth Bomber and contributed to the YF-23Advanced Tactical Fighter. David earned his Ph.D. ('83) and MS ('78) in physics from UCLA; He received his B.A. ('77) from UCSD. He has numerous publications on electromagnetic radiation, laser plasma phenomena and Defense systems. He holds more than 100 patents on navigation systems, radar systems, antenna, and low-observable technology. He is currently a member of the National Academy of Engineering, the Air Force Scientific Advisory Board of the National Research Council. He is a fellow of the American Physical Society, the IEEE, and the AIAA. Dr. Whelan was honored for his government service and received Secretary of Defense Medal for Outstanding Civil Service in 2001 and the Secretary of Defense Medal for Outstanding Public Service in 1998.


Lieutenant General Ted F. Bowlds (USAF, retired) is currently the Chief Technology Officer (CTO) for IAI North America. In this capacity, he is responsible for program management, engineering, and technology transfer. Prior to this job, Ted served as the Chief Information Officer (CIO) for FlightSafety, International. As CIO, Ted was responsible for the planning and execution of a $30m annual budget and maintained a steady 99.9% system reliability. He also served as the chief technology officer responsible for innovation and the introduction of market-leading capabilities. During his 36-year career in the United States Air Force and subsequent experience in industry, Ted led multiple large-scale, complex procurement activities, each dependent upon strong ethics and solid research foundation. The programs include the F-117 stealth fighter, B-2 bomber, and C-17 transport. As Commander of the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), he was responsible for the diverse research undertaken by AFRL ranging from microelectronics, human factors, medical, aeronautics, computers, satellites, and power generation. His last assignment on active duty was as the Commander of the Electronic Systems Center and Program Executive Officer (PEO) for Air Force information technology procurements, applications, and systems. The portfolio of programs being executed included command and control, surveillance, and information technology. General Bowlds is a board member of the Air Force Retired Officers Community (a continuing care retirement community) and holds the positions of vice chairman and chairman of the strategic planning committee. He is also a member of the Mississippi State Research Technology Advisory Group, the DoD Systems Engineering Research Council, and the Air Force Studies Board. Ted holds a Master of Science in electrical engineering, a Master of Science in engineering management and a Ph.D. in systems engineering, he is a graduate of the USAF Test Pilot School Flight Test Engineer course and has attended numerous leadership and management courses.


Dr. Kevin G. Bowcutt (NAE) is Senior Technical Fellow and chief scientist of Hypersonics with the Boeing Company, in Long Beach, California. Bowcutt has been with Boeing (formerly Rockwell International, North American Aircraft) since 1986 and was named a senior technical fellow by Boeing in 1998. Much of his professional career has involved research in and development of airbreathing hypersonic vehicles, including missiles, aircraft and space launch vehicles. In 2015, Bowcutt was named to the National Academy of Engineering for development and demonstration of air-breathing hypersonic vehicles and the implementation of design optimization methods. In addition, he is an AIAA Fellow and a fellow of the Royal Aeronautical Society. Notable accomplishments include developing the modern viscous optimized hypersonic waverider; serving in technical leader ship roles on the National Aero Space Plane program; leading a project to flight test scramjet engines by launching them from a light gas gun; originating the concept and optimizing the design of the USAF/DARPA X 51A scramjet powered waverider vehicle; leading a team that designed an air breathing reusable launch vehicle concept; and working on the Space Shuttle Columbia accident investigation, simulating wing aero thermal structural failure.


Dr. Claude Canizares (NAS) is the Bruno Rossi Professor of Physics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). He is a principal investigator on NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory and Associate Director of its science center. He also led the development of the High Resolution Transmission Grating Spectrometer on Chandra and of the crystal spectrometer on the earlier Einstein Observatory. At MIT since 1971, Dr. Canizares has served as Vice President (2013-2015), Vice President for Research & Associate Provost (2006-2013), Associate Provost (2001¬2006), and Director of the Center for Space Research (1990-2002). He oversaw MIT Lincoln Laboratory from 2001 to 2014. As Vice President for Research he had overall responsibility for MIT’s $1.5B sponsored research enterprise, including research administration, policy, and strategy, as well as federal agency and industrial sponsor relations. Dr. Canizares was responsible for MIT’s technology licensing office and oversaw more than a dozen interdisciplinary research laboratories, including the MIT Energy Initiative, the Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research, the Plasma Science and Fusion Center, the Research Laboratory of Electronics, the Nuclear Reactor Laboratory and the Institute for Soldier Nanotechnology, among others. As Vice President, he was responsible for MIT’s international partnerships, including major engagements in Russia, Singapore and Abu Dhabi. He earned his B.A., M.A., and Ph.D. in physics from Harvard University.


Dr. Mark F. Costello is the William R. T. Oakes Professor and Chair of the School of Aerospace Engineering at Georgia Tech, where he is responsible for leadership of the school, as well as all administration and financial management of the department. Previously, he was posted at the Tactical Technology Office at the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), where he served as a program manager. Prior to joining DARPA, Dr. Costello served as the David Lewis Professor of Autonomy in the Schools of Aerospace Engineering and Mechanical Engineering at Georgia Tech, where he taught the areas of dynamics, controls, and design. His research team is noted for creating innovative new technologies, such as robotic landing gear for rotorcraft, bleed air control of parafoils, and direct impact control of smart projectiles. This research has led to formation of start-up companies. He founded and serves as the CEO of Earthly Dynamics Corporation, a company that develops and fields new guided airdrop system technology. He also co-founded the Persimia Corporation that provides web-based environmental impact assessment analysis tools for wind energy system installations. Dr. Costello received his B.S. in aerospace engineering from Pennsylvania State University, and his M.S. and Ph.D. in aerospace engineering from the Georgia Institute of Technology.


Dr. Brendan Godfrey is a visiting senior research scientist at the University of Maryland, where he conducts studies on numerical simulation of plasmas, participates in committees of the National Academy of Sciences, and served as advisor to the U.S. Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Research. Previously, he was director of the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, responsible for its nearly half billion dollar basic research program. He was an Air Force officer at Kirtland Air Force Base from 1970 to 1972, performing plasma research. He began his civilian career at Los Alamos National Laboratory, establishing its intense particle beam research program. He then managed and conducted intense microwave and particle beam research at Mission Research Corp., becoming vice president and regional manager. In 1989, he returned to the Air Force as civilian chief scientist of the Weapons Laboratory. Later responsibilities included director of Phillips Laboratory high power microwave research; director of the 1500-person Armstrong Laboratory; director of plans at the Air Force Research Laboratory, and deputy director of Brooks City-Base. Known for his contributions to computational plasma theory and applications, he is author of more than 200 publications and reports. He also has served on numerous professional and civic committees. Dr. Godfrey received his BS from the University of Minnesota and Ph.D. from Princeton University. He is a fellow of the IEEE and of the APS.


Lt Gen Michael A. Hamel (USAF, retired), an independent consultant, is a space and acquisition leader, with a career in government and industry spanning over 40 years. He has diverse experience in all aspects of space policy, strategy, planning, development and operations, including launch, satellite, ground and systems programs. His experience has included senior leadership roles in the military space sector, as well as work in intelligence, civil and commercial/international space. Most recently Gen Hamel served with Lockheed Martin Space, as Vice President leading Commercial Space and international space business in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from 2013 until his retirement in August 2018. Prior to that employment, Gen Hamel was Senior Vice President of Corporate Strategy and Relations for Orbital Sciences Corporation, where he was responsible for leading strategic planning, product and business development, government relations and corporate communications. Gen Hamel served in the U.S. Air Force for more than 30 years in a broad range of space operations, development, acquisition, policy and command positions, concluding his military career in 2008 as a Lieutenant General. In his later years in the Air Force, Gen Hamel was Commander of the Air Force Space and Missile Systems Center and Air Force Program Executive Officer for Space, as well as Commander of the 14th Air Force. He served in senior command and staff positions at U.S. Air Force Headquarters and AF Space Command and was Military Advisor to the Vice President on defense, arms control, non-proliferation and space policy. Gen Hamel holds a bachelor’s degree in Aeronautical Engineering from the U.S. Air Force Academy and a master’s degree in business administration from California State University. He is a graduate of the Industrial College of the Armed Forces and the program in National and International Security at Harvard University. He is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations, a Fellow of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics and also serves on several advisory groups.


Dr. Wesley L. Harris (NAE) is the Charles Stark Draper Professor of Aeronautics and Astronautics and former Associate Provost and Head of the Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). His research focuses on theoretical and experimental unsteady aerodynamics and aeroacoustics, computational fluid dynamics, hemo-dynamics, sustainment of complex systems, and federal government policy impact on procurement of high-technology systems. Prior to this position, he served as the Associate Administrator for Aeronautics at NASA. He has also served as the vice president and chief administrative officer of the University of Tennessee Space Institute and Dean of Engineering, University of Connecticut. Dr. Harris earned a Ph.D. and M.A. in aerospace and mechanical sciences from Princeton University and a Bachelor of Arts in aerospace engineering (with honors) from the University of Virginia.


Dr. James E. Hubbard, Jr., (NAE) is Glenn L. Martin Institute Professor at the University of Maryland and a Texas A&M Hagler Institute Fellow. Previously he was the Samuel P. Langley Distinguished Professor for the National Institute of Aerospace at the University of Maryland. Dr. Hubbard has received numerous honors from various societies which include: 2016 Lifetime Achievement Award from the Society of Photomonics and Instrumentation Engineers for those viewed as luminaries in the fields of Smart Structures and Material; 2015 best paper in Structures Award from the Adaptive Structures and Material Systems, branch of the Aerospace Division of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers; 2015 elected as a fellow of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers for having made noteworthy invention, discovery or advancement in the state of the art as evidenced by pulication of widely accepted materials, by receipt of major patents, or by having products or processes in the marketplace; 2011 senior member of the International Society for Optical Engineering in recognition of significant acheivements within the optics and photonics community. Dr. Hubbard received his Ph.D., 1981; M.S., 1979; and B.S., 1977; from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.


Gen Lester L. Lyles (USAF, ret.) (NAE) is an independent consultant and former chairman of the board of the United Services Automobile Association (USAA). Gen Lyles retired from the United States Air Force after a 35 year military career. His last assignment was Commander of the Air Force Materiel Command, where he was responsible for overseeing research, development, test and evaluation, acquisition management services, and logistics support for the USAF. Previously, he was assigned as Vice Chief of Staff at Headquarters U.S. Air Force from 1999-2000. Gen Lyles entered the USAF in 1968 as a distinguished graduate of the Air Force ROTC program. He served in various assignments, including Special Assistant and Aide-De-Camp to the Commander of Air Force Systems Command; and Avionics Division Chief in the F-16 Systems Program Office. He served as Program Director of the Medium-Launch Vehicles Program and Space-Launch Systems offices in 1997 during the recovery from the Challenger Space Shuttle accident. Gen Lyles served as Vice Commander of Ogden Air Logistics Center from 1992-1994, and then commanded the Space and Missile Systems Center at Los Angeles AFB, Calif., until 1996. General Lyles became the Director of the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization in 1996. He received his B.S. in mechanical engineering from Howard University in 1968, his M.S. in mechanical and nuclear engineering from New Mexico State University in 1969, and an Honorary Doctorate of Laws degree from New Mexico State University in 2002. He is a graduate of the Defense Systems Management College (1980), the Armed Forces Staff College (1981), the National War College (1985), and the National and International Security Management Course at Harvard University (1991).


Lt Gen Wendy M. Masiello (USAF, retired) is an independent consultant and president of Wendy Mas Consulting, LLC. Prior to her retirement as Lieutenant General from the United States Air Force, she was Director of the Defense Contract Management Agency (2014-2017), where she oversaw a $1.4 billion budget and 12,000 people worldwide in oversight of 20,000 contractors performing 340,000 Defense and Federal contracts valued at $6 trillion, and revised DCMA’s approach to oversight from one of contractor compliance to performance measurement. During her 36-year military career, Lt Gen Masiello also served as Deputy Assistant Secretary (Contracting), Office of the Assistant Secretary of the Air Force for Acquisition (2011-2014), where she designed and implemented a centralized organization, Air Force Installation Contracting Agency (AFCIA) that facilitated contracting for seven major commands following a 30 percent personnel cut. AFICA became the model for what became the Air Force-wide Installation Mission Support Center. As Program Executive Officer (PEO) for the Air Force’s $65 billion service acquisition portfolio (2007-2011), Lt Gen Masiello initiated the category management concept within the Air Force and set a standard for Service contract planning, execution and oversight within the Department of Defense. She earned her Bachelor of Business Administration degree from Texas Tech University, a Master of Science degree in logistics management from the Air Force Institute of Technology, a Master of Science degree in national resource strategy from the Industrial College of the Armed Forces, Fort Lesley J. McNair, Washington, D.C., and is a graduate of Harvard Kennedy School’s Senior Managers in Government.


Dr. Alex Miller is The William B. Stokely Chair of Business in the University of Tennessee’s Haslam College of Business, and the Pro2Serve Director of the Consortium for Social Enterprise. Previously, he served the school for a decade in a variety of associate dean roles. Alex holds a PhD from the University of Washington in Seattle, an MBA from Dartmouth College, and a BS from Tennessee Technological University. He has also taken additional course work at Cal Tech, Dartmouth, Harvard, MIT, Indiana, and Northwestern. Alex has consulted widely in industry and government, he is a widely published researcher/author, and he is an award-winning professor. He serves on numerous boards, ranging from start-up businesses to government boards. He currently serves as the founding Chairman of the Board for the Alliance for Better Nonprofits. Alex is a seventh generation East Tennessee farmer. For his leadership in agriculture, he has been recognized as Tennessee Cattleman of the Year, and won awards for environmental conservation. He is an IFR-rated pilot and formerly a nationally competitive ultra-endurance cyclist. Presently, he trains border collies as cattle dogs, and enjoys sailing, adventure travel by motorcycle, and time spent with his grandchildren on the farm.


Dr. Leslie A. Momoda is the Vice President for Strategy at HRL Laboratories, LLC., where she leads strategic planning, customer, and LLC member interfaces for the laboratory. Previously, she was the director for sensors and materials, where she led the research and development of advanced structural, battery, architected and nano-materials and characterization, as well as cutting edge microelectromechanical (MEMS) and infrared detectors. Dr. Momoda joined HRL Laboratories, LLC. In 1990, working on the research and development of mixed metal oxide materials for electronic, optical, and chemical sensor applications. She has 18 years of experience in the field of materials synthesis, processing, and characterization for electronic and structual applications. As a research department manager, she was in charge of several major projects in the area of smart materials, materials for thermal management, gas sensing, fuel cell components, and the modeling and prediction of materials reliability. Dr. Momoda received her B.S. in chemical engineering from the University of California, Los Angeles, and M.S. and Ph.D. in materials sciences and engineering from the University of California, Los Angeles.


Dr. Ozden Ochoa Professor Emerita at Texas A&M University, holds the distinction of Fellow in ASME, in ASC and World Fellow in ICCM.  She integrates computational and experimental mechanics of composites to overcome challenges in aerospace, offshore, automotive and biomedical applications.  Dr. Ochoa as an IPA initiated and led numerous novel programs as the Associate Director for Science & Technology at ARL, interim-Director of Aerospace Sciences & Materials at AFOSR, as Composites-ST at the Materials & Manufacturing Directorate at AFRL.  She has served on boards of numerous journals, professional societies, national and international agencies including NATO Science for Peace Projects.  Among her honors are the ASTM D30 Wayne Stinchcomb Memorial Award, ASC-Destech Award-Composites, ASME Dedicated Service Award, and TAMU International Excellence Award. 


Dr. Hendrick “Henk” Ruck is Director and senior program manager at Edaptive Computing Inc. (ECI), a woman-owned small business providing innovative process and system solutions for optimization, automation, and assurance. Dr. Ruck is responsible for all phases of program development and management for research, development and acquisition of technologies and capabilities for improving human performance and biomedical operations for both military and commercial customers. He has led and managed several complex, multi-million-dollar projects applying and enhancing ECI capabilities to medical and biomedical operations. He has led and managed large, in-house teams of developers while, at the same time, leading more than ten subcontractors. In addition, he has increased the technical project portfolio by successfully gaining additional competitive contracts for ECI. Prior to joining ECI, he has several years’ experience as a successful consultant advising medical network CEO’s on planning, visioning and building patient care innovation, and enhancing applied research. In addition, he has worked with several small businesses and two universities to build research teams and proposals for federal funding. Dr. Ruck has over thirty years of government research, operations and management in all facets of human factors. His most recent assignment was director, Air Force Research Laboratory Human Effectiveness where he led a 1200-person research group in training methods and systems; system interface design technologies; physiological, psychological and physical effects of extreme environments, individual and team performance; and personnel protection. He served as associate director, special team, Office of Science and Technology Policy at the White House where he led a cross agency team to bring education technology from academic and government laboratories to education and training settings in the U.S. He has had more than a dozen Air Force assignments, the final seven years as a senior executive. Dr. Ruck is internationally known for his expertise in judgment and decision making in conditions of uncertainty and stress, human-systems integration, behavioral sciences, cognitive science and operations research. He is a fellow of the American Psychological Association and the Society for Military Psychology.


Mr. F. Whitten Peters is Senior Counsel at Williams and Connolly, LLP, and served as the 19th Secretary of the United States Air Force, where he oversaw the recruiting, training and equipping of the 365,000 men and women on active duty, 180,000 members of the Air National Guard and the Air Force Reserve, and 165,000 civilians of the total force. Secretary Peters was further responsible for planning, justifying and allocating the Air Force’s annual budget of approximately $71 billion. Previously, he served as the Department of Defense Principal Deputy General Counsel. He also served in the Navy Reserve as a Computer Systems Division Officer and Company Commander. Secretary Peters served as the President of the Air Force Association and has been a member of several advisory organizations, including the National Commission on the Structure of the Air Force, the Defense Science Board, and the presidential advisory Commission on the Future of the United States Aerospace Industry. He has been on the Board of Trustees for the Air Force Aid Society, the Air Force Academy’s Falcon Foundation, and the Air Force Enlisted Village. Secretary Peters earned a B.A. in government from Harvard University, a M.Sc. in economics from the London School of Economics, and a juris doctor degree from Harvard Law School.


Dr. Julie J.C.H. Ryan is Professor for systems management at the National Defense University. Previously Dr. Ryan was a visiting scholar for the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); associate professor of engineering management and systems engineering, 2009-2016, and department chair, 2010-2012 at George Washington University. She holds a B.S. degree in humanities from the U.S. Air Force Academy, M.L.S. in technology from Eastern Michigan University, and D.Sc. in Engineering Management from the George Washington University. Dr. Ryan began her career as an Intelligence Officer, serving the U.S. Air Force and the U.S. Defense Intelligence Agency, working a series of increasingly responsible positions throughout her distinguished career. Her areas of interest are in information security and information warfare research.


Dr. Michael Schneider is Group Leader in astronomy and astrophysics analytics at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). He possesses over ten years of experience in the applications of statistical and numerical methods to the analysis of large data sets. He wrote his Ph.D. thesis on simulation frameworks for the future Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) under the direction of the founding director of the project. He moved to a post-doctoral position in the U.K. in 2008 working on simulations of galaxy formation on high-performance computing resources for application to the Pan-STARRS 1 sky survey. He then moved back to the U.S. in 2010 to start a science program in dark energy at LLNL targeted for the LSST. Over the past nine years at LLNL, Dr. Schneider has built a new team at the lab in Data Analytics for astronomy. He now also leads a large inter-disciplinary research team at LLNL focused on development of novel machine learning and quantum computing algorithms. Dr. Schneider has served on a variety of U.S. government agency review teams to help plan the next generation of data exploitation approaches for upcoming synoptic sky surveys. From 2015-2018 he led the Weak Gravitational Lensing working group in the LSST Dark Energy Science Collaboration. At LLNL, he now serves on the Data Science Institute governing Council. Dr. Schneider earned his B.S. in physics from the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign and his Ph.D. in physics from the University of California, Davis.


Dr. Grant Stokes is the head of the Space Systems and Technology Division at MIT’s Lincoln Laboratory. In this position, he is responsible for the laboratory’s programs in space control and electro-optical systems and technology. In that capacity, Dr. Stokes supervised the demonstration and transition of the first space-based space-surveillance system to Air Force operations and has initiated programs to develop next-generation technology for establishing Space Situation Awareness (SSA). These programs include the Space Surveillance Telescope (SST), which will provide a 3.5-meter aperture prototype ground-based space surveillance search system, and a program to upgrade the Haystack Radar to W-band operations, yielding high resolution radar images of satellites. Previously, Dr. Stokes served as a member of the Air Force Scientific Advisory Board (SAB), where he led the 2006 SAB Summer Study on Space Survivability and the 2007 review of the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR), and is the co-chair of the Defense Science Board Space Resilience Task Force. Dr. Stokes holds a B.S. in physics from Colorado College and a Ph.D. in physics from Princeton University.


Dr. Zachary Tudor is Associate Laboratory Director for National and Homeland Security (N&HS) at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). N&HS is a major center for national security technology development and demonstration, employing 500 scientists and engineers across $300M in programs at the lab. He is responsible for INL’s Nuclear Nonproliferation, Critical Infrastructure Protection and Defense Systems missions. These missions include heavy manufacturing of armor, application of INL’s full-scale and unique infrastructure (grid, wireless testbed, explosives range, and a number of research facilities). In addition to the Department of Energy, these missions also support major programs for Department of Defense, Department of Homeland Security, and the intelligence community. Previously, Tudor served as program director in the Computer Science Laboratory at SRI International, where he acted as a management and technical resource for operational and research and development cybersecurity programs for government, intelligence and commercial projects. He supported DHS’s Cyber Security Division on projects including the Linking the Oil and Gas Industry to Improve Cybersecurity consortium, and the Industrial Control System Joint Working Group R&D working group. He has served as a member of (ISC)2’s Application Security Advisory Board and the Nuclear Cyber Security Working Group of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory
Commission, as well as the vice chair of the Institute for Information Infrastructure Protection at George Washington University. Prior to joining SRI, Tudor led a team of cybersecurity engineers and analysts directly supporting the Control Systems Security Program at DHS, whose mission is to reduce the cybersecurity risk to critical infrastructure systems. Past assignments include on-site deputy program manager for the National Reconnaissance Office’s world-wide operational network; information security manager for the Secretary of Defense’s Chief Information Officer’s Enterprise Operations Support Team; security management support for the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services; and several senior-level consulting positions including vice president of SAIC’s Enabling Technology Division, and senior manager for DOD programs at Bearing Point’s Security Practice. A retired U.S. Navy Submarine Electronics Limited Duty Officer and chief data systems technician, Tudor holds an M.S. in information systems from George Mason University concentrating in cybersecurity, where he was also an adjunct professor teaching graduate courses in information security. His professional credentials include the Certified Information Systems Security Professional, Certified Information Security Manager and Certified Computer Professional.


Ms. Deborah L. Westphal is Managing Director of the strategy advisory firm, Toffler Associates. Recognized globally for her expertise in strategy, innovation and organizational transformation, Ms. Westphal helps organizations understand the forces that drive change in their industries and the world, and identifies the best courses of action to create enduring success. Ms. Westphal came to Toffler Associates in 1999 after 13 years as a senior government official in the U.S. Air Force. Her work in the area of technology and advanced concepts for air vehicles, missiles and space systems have been recognized with numerous awards from the California Air Force Association, a USAF Meritorious Civilian Award, an AFA Los Angeles Chapter Civilian of the Year award, and an Air Force Association Medal of Merit. Ms Westphal has also served on the US Army Science Board, the National Defense Industrial Association Greater Los Angeles Chapter Board of Directors, and the Air Force Association, Schriever Chapter 147 Board of Directors.


Dr. Michael I. Yarymovych (NAE) is President of Sarasota Space Associates. Until the end of 2013 he was Senior Fellow of the Air Force Scientific Advisory Board (SAB) and has served on numerous SAB and Defense Science Board studies. He retired from the Boeing Company in 1998 as Vice President of International Technology in the Information, Space and Defense Systems organization. Prior to the merger of Rockwell International with Boeing he was Vice President and Associate Center Director of the Systems Development Center, which focused the Corporation’s resources on new high technology advanced concepts requiring the skills of many divisions. He had joined Rockwell in 1977 as Vice President, Engineering of the Aerospace Operations in leadership positions of programs such as the Space Shuttle, Global Positioning System, Ballistic Missile Defence, and the B1B strategic aircraft. He started his engineering career in 1959 at AVCO R&D Division leading projects in electric propelled space systems. In 1962 he joined NASA Headquarters as Assistant Director of Systems Engineering in the Apollo project and later moved to the Air Force as Technical Director of the Air Force Manned Orbital Laboratory, and Deputy for Requirements to the Assistant Secretary for Research and Development. In 1970 he was posted in Paris as Director of the NATO Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development (AGARD), which was later changed to be the NATO Research and Technology Organization (RTO). In the 1990s he was elected Chairman of AGARD and later of RTO. From 1975 to 1977 he served as the Chief Scientist of the U.S. Air Force which was followed by a Presidential appointment to be the Assistant Administrator of the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration responsible for field operations of the national and government owned energy (former AEC) laboratories. From 1991 to 1997 Dr. Yarymovych was President of the International Academy of Astronautics, of which he was also vice president for Scientific Programs since 1985. He is an Honorary Fellow of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA), and recipient of the Distinguished Service Award. He served as president of the AIAA from 1982 to 1983. He is Fellow of the American Astronautical Society, Honorary Member of the French Air and Space Academy. He is four-time recipient of the Air Force Exceptional Civilian Service Award, the service’s highest decoration; he also received the ERDA Distinguished Service Award, the Von Karman Medal from the NATO Research and Technology Organization, and the Theodor Von Karman Award from the International Academy of Astronautics. Dr. Yarymovych holds a B. Eng Sc. in Aeronautical Engineering magna cum laude, New York University; M.S. in Engineering Mechanics, Columbia University; D. Eng. Sc. in Engineering Mechanics, Columbia University. Dr. Yarymovych is the author of many publications on topics ranging from lunar mapping to strategic defense policy. He was the Associate Editor of the Encyclopedia of Space Science and Technology published by Wiley and Sons in 2003. For several years, he translated the Russian journal Applied Mathematics and Mechanics.

Director, Air Force Studies Board
Ms. Ellen Y. Chou is responsible for directing all program and research activities conducted under the auspices of the AFSB. Prior to joining the Academies she worked as a Program Director in the Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics in the Department of Defense where she provided strategic leadership on the Department’s acquisition efficiency and improvement initiatives and directed industry relations. Ellen also worked for more than 15 years in industry as a Program Manager, responsible for technical, financial, and contractual oversight of multiple professional services contracts in support of the United States Air Force. She earned her Master of Arts degree in security policy studies from the Elliott School of International Affairs at the George Washington University and Bachelor of Arts degrees with honors in public policy studies and economics from the University of Chicago. She is a certified Contracting Officer Representative (COR) and has completed executive-level education at Harvard University’s Kennedy School.




AFSB Staff

Ellen Chou, Director

George Coyle, Senior Program Officer

Ryan Murphy, Program Officer

Adrianna Hargrove, Financial Associate

Marguerite Schneider, Administrative Coordinator

Catherine Puma, Research Assistant