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America's Energy Future
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America's Energy Future Summit Archive




About America's Energy Future Initiative

Responding to the new sense of urgency about the nation’s energy future is difficult due to competing national priorities and interests, such as reducing oil import dependence, ensuring that affordable energy is available, and reducing carbon dioxide emissions. Sensible decisions about alternatives to current technologies for using energy more efficiently and for ensuring an affordable supply of energy from a diversity of sources require a credible and widely accepted analysis of technology options and their costs and impacts. Many recent studies have explored technology options for shaping future energy use. However, key results of those studies are conflicting and seem to reflect real disagreements about technology potential, particularly in areas such as biomass, energy efficiency, renewable electric power, nuclear power, and advanced coal technologies.


The National Research Council is drawing on the principal strengths and reputation of the National Academies to inform the national debate about the nation’s energy future by providing authoritative estimates of the current contributions and future potential of existing and new energy supply and demand technologies, their associated impacts, and projected costs so that policy options can be productively considered, debated, and decided by the nation.


The America’s Energy Future (AEF) effort at the National Academies is designed to provide an authoritative analysis of technology options and their costs and impacts to help make sensible decisions about the nation’s energy future. The AEF effort’s principal task is to critically review the portfolio of recently completed major studies on energy use and technology’s potential for improvement, compare their assumptions, analyze the currency and quality of information used, and assess the relative state of maturity of technologies for potential deployment in the next decade to reduce U.S. dependence on oil imports and CO2 emissions while ensuring that affordable energy is available to sustain economic growth.

The NRC’s America’s Energy Future (AEF) effort is planned as two phases:

  • Phase I: Foundational analysis to provide a technical base that narrows uncertainty in the cost, performance, and possible impacts of existing and prospective energy technology alternatives. The principal goal of Phase I is not to produce a new U.S. energy policy or deliver major recommendations about policy but, rather, to supply an authoritative technical basis for articulating energy policy options that can be productively considered, debated, and decided by the nation.
  • Phase II: Strategies for America’s energy future. Phase I is also intended to be the foundation for a Phase II portfolio of studies to be conducted at the Academies and in other organizations to address reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, transportation policy, the prospects for major increases in the use of biofuels and other alternative fuels in the U.S., energy research and development priorities, strategic energy technology development, policy analysis, and many related subjects.

The AEF study, in Phase I, is currently analyzing the potential of advanced coal technologies, nuclear power, renewable energy technologies, hydrogen and energy storage technologies, advanced transportation power train technologies, and technologies to improve energy efficiency in residential and commercial buildings, industry, and transportation.  The study committee is critically reviewing the existing literature and ongoing work, much of it compiled in an electronic library assembled for this project, to produce a series of four reports.


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Summit Agenda and presentations

Agenda, Presentations and Biographies

March 13-14, 2008
National Academy of Sciences Building
2100 C St. NW Washington D.C.

The National Academies Summit on America’s Energy Future was a two-day, critical overview of the recent influential energy studies and initiatives. This timely event was intended to stimulate discussion among participants with diverse points of view on energy issues.


The National Academies Summit on America’s Energy Future

March 13-14, 2008

Final Agenda

Speaker Biographies are at the end of the agenda


Thursday, March 13, Auditorium, National Academy of Sciences Building


8:00-8:30 a.m.

Welcome and Introduction
Ralph J. Cicerone, President, National Academy of Sciences



 Current U.S. Energy Policy Context
Sen. Jeff Bingaman, Chair, Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, U.S. Senate



8:30-9:00 a.m.

Meeting Emerging Challenges to Global Energy Security
Reuben Jeffery III, Under Secretary for Economic, Energy and Agricultural Affairs, U.S. Department of State



9:00-9:30 a.m.

The Geopolitical Context of America’s Energy Future
James R. Schlesinger, Chairman, The MITRE Corporation and Senior Advisor, Lehman Brothers



9:30-10:00 a.m.


10:00-10:10 a.m.

Summit Overview
Robert W. Fri, Senior Fellow Emeritus, Resources for the Future


 Session 1
Moderator: Maxine Savitz


10:10-10:20 a.m.

Introduction to Session 1
Maxine Savitz, Vice President, National Academy of Engineering



10:20-10:45 a.m.

Global Energy and Environment Projections: Next Steps
Ged Davis, Co-President, Global Energy Assessment, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, former managing director, World Economic Forum



10:45-11:15 a.m.

The Rise of China
Kelly Sims Gallagher, Director, Energy Technology Innovation Policy, Belfer center, and Adjunct Lecturer at the Kennedy School, Harvard University




11:15-11:45 a.m.

Facing the Hard Truths About Energy
Rodney Nelson, Vice President, Schlumberger; National Petroleum Council lead on carbon management


11:45 a.m. - noon

Session 1 Question and Answer Forum



Noon-1:30 p.m.



Session 2

Moderator: Harold Shapiro



1:30-1:45 p.m.

Introduction to Session 2
Harold T. Shapiro, President Emeritus, Princeton University and Chair, National Research Council Committee on America’s Energy Future



1:45-2:30 p.m.

The Future of Coal and Nuclear Power
Ernest J. Moniz, Professor, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and Co-Chair, MIT Interdisciplinary Study on the Future of Nuclear Power and the Future of Coal Power





2:30-3:00 p.m.

Biofuels: How Much, How Fast, and How Difficult?
Jose Goldemberg, Secretary for the Environment, State of São Paulo, Brazil and Co-chair, Global Energy Assessment Council, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis



3:00-3:30 p.m.




3:30-4:00 p.m.

Automotive Fuel Economy: How Far Should We Go?
Paul R. Portney, Dean, Eller College of Management, University of Arizona and Chair, National Research Council Committee on Effectiveness and Impact of Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards



4:00-4:30 p.m.

Prospects of a Hydrogen Economy
Michael P. Ramage, Executive VP, ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Co. (Retired), and Chair, National Research Council Committee on Alternatives and Strategies for Future Hydrogen Production and Use



4:30-5:15 p.m.

Perspectives on America’s Energy Future
Samuel W. Bodman, Secretary, U.S. Department of Energy
Moderator: Ralph J. Cicerone


Text of Remarks


5:15-6:30 p.m.

Reception: Great Hall, National Academy of Sciences Building



Friday, March 14, Auditorium, National Academy of Sciences Building



Session 3

Moderator: Charles M. Vest


8:00-8:15 a.m.

Introduction to Session 3
Charles M. Vest, President, National Academy of Engineering



8:15 a.m.-9:00 a.m.

Basic Research and America’s Energy Future
Raymond L. Orbach, Undersecretary for Science, U.S. Department of Energy




9:00-9:45 a.m.

Ending the Energy Stalemate
John P. Holdren, Professor, Harvard University and Co-Chair, National Commission on Energy Policy




9:45-10:15 a.m.

Google’s RechargeIT Program for Commercial Deployment of Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles
Dan W. Reicher, Director, Climate Change and Energy Initiatives,


10:15-110:45 a.m.



10:45-11:15 a.m.

Electricity Innovation Pathways
Steven R. Specker, President, Electric Power Research Institute



11:15 a.m.-noon

Session 3 Question and Answer Forum



Noon-1:15 p.m.



Session 4

Moderator: Richard A. Meserve


1:15-1:30 p.m.

Introduction to Session 4
Richard A. Meserve, President, Carnegie Institution for Science



1:30-2:00 p.m.

Lighting the Way: Toward a Sustainable Energy Future
Steven Chu, Director, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, and Co-Chair, Interacademy Council Study Panel on a Sustainable Energy Future





2:00-2:30 p.m.

Reducing U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions: How Much at What Cost?
Jon Creyts, Principal, McKinsey and Co.
Ken Ostrowski, Director, McKinsey & Company




2:30-3:00 p.m.



3:00-3:30 p.m.

Winning the Oil End Game
Amory Lovins, CEO, Rocky Mountain Institute, and Principal Investigator, Winning the Oil End Game


3:30-4:00 p.m.

Climate Change Technologies
Robert Marlay, Deputy Director, Climate Change Technology Program, U.S. Department of Energy



4:00-4:30 p.m.

Session 4 Question and Answer Forum


4: 30 p.m.

Closing Remarks and Adjourn
Robert Fri, Senior Fellow Emeritus, Resources for the Future




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Speaker Biographies


Jeff Bingaman grew up in Silver City in a family with deep New Mexico small town roots. His father was a science professor at Western New Mexico University, and his mother taught in the public schools. He graduated from high school in Silver City. After graduating from Harvard University, he earned a law degree at Stanford. There he met fellow law student Anne Kovacovich. After graduation, they married and returned to New Mexico, where they both practiced law, and their son, John, was born.


Jeff was elected New Mexico Attorney General in 1978. In 1982, he won election to the United States Senate, and in 2006, was re-elected to serve a fifth term.


Samuel Wright Bodman was sworn in as the 11th Secretary of Energy on February 1, 2005 after the United States Senate unanimously confirmed him on January 31, 2005. He leads the Department of Energy with a budget in excess of $23 billion and over 100,000 federal and contractor employees.


Previously, Secretary Bodman served as Deputy Secretary of the Treasury beginning in February 2004. He also served the Bush Administration as the Deputy Secretary of the Department of Commerce beginning in 2001. A financier and executive by trade, with three decades of experience in the private sector, Secretary Bodman was well suited manage the day-to-day operations of both of these cabinet agencies.


Born in 1938 in Chicago, he graduated in 1961 with a B.S. in chemical engineering from Cornell University. In 1965, he completed his ScD at Massachusetts Institute of Technology. For the next six years he served as an Associate Professor of Chemical Engineering at MIT and began his work in the financial sector as Technical Director of the American Research and Development Corporation, a pioneer venture capital firm. He and his colleagues provided financial and managerial support to scores of new business enterprises located throughout the United States.


From there, Secretary Bodman went to Fidelity Venture Associates, a division of the Fidelity Investments. In 1983 he was named President and Chief Operating Officer of Fidelity Investments and a Director of the Fidelity Group of Mutual Funds. In 1987, he joined Cabot Corporation, a Boston-based Fortune 300 company with global business activities in specialty chemicals and materials, where he served as Chairman, CEO, and a Director. Over the years, he has been a Director of many other publicly owned corporations.

Secretary Bodman has also been active in public service. He is a former Director of M.I.T.'s School of Engineering Practice and a former member of the M.I.T. Commission on Education. He also served as a member of the Executive and Investment Committees at M.I.T., a member of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences, and a Trustee of the Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum and the New England Aquarium.


Secretary Bodman is married to M. Diane Bodman. He has three children, two stepchildren, and eight grandchildren.



Steve Chu became Berkeley Lab’s sixth Director on August 1, 2004. He is also Professor of Physics and Professor of Molecular and Cell Biology at the University of California, Berkeley.


His distinguished career in laboratory research began as a postdoctoral fellow in physics at the University of California’s Berkeley campus from 1976-78, during which time he also utilized the facilities of Berkeley Lab. His first career appointment was as a member of the technical staff at AT&T Bell Laboratories from 1978-87. He spent many years there as the Head of the Quantum Electronics Department, during which time he began his groundbreaking work in cooling and trapping atoms by using laser light.


In 1987, he became a professor in the Physics and Applied Physics Departments at Stanford University. His work eventually led to the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1997, an honor he shared with Claude Cohen-Tannoudji of France and United States colleague William D. Phillips. Their discoveries were instrumental in the study of fundamental phenomena and in measuring important physical quantities with unprecedented precision.


Dr. Chu was the Theodore and Francis Geballe Professor of Physics and Applied Physics at Stanford University, where he remained for 17 years as highly decorated scientist, teacher and administrator. At Stanford, he helped start Bio-X, a multi-disciplinary initiative linking the physical and biological sciences with engineering and medicine. He has become active in the energy problem and is co-chairing an international InterAcademy Council (IAC) study, “Lighting the way: Toward a Sustainable Energy Future; Transitioning to Sustainable Energy.” The IAC represents over 90 national academics of science around the world.


He has held numerous visiting lectureships that include Harvard University, the JILA Institute, Collège de France, Oxford and Cambridge. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS), the American Philosophical Society, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the Academia Sinica, and is a foreign member of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and of the Korean Academy of Science and Engineering.


He serves on the Boards of the Hewlett Foundation, the University of Rochester, and NVIDIA. He has served on a number of committees, including the Augustine Committee that produced the report “Rising Above the Gathering Storm” in 2006, the Advisory Committee to the Director of both the National Institutes of Health and the National Nuclear Security Agency, and was a member of the Executive Committee of the NAS Board on Physics and Astronomy.


Born in St. Louis and raised in New York, Dr. Chu earned an A.B. in mathematics and a B.S. in physics from the University of Rochester, a Ph.D in physics from UC Berkeley, and ten honorary degrees. He maintains a vigorous research program and directly supervises a team of graduate students and postdoctoral fellows. He is author or co-author of more than 200 articles and professional papers, and over two dozen former members of his group are now professors at leading research universities around the world.



Ralph J. Cicerone, president of the National Academy of Sciences, is an atmospheric scientist whose research in atmospheric chemistry and climate change has involved him in shaping science and environmental policy at the highest levels nationally and internationally.


His research was recognized on the citation for the 1995 Nobel Prize in chemistry awarded to University of California, Irvine colleague F. Sherwood Rowland. The Franklin Institute recognized his fundamental contributions to the understanding of greenhouse gases and ozone depletion by selecting Cicerone as the 1999 laureate for the Bower Award and Prize for Achievement in Science. One of the most prestigious American awards in science, the Bower also recognized his public policy leadership in protecting the global environment. In 2001, he led a National Academy of Sciences study of the current state of climate change and its impact on the environment and human health, requested by President Bush. The American Geophysical Union awarded him its 2002 Roger Revelle Medal for outstanding research contributions to the understanding of Earth’s atmospheric processes, biogeochemical cycles, or other key elements of the climate system. In 2004, the World Cultural Council honored him with another of the scientific community’s most distinguished awards, the Albert Einstein World Award in Science.


During his early career at the University of Michigan, Cicerone was a research scientist and held faculty positions in electrical and computer engineering. In 1978 he joined the Scripps Institution of Oceanography at the University of California, San Diego as a research chemist. From 1980 to 1989, he was a senior scientist and director of the atmospheric chemistry division at the National Center for Atmospheric Research in Boulder, Colorado. In 1989 he was appointed the Daniel G. Aldrich Professor of Earth System Science at the University of California, Irvine and chaired the department of earth system science from 1989 to 1994. While serving as dean of physical sciences for the next four years, he brought outstanding faculty to the school and strengthened its curriculum and outreach programs. Prior to his election as Academy president, Cicerone was the chancellor of the University of California, Irvine from 1998 to 2005.

Cicerone is a member of the National Academy of Sciences, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and the American Philosophical Society. He has served as president of the American Geophysical Union, the world's largest society of earth scientists, and he received its James B. Macelwane Award in 1979 for outstanding contributions to geophysics. He has published about 100 refereed papers and 200 conference papers, and has presented invited testimony to the U.S. Senate and House of Representatives on a number of occasions.


Cicerone received his bachelor's degree in electrical engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology where he was a varsity baseball player. Both his master's and doctoral degrees are from the University of Illinois in electrical engineering, with a minor in physics.



Jon Creyts is a Principal in the Chicago Office of McKinsey & Company, Inc. Jon joined McKinsey in October 2000. He is the US lead for the McKinsey Special Initiative on Climate Change and a co-leader of the global Capital Productivity Practice. Jon has a concentrated knowledge of environmental management, capital productivity, plant operations, and fuel marketing/sourcing strategies. Recent engagements have included:

  • Consulting with industrial companies, non-profits and government organizations to analyze abatement costs, regulatory approaches and management strategies to mitigate climate change risk
  • Supporting capital portfolio management at multiple electric utilities, petroleum and metals & mining companies; portfolio support focuses on strategic allocation decisions and project execution of environmental retrofits and greenfield/brownfield capacity development
  • Leading lean operational improvement programs at power generating portfolios for multiple utilities
  • Designing integrated fuel marketing and purchasing strategies for energy-intensive industries

Jon has served clients in the electric power, metals and mining, petroleum, travel and logistics, and retail sectors.


Prior to joining McKinsey, Jon was a graduate researcher and teaching assistant at the University of California, Berkeley, where he spent five years in the Department of Mechanical Engineering. His dissertation research focused on the environmental optimization of industrial systems. His tenure there was preceded by three years as a development engineer in Lockheed Martin’s renowned Skunk Works design facility. He has also worked shorter stints in the electric power industry as both design and plant engineers.


Jon received a Ph.D. in mechanical engineering from the University of California, Berkeley in December 2000. Additional engineering degrees include a M.Sc. from Berkeley in May 1998 and a B.Sc. from the University of Illinois in May 1992.



Ged Davis is managing director of the World Economic Forum's new Centre for Strategic Insight, where he is responsible for research, scenario development, and helping to shape the annual WEF meeting at Davos, which brings together 2,000 corporate, government, and nonprofit leaders to discuss global challenges.


Before heading the Centre for Strategic Insight, Ged spent 30 years with Royal Dutch/Shell, which he joined in 1972. Most recently, he was the vice president of global business environment for Shell International in London. He also served as head of Shell's scenarios team, which developed global scenarios every three or four years to inform Shell strategy and provoke broader debate on global energy and social issues. He also held various technical, business development, and management roles for Shell companies around the world.


Ged is a member of the Board of Governors of the International Development Research Centre in Ottawa and the director of UNAIDS's "AIDS in Africa" scenario project. He has led four global scenario projects in recent years, including Shell's global scenarios and a multi-year, multi-stakeholder look at sustainability for the World Business Council.


Ged is an economist and engineer by training. He holds an undergraduate degree in mining engineering from Imperial College, London, and postgraduate degrees in economics and engineering from the London School of Economics and Stanford University.



John P. Holdren is the Teresa and John Heinz Professor of Environmental Policy and Director of the Program on Science, Technology, and Public Policy at the Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, as well as President and Director of the Woods Hole Research Center. He is also Professor of Environmental Science and Policy in Harvard’s Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences and the immediate past President and current Chair of the Board of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (the largest general science society in the world). His work has focused on causes and consequences of global environmental change, sustainable development, energy technology and policy, nuclear arms control and nonproliferation, and science and technology policy.


Dr. Holdren is a member of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and the Council on Foreign Relations. From 1993 through 2004 he served as Chair of the Committee on International Security and Arms Control of the National Academy of Sciences, and from 1994 to 2001 he was a member of President Clinton's Committee of Advisors on Science and Technology. (In the latter capacity, he led major studies for the White House on US energy research and development strategy, nuclear nonproliferation, and international cooperation on energy. Since 2002 he has been Co-Chair of the independent, bipartisan National Commission on Energy Policy, and from 2004 to the present he has served as a coordinating lead author of the Scientific Expert Group on Climate Change and Sustainable Development, reporting to the Department of Economic and Social Affairs and the Commission on Sustainable Development of the United Nations.


He is a recipient of a MacArthur Foundation Prize Fellowship (1981-6), the Volvo International Environment Prize (1993), the Kaul Foundation Award for Scientific Excellence (1999), the Tyler Environment Prize (2000), and the John Heinz Prize in Public Policy (2001), among other awards. In 1995 he gave the acceptance speech for the Nobel Peace Prize on behalf of the Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs (where he served as Chair of the Executive Committee from 1987 to 1997).



Robert Fri is a visiting scholar and senior fellow emeritus at Resources for the Future, a nonprofit organization that studies natural resource and environmental issues. He has served as director of the National Museum of Natural History, president of Resources for the Future, and deputy administrator of both the Environmental Protection Agency and the Energy Research and Development Administration. Fri is currently a director of American Electric Power Company; vice-chair and a director of the Electric Power Research Institute; a trustee and vice-chair of Science Service, Inc.; and a member of the National Petroleum Council. He is active with the National Academies, where he is National Associate, vice-chair of the Board on Energy and Environmental Systems, and a member of the Advisory Board of the Marion E. Koshland Science Museum. He has chaired studies for the National Research Council on the health standards for the Yucca Mountain repository and on estimating the benefits of applied research programs at the Department of Energy. He currently chairs a study to evaluate the nuclear energy research program at DOE. Fri received his B.A. in physics from Rice University and his M.B.A. from Harvard University, and is a member of Phi Beta Kappa and Sigma Xi.



Kelly Sims Gallagher is Director of the Energy Technology Innovation Policy research group at Harvard University's Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs and Adjunct Lecturer in the Kennedy School of Government. She is an international member of the Task Force on Innovation for the China Council International Cooperation on Environment and Development. She recently published the MIT Press book, China Shifts Gears: Automakers, Oil, Pollution, and Development. Formerly, she was the Science Policy Director of Ozone Action in Washington, D.C.


She participated in more than a dozen rounds of international negotiations on global climate change and ozone depletion, and was an advisor to CNN in Kyoto and Buenos Aires for the climate negotiations. She was previously a Truman Scholar in the Office of Vice President Gore and worked in strategic planning at the international engineering and construction firm, Fluor Daniel.


She has an Artium Baccalaureatus in international affairs and environmental studies from Occidental College and a Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy and Doctor of Philosophy in international affairs from the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy at Tufts University.



Professor Jose Goldemberg is one of four recipients of the Volvo Environmental Prize presented in Sweden, October 16-17, 2000, for his work on a new policy-driven approach to the technical analysis of world energy needs, and how those needs could be met in the early decades of this new century.  This work conducted jointly with Thomas B. Johansson of Sweden, Amulya K. N. Reddy of India, and Robert Williams of USA, focused on a highly detailed examination of the prevailing patterns of energy end-use demand and their likely future trends, they show that it is still possible to take a whole-world view of the energy problem.


Their work identifies and describes strategies, which provide more informed basis for public policy decisions that would not only avoid the many problems arising from our "business-as-usual" approach to energy use, but would be consistent with the solution of other important global problems as well.


Professor Jose Goldemberg, a native of Brazil, earned his Ph.D. in Physical Science from the University of Sao Paulo where he served as rector and full professor from 1986-90.  From 1983-86 he directed the Energy Company of the State of Sao Paulo.  From 1990-92 he served the federal government in various capacities: as the Secretary of State for Science and Technology he modernized the information systems; as interim Secretary of the Environment he administered Brazil's participation in the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio; and as Minister of Education he prepared the proposal to Congress resulted in autonomy for federal universities.  He has authored many technical papers and books on nuclear physics, environment, and energy and has served as president of the Brazilian Association for the Advancement of Science.


He previously presided over the Brazilian Society of Physics and the Brazilian Society for the Progress of Science as his scientific work changed direction, first toward nuclear energy and then toward energy in general. In 1998 he published the acclaimed collaborative work entitled Energy for a Sustainable World.


Reuben Jeffery III, Under Secretary, Economic, Energy and Agricultural Affairs, Department of State

Term of Appointment: 06/27/2007 to present

As the Under Secretary for Economic, Energy and Agricultural Affairs, Reuben Jeffery III, serves as the senior economic official at the State Department. Mr. Jeffery advises the Secretary of State on international economic policy, and leads the work of the Department on issues ranging from trade, agriculture and aviation to bilateral relations with America's economic partners.


Nominated by President Bush on April 16, 2007, and confirmed by the Senate on June 21, 2007, Mr. Jeffery was sworn into office by Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice on June 27.


Most recently, Mr. Jeffery was Chairman of the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC), the federal agency that regulates commodity futures and options on futures trading in the U.S. In that capacity he served on the President’s Working Group on Financial Markets.


Mr. Jeffery previously served as the Special Assistant to the President and Senior Director for International Economic Affairs at the National Security Council. Mr. Jeffery also acted as the Representative and Executive Director of the Coalition Provisional Authority Office (CPA) at the Pentagon, after having served as an advisor to Ambassador Bremer in Iraq. Prior to joining the CPA in May of 2003, Mr. Jeffery was Special Advisor to the President for Lower Manhattan Development, where he coordinated ongoing federal efforts in support of the longer term recovery and redevelopment of Lower Manhattan in the aftermath of September 11, 2001.


Mr. Jeffery spent 18 years working for Goldman, Sachs & Co., where he was managing partner of Goldman Sachs in Paris (1997-2001) and of the firm’s European Financial Institutions Group (1992-1997) in London. Mr. Jeffery has a broad range of international capital markets, corporate finance and merger and acquisition experience.


Prior to joining Goldman Sachs, Mr. Jeffery was a lawyer with the New York firm of Davis Polk & Wardwell.


Mr. Jeffery received his BA degree in Political Science from Yale University in 1975 and Juris Doctor and Master of Business Administration degrees from Stanford University in 1981.


Amory Lovins, a MacArthur Fellow and consultant physicist, is among the world’s leading innovators in energy and its links with resources, security, development, and environment. He has advised the energy and other industries for more than three decades as well as the U.S. Departments of Energy and Defense. His work in 50+ countries has been recognized by the “Alternative Nobel,” Blue Planet, Volvo, Onassis, Nissan, Shingo, Goff Smith, and Mitchell Prizes, the Benjamin Franklin and Happold Medals, nine honorary doctorates, honorary membership of the American Institute of Architects, Foreign Membership of the Royal Swedish Academy of Engineering Sciences, an honorary Senior Fellowship of the Design Futures Council, and the Heinz, Lindbergh, Jean Meyer, Time Hero for the Planet, Time International Hero of the Environment, Popular Mechanics Breakthrough Leadership, and World Technology Awards. A Harvard and Oxford dropout and former Oxford don, he advises major firms and governments worldwide and has briefed 19 heads of state.


Mr. Lovins cofounded and is Chairman and Chief Scientist of Rocky Mountain Institute (, an independent, market-oriented, entrepreneurial, nonprofit, nonpartisan think-and-do tank that creates abundance by design. Much of its pathfinding work on advanced resource productivity (typically with expanding returns to investment) and innovative business strategies is synthesized in Natural Capitalism (1999, with Paul Hawken and L.H. Lovins, This intellectual capital provides most of RMI’s revenue through private-sector consultancy that has served or been invited by more than 80 Fortune 500 firms, lately redesigning $30 billion worth of facilities in 29 sectors. In 1992, RMI spun off E SOURCE (, and in 1999, Fiberforge Corporation (, a composites engineering firm that Mr. Lovins chaired until 2007; its technology permits cost-effective manufacturing of the ultralight-hybrid Hypercar® vehicles he invented in 1991.


The latest of his 29 books are Small Is Profitable: The Hidden Economic Benefits of Making Electrical Resources the Right Size (2002,, an Economist book of the year blending financial economics with electrical engineering, and the Pentagon-cosponsored Winning the Oil Endgame (2004,, a roadmap for eliminating U.S. oil use by the 2040s, led by business for profit. His most recent visiting academic chair was in spring 2007 as MAP/Ming Professor in Stanford’s School of Engineering, offering the University’s first course on advanced energy efficiency (



Dr. Bob Marlay is the Deputy Director of the U.S. Climate Change Technology Program (CCTP). Dr. Marlay is a career member of the Government's Senior Executive Service. He has more than 30 years of Federal Service and has been with the U.S. Department of Energy and its predecessor agencies since 1974. His contributions have focused primarily in the areas of national security, energy policy, science policy, and management of research and development programs. He serves concurrently as the Department's Director, Office of Science and Technology Policy, Office of Policy and International Affairs. He holds a B.S.E. degree from Duke University and a Ph.D. from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He is a licensed Professional Engineer in the District of Columbia.


Dr. Richard A. Meserve became the ninth president of the Carnegie Institution in April 2003, after stepping down as chairman of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Meserve had been a member of Carnegie's board of trustees since 1992.


As Chairman of the NRC, Meserve served as the principal executive officer of the federal agency with responsibility for ensuring the public health and safety in the operation of nuclear power plants and in the usage of nuclear materials. He served as chairman under both Presidents Clinton and Bush and led the NRC in responding to the terrorism threat that came to the fore after the 9/11 attacks. Before joining the NRC, Meserve was a partner in the Washington, D.C., law firm of Covington & Burling, and he now serves as Senior Of Counsel to the firm. With his Harvard law degree, received in 1975, and his Ph.D. in applied physics from Stanford, awarded in 1976, he devoted his legal practice to technical issues arising at the intersection of science, law, and public policy. This work involved nuclear licensing, environmental and toxic tort litigation, and counseling scientific societies and high-tech companies. Early in his career, he served as legal counsel to the President’s science advisor, and was a law clerk to Justice Harry A. Blackmun of the United States Supreme Court and to Judge Benjamin Kaplan of the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court. He received his undergraduate degree from Tufts University in 1966.


Meserve has served on numerous legal and scientific committees over the years, including many established by the National Academies of Sciences and Engineering. He also currently serves as chairman of the International Nuclear Safety Group, which is chartered by the International Atomic Energy Agency. Among other affiliations, he is a member of the American Philosophical Society and the National Academy of Engineering, and he is a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the American Physical Society, and Phi Beta Kappa. Meserve serves on the board of directors of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the Universities Research Association, Inc., and on the Council of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.


Ernest J. Moniz is a Professor of Physics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where he has served on the faculty since 1973. Professor Moniz served as Under Secretary of the Department of Energy from October 1997 until January 2001. He also served from 1995 to 1997 as Associate Director for Science in the Office of Science and Technology Policy in the Executive Office of the President, where his responsibilities spanned the physical, life, and social and behavioral sciences, science education, and university-government partnerships. At MIT, Professor Moniz served as Head of the Department of Physics and as Director of the Bates Linear Accelerator Center. His principal research contributions have been in theoretical nuclear physics, particularly in advancing nuclear reaction theory at high energy.


Professor Moniz received a Bachelor of Science degree in physics from Boston College, a doctorate in theoretical physics from Stanford University, and honorary doctorates from the University of Athens and the University of Erlangen-Nurenburg. He is a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the Humboldt Foundation, and the American Physical Society and a member of the Council on Foreign Relations. Professor Moniz received the 1998 Seymour Cray HPCC Industry Recognition Award for vision and leadership in advancing scientific simulation.


Rodney Nelson is vice president of Communications for Schlumberger Limited, as well as VP Innovation and Collaboration for Schlumberger. In these positions he is responsible for all internal and external communications and identifies external technologies and innovations applicable to the oil and gas industry. Prior to this position he was vice president of Strategic Marketing for Schlumberger.


In previous positions, Nelson served as vice president of Marketing for oilfield services products and services and president of Schlumberger Data and Consulting Services (DCS) where he directed operations of the industry’s largest data processing and geotechnical consulting organization for clients worldwide. He also served as vice president of Marketing for the Schlumberger Reservoir Management group, and vice president of Marketing and Product Development of the Schlumberger Wireline segment based in Paris.


Nelson joined Schlumberger as a wireline field engineer in 1980, and later worked as a petrophysicist and then Wireline operations manager.

Nelson led the technology task group for the 2007 landmark National Petroleum Council’s global oil and gas study “Facing the Hard Truths about Energy”. He also serves on a number of joint industry steering committees and boards including the corporate advisory boards of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists and the World Oil Awards. Active in the community, he is on the board of directors of the Greater Houston Partnership and the Fort Bend Education Foundation.

He holds a bachelor’s degree in engineering from the University of Wisconsin, Platteville, WI, and an executive MBA from MIT’s Sloan School of Management.


Raymond Lee Orbach was sworn in as the 14th Director of the Office of Science (SC) at the Department of Energy (DOE) on March 14, 2002. In this capacity, Dr. Orbach manages an organization that is the third largest Federal sponsor of basic research in the United States, the primary supporter of the physical sciences in the U.S., and one of the premier science organizations in the world.

The SC fiscal year 2006 budget of $3.6 billion funds programs in high energy and nuclear physics, basic energy sciences, magnetic fusion energy, biological and environmental research, and computational science. SC, formerly the Office of Energy Research, also provides management oversight of 10 DOE non-weapons laboratories, supports researchers at more than 275 colleges and universities nationwide, and builds and operates the world’s finest suite of scientific facilities and instruments used annually by more than 19,000 researchers to extend the frontiers of all areas of science.

From 1992 to 2002, Dr. Orbach served as Chancellor of the University of California (UC), Riverside. Under his leadership, UC Riverside doubled in size, achieved national and international recognition, and led the University of California in diversity and educational opportunity. In addition to his administrative duties at UC Riverside, Dr. Orbach maintained a strong commitment to teaching. He sustained an active research program; worked with postdoctoral, graduate, and undergraduate students in his laboratory; and taught the freshman physics course each winter quarter. As Distinguished Professor of Physics, Dr. Orbach set the highest standards for academic excellence. From his arrival, UC Riverside scholars led the nation for seven consecutive years in the number of fellows elected to the prestigious American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS).

Dr. Orbach began his academic career as a postdoctoral fellow at Oxford University in 1960 and became an assistant professor of applied physics at Harvard University in 1961. He joined the faculty of the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) two years later as an associate professor, and became a full professor in 1966. From 1982 to 1992, he served as the Provost of the College of Letters and Science at UCLA.

Dr. Orbach's research in theoretical and experimental physics has resulted in the publication of more than 240 scientific articles. He has received numerous honors as a scholar including two Alfred P. Sloan Foundation Fellowships, a National Science Foundation Senior Postdoctoral Fellowship at Oxford University, a John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation Fellowship at Tel Aviv University, the Joliot Curie Professorship at the Ecole Superieure de Physique et Chimie Industrielle de la Ville de Paris, the Lorentz Professorship at the University of Leiden in the Netherlands, the 1991-1992 Andrew Lawson Memorial Lecturer at UC Riverside, and the 2004 Arnold O. Beckman Lecturer in Science and Innovation at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

Dr. Orbach is a fellow of the American Physical Society and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Dr. Orbach has also held numerous visiting professorships at universities around the world. These include the Catholic University of Leuven in Belgium, Tel Aviv University, and the Imperial College of Science and Technology in London. He also serves as a member of 20 scientific, professional, and civic boards.

Dr. Orbach received his Bachelor of Science degree in Physics from the California Institute of Technology in 1956. He received his Ph.D. degree in Physics from the University of California, Berkeley, in 1960 and was elected to Phi Beta Kappa.


 Dr. Orbach was born in Los Angeles, California. He is married to Eva S. Orbach. They have three children and seven grandchildren.




Kenneth J. Ostrowski is a Director in McKinsey's Atlanta Office with over 23 years of consulting experience. Mr. Ostrowski is the leader of McKinsey’s North America Electric Power and Natural Gas (EPNG) Practice, and co-leads the Global EPNG Practice. Over the course of his career, he has served electric power, natural gas, and industrial clients in refining their strategic aspirations and direction, and aligning the organizational, regulatory, and operational elements necessary to execute.


Representative assignments include:

  • Co-leader of McKinsey’s year-long, multi-client sponsored initiative to analyze US abatement options and cost for GHG emissions in which a comprehensive cost curve of US abatement options was developed along with detailed perspectives on the coming US GHG challenges and implications
  • Led McKinsey’s participation in supporting a joint McKinsey/”Industry” assessment of “Energy 2015” with emphasis on the impacts of CO2 on future energy technologies and strategies, and previously, led a joint McKinsey/”Wallstreet” assessment of the strategic evolution of the power sector
  • Supported the formulation of regulatory and legislative strategies to address retail access and related market issues for an integrated electric power/natural gas utility, and led a major customer satisfaction transformation program.
  • Supported the design and execution of a corporate-wide utility transformation program including operations, procurement, and customer “end-to-end” processes which delivered substantial improvements in efficiency, reliability, and customer satisfaction while supporting the development of improved organizational capabilities and culture.
  • Developed a comprehensive generation growth strategy and executed an overall lean operations improvement program designed to achieve “best plant” performance aspirations and institute a culture of continuous improvement.

Before joining McKinsey & Company, Mr. Ostrowski was an intern at the Congressional Budget Office, and completed the two year Financial Management Program at General Electric Company. He received an M.B.A. in General Management with honors from Harvard Business School and a Bachelor's Degree in Finance, magna cum laude, from the University of Notre Dame.


Paul R. Portney became Dean of the Eller College of Management in July 2005. He also holds the College’s Halle Chair in Leadership and is a Professor of Economics.


From 1972 through June of 2005, Portney was with Resources for the Future (RFF), an independent and non-partisan research and educational organization in Washington, D.C., that specializes in energy and the environment. From 1986-1989 he headed two of its research divisions, in 1989 became its vice president, and was named president and CEO in 1995.

At RFF, Portney was instrumental in expanding the research staff, reinforcing the high quality of its analyses, and ensuring that its work was communicated clearly and effectively to policymakers, business leaders, journalists, environmental advocates, and academics. Portney also has a strong fundraising record, having led RFF through its successful 50th anniversary campaign that concluded in 2003.

From 1979-1980, Portney served as chief economist for the White House Council on Environmental Quality. He has held visiting teaching positions at both the University of California at Berkeley (1977-1979) and Princeton University (1992-1994), and since 1981 has been a core faculty member for The Washington Campus—a consortium of nearly 20 graduate schools of business that offer classes in Washington for both full-time and executive MBA students—and continuing education programs for major corporations.

Since 1999, Portney has been a member of and has chaired the Finance and Investment Committee for the Johnson Foundation, one of the charitable arms of the Johnson family of Racine, Wisconsin. Until 2005, he was a member of the Sustainable Forestry Board, serving with the CEOs of five major forest products companies and the heads of five environmental organizations.

Portney received his B.A. in economics in 1967 from Alma College in Michigan and his Ph.D. in economics from Northwestern University. He is the author or co-author of ten books, including Public Policies for Environmental Protection, and was recently named one of the 100 most-cited researchers in economics and business.


Michael P. Ramage is retired Executive Vice President, ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Company. Previously he was Executive Vice President and Chief Technology Officer, Mobil Oil Corporation. Dr. Ramage held a number of positions at Mobil including Research Associate, Manager of Process Research and Development, General Manager of Exploration and Producing Research and Technical Service, Vice President of Engineering, and President of Mobil Technology Company.


He has broad experience in many aspects of the petroleum and chemical industries. He has served on a number of university visiting committees and was a member of the Government University Industrial Research Roundtable. He was a Director of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers and is a member of several professional organizations. Dr. Ramage chaired the recent National Research Council report “The Hydrogen Economy: Opportunities, Costs, Barriers, and Research Needs”. He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering and has served on the NAE Council. Dr. Ramage has B.S., M.S., Ph.D., and HDR degrees in Chemical Engineering from Purdue University.


Dan Reicher has more than 20 years of experience in business, government and non-governmental organizations focused on energy and environmental technology, policy, finance and law. He recently joined Google where he serves as Director of Climate Change and Energy Initiatives for the company's new venture called has been capitalized with more than $1 billion of Google stock to make investments and advance policy in the areas of climate change and energy, global poverty, and global health.


Prior to his recent position at Google, Mr. Reicher served as President and Co-Founder of New Energy Capital Corp., a New England-based company that develops, invests in, owns and operates renewable energy and distributed generation projects. Mr. Reicher is also a member of General Electric's Ecomagination Advisory Board.

From 1997-2001, Mr. Reicher was Assistant Secretary of Energy for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). As Assistant Secretary, he directed annually more than $1 billion in investments in energy research, development and deployment related to renewable energy, distributed generation and energy efficiency. Prior to that position, Mr. Reicher was DOE Chief of Staff (1996-97), Assistant Secretary of Energy for Policy (Acting) (1995-1996), and Deputy Chief of Staff and Counselor to the Secretary (1993-1995). He was also a member of the U.S. Delegation to the Climate Change Negotiations, Co-Chair of the U.S. Biomass Research and Development Board, and a member of the board of the government-industry Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles. After leaving the Clinton Administration in 2001 he was a consultant to the Senate Environment and Public Works Committee and a Visiting Fellow at the World Resources Institute.


In 2002, Mr. Reicher became Executive Vice President of Northern Power Systems, a venture capital-backed renewable energy and distributed generation engineering, services and technology company with installations in more than forty-five countries. Mr. Reicher led the renewable energy sales group at Northern and also was actively involved with the company's project finance, government relations and public affairs initiatives. He also played a significant role in the successful sale of the company to Proton Energy Systems, a leading hydrogen company, and the simultaneous creation of Distributed Energy Systems, a new NASDAQ-listed holding company that now owns both Northern Power and Proton Energy.


Prior to his roles at the Department of Energy and in the business community, Mr. Reicher was a senior attorney with the Natural Resources Defense Council where he focused on the federal government's energy and nuclear programs as well as environmental law and policy issues in the former Soviet Union. He was also previously Assistant Attorney General for Environmental Protection in Massachusetts, a law clerk to a federal district court judge in Boston, a legal assistant in the Hazardous Waste Section of the U.S. Department of Justice, and a staff member of President Carter's Commission on the Accident at Three Mile Island.


Mr. Reicher currently is co-chairman of the advisory board of the American Council on Renewable Energy and a member of the boards of the American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy, the Vermont Energy Investment Corporation, the Keystone Center's Energy Program, and Circus Smirkus. He was also recently a member of the National Academy of Sciences Committee on Alternatives to Indian Point for Meeting Energy Needs.


Mr. Reicher also recently served as an adjunct professor at the Yale University School of Forestry and Environmental Studies and Vermont Law School. He holds a B.A. in Biology from Dartmouth College and a J.D. from Stanford Law School. He also studied at Harvard's Kennedy School of Government.


Mr. Reicher was a member of a National Geographic-sponsored expedition that was the first on record to navigate the entire 1888 mile Rio Grande and was also a member of the first group on record to kayak the Yangtze River in China.


Maxine Savitz (NAE) is currently a consultant.She recently retired as General Manager, Technology/Partnerships, Honeywell. She has held a number of positions in the federal and private sector managing large R&D programs, especially with respect to the development of energy technologies. Some of her positions include Chief, Buildings Conservation Policy Research, Federal Energy Administration; Professional Manager, Research Applied to National Needs, National Science Foundation; Division Director, Buildings and Industrial Conservation, Energy Research and Development Administration; Deputy Assistant Secretary for Conservation, U.S. Department of Energy; President, Lighting Research Institute; and General Manager, Ceramic Components, Allied Signal, Inc. (now Honeywell). She has extensive technical experience in materials, fuel cells, batteries and other storage devices, energy efficiency, and R&D management. She is a member of the National Academy of Engineering and has been, or is serving as, a member of numerous public and private sector boards, and has served on many energy-related and other NRC committees. She recently served on the National Research Council’s Committee on DOE R&D on Energy Efficiency and Fossil Energy. She has a Ph.D. in organic chemistry from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.


Dr. James R. Schlesinger currently divides his time between MITRE, where he serves as Chairman, and the investment banking firm of Lehman Brothers, where he serves as senior advisor. He is also a consultant to the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), a member of the Defense Policy Board, and a member of the Homeland Security Advisory Council. Dr. Schlesinger is a fellow of the National Academy of Public Administration and a member of the American Academy of Diplomacy. He is a director for Peabody Energy, KFx, Inc, Sandia National Corporation. He is also a counselor and trustee of the Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS), a trustee at the Atlantic Council, the Nixon Center, the National Cryptologic Museum Foundation, the Center for Global Energy Studies, and the Henry M. Jackson Foundation. He currently is co-chair of Defense Science Board Task Force on the Future of the Global Positioning System

Dr. Schlesinger was the nation's first Secretary of Energy and also served as the Secretary of Defense. Immediately prior to this appointment, he served as director of central intelligence. He was selected by President Nixon to serve as the chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission.


Dr. Schlesinger began his government service in 1969 as assistant director of the U.S. Bureau of the Budget (later the Office of Management and Budget), where he also served as acting deputy director.


He was a senior staff member at the RAND Corporation from 1963-1967, and RAND's director of strategic studies from 1967-1969. He also served as consultant to the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System and to the Bureau of the Budget and on many government commissions and advisory groups. He was vice chairman of the President's Blue Ribbon Task Group on Nuclear Weapons Program Management (1984-1985), and served on the Governor's Commission on Virginia's Future (1982-1984) and the President's Commission on Strategic Forces (1982-1983). In 1999-2003 he was a member of the Panel to Assess the Reliability, Safety, and Security of the U.S. Nuclear Stockpile, and in 1998-2001 he was a member of the U.S. Commission on National Security/21st Century (Hart-Rudman Commission).


From 1955 to 1963 he was assistant and then associate professor of economics at the University of Virginia.


Dr. Schlesinger has been awarded eleven honorary doctorates. He is the recipient of the National Security Medal, as well as five departmental and agency medals. He is the recipient of the Dwight D. Eisenhower Distinguished Service Medal, the George Catlett Marshall Medal, the H. H. Arnold Award, the Navy League's National Meritorious Citation, the Distinguished Service Award of the Military Order of the Carabao, the Jimmy Doolittle Award, the Military Order of the World Wars Distinguished Service Award, the Henry M. Jackson Award for Distinguished Public Service, and the William Oliver Baker Award.

Dr. Schlesinger is a published author of books and articles. In 1950 Dr. Schlesinger received a Bachelor of Arts degree summa cum laude from Harvard College, where he was elected to Phi Beta Kappa and was selected for the Frederick Sheldon Prize Fellowship. He received his Master of Arts and Doctoral degrees from Harvard University in 1952 and 1956, respectively.


Steven R. Specker, President and Chief Executive Officer of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Palo Alto, California, was elected by the EPRI Board of Directors on September 1, 2004.

Specker has an exceptionally strong technical and business background and an in-depth and highly respected knowledge of the electricity enterprise. His 37-year career has spanned nearly every dimension of the business. Prior to joining EPRI, Specker served as President of Specker Consulting, LLC, where he provided operational and strategic planning services to technology companies serving the global electric power industry.


In January 2003, Specker retired from General Electric (GE) after thirty years of diverse technical and business leadership experience with GE. He held various general management positions in GE businesses providing products and services for the generation, transmission, and distribution of electric power. From 1992 to 2000 Specker was President of GE's Nuclear Energy business where he was responsible for all GE activities in the global commercial nuclear power industry. In 2000 he was appointed President, GE Digital Energy where he was responsible for the formation and startup of a new business venture serving the growing needs of the digital economy for highly reliable electricity. He was named Vice President of Global Marketing for GE Energy in September of 2001. Earlier in his career, Specker was general manager of GE's electric meter, protective relay, and electrical engineering services businesses.


Specker began his career as a Nuclear Engineer for the Tennessee Valley Authority in Chattanooga, Tennessee from 1970 to 1973.

Specker holds a Bachelor of Science in engineering science, a Master of Science in nuclear engineering, and a doctorate in nuclear engineering from Iowa State University (1967-1970).


Harold T. Shapiro, President Emeritus and Professor of Economics and Public Affairs, Princeton University, was elected to the Dow Board of Directors in 1985. He was elected Presiding Director of The Board of Directors as of February 2003. Currently, he serves on the Audit Committee, the Environment, Health and Safety Committee, and the Executive Committee.


President of The University of Michigan 1980-87. President of Princeton University 1988-2001. President Emeritus and Professor of Economics and Public Affairs, Princeton University 2001 to date. Chairman, National Bioethics Advisory Commission 1996-2001. Presidential Appointment to the Council of Advisors on Science and Technology 1990-92. Director of HCA – The Healthcare Company and DeVry, Inc. Member of the Institute of Medicine and the American Philosophical Society. Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Trustee and Chair of the Board of the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation. Trustee of the University of Pennsylvania Medical Center and The Universities Research Association. Member of the Board of Overseers for the Robert Wood Johnson Medical Center, and board member of The Hastings Center and the United States Olympic Committee.


Dr. Vest earned a B.S. in mechanical engineering from West Virginia University in 1963, and M.S.E. and PhD degrees in mechanical engineering from the University of Michigan in 1964 and 1967 respectively. He joined the faculty of the University of Michigan as an assistant professor in 1968 where he taught in the areas of heat transfer, thermodynamics, and fluid mechanic, and conducted research in heat transfer and engineering applications of laser optics and holography. He and his graduate students developed techniques for making quantitative measurements of various properties and motions from holographic interferograms, especially the measurement of three-dimensional temperature and density fields using computer tomography. He became an associate professor in 1972 and a full professor in 1977.


In 1981 Dr. Vest turned much of his attention to academic administration at the University of Michigan, serving as associate dean of engineering from 1981-86, dean of engineering from 1986-1989, when he became provost and vice president for academic affairs. In 1990 he became president of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and served in that position until December 2004. He then became professor and president emeritus.


As president of MIT, he was active in science, technology, and innovation policy; building partnerships among academia, government and industry; and championing the importance of open, global scientific communication, travel, and sharing of intellectual resources. During his tenure, MIT launched its OpenCourseWare (OCW) initiative; co-founded the Alliance for Global Sustainability; enhanced the racial, gender, and cultural diversity of its students and faculty; established major new institutes in neuroscience and genomic medicine; and redeveloped much of its campus.


He was a director of DuPont for 14 years and of IBM for 13 years; was vice chair of the U.S. Council on Competitiveness for eight years; and served on various federal committees and commissions, including the Presidents Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST) during the Clinton and Bush administrations, the Commission on the Intelligence Capabilities of the United States Regarding Weapons of Mass Destruction, the Secretary of Education’s Commission on the Future of Higher Education, the Secretary of State’s Advisory Committee on Transformational Diplomacy and the Rice-Chertoff Secure Borders and Open Doors Advisory Committee. He serves on the boards of several non-profit organizations and foundations devoted to education, science, and technology.


In July 2007 he was elected to serve as president of the U.S. National Academy of Engineering (NAE) for six years. He has authored a book on holographic interferometry, and two books on higher education. He has received honorary doctoral degrees from ten universities, and was awarded the 2006 National Medal of Technology by President Bush.


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Committee Members & Staff


America’s Energy Future Project Managers
PETER D. BLAIR, Executive Director, Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences (DEPS)
JAMES ZUCHETTO, Director, Board on Energy and Environmental Systems (BEES)
America’s Energy Future Committee
KEVIN CROWLEY, Director, Nuclear and Radiation Studies Board; Staff Officer, America’s Energy Future (AEF) Study Committee
K. JOHN HOLMES, Senior Program Officer, BEES; Staff Officer, AEF Electricity from Renewable Resources Panel
EVONNE TANG, Senior Program Officer, Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources; Staff Officer, AEF Alternative Liquid Transportation
Fuels Panel
MADELINE WOODRUFF, Senior Program Officer, BEES; Staff Officer, AEF Energy Efficiency Panel
GREG EYRING, Senior Program Officer, DEPS; Staff Officer, AEF Committee Coal, Oil, and Natural Gas Subgroup
SARAH CASE, Program Officer, Nuclear and Radiation Studies Board; Staff Officer, AEF Committee Nuclear Subgroup
ALAN CRANE, Senior Program Officer, BEES, AEF Committee Electric Power Transmission & Distribution Subgroup
LaNITA JONES, Program Associate, BEES, AEF Study Committee
JONATHAN YANGER, Senior Program Assistant, BEES, AEF Panels
DOROTHY MILLER, Christine Mirzayan Science and Technology Policy Fellow (until August 2008)

Alternative Liquid Transportation Fuels Panel
EVONNE P. Y. TANG, Study Director
KATHERINE BITTNER, Senior Program Assistant (until June 2008)
ROBERT COLBURN, Senior Program Assistant (until November 2008)
LANITA JONES, Program Associate
DOROTHY MILLER, Christine Mirzayan Fellow (until August 2008)
JONATHAN YANGER, Senior Program Assistant


Electricity from Renewable Resources Panel
K. JOHN HOLMES, Study Director
KATHERINE BITTNER, Senior Project Assistant (until July 2008)
LANITA R. JONES, Senior Program Associate
AMY HEE KIM, Christine Mirzayan Science and Technology Policy Graduate Fellow (until November 2008)
DOROTHY MILLER, Christine Mirzayan Science and Technology Policy Graduate Fellow (until August 2008)
JASON ORTEGO, Senior Program Assistant
STEPHANIE WOLAHAN, Christine Mirzayan Science and Technology Policy Graduate Fellow (until April 2009)
E. JONATHAN YANGER, Senior Project Assistant


Energy Efficiency Panel
MADELINE WOODRUFF, Senior Program Officer
LANITA R. JONES, Senior Program Associate
E. JONATHAN YANGER, Senior Project Assistant


America’s Energy Future Summit Staff

MARTY A. PERREAULT, Director, Roundtable on Science and Technology for Sustainability
GREG EYRING, Senior Program Officer, Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences
DOROTHY MILLER, Christine Mirzayan Science and Technology Policy Fellow
LaNITA JONES, Program Associate, Board on Energy and Environmental Systems
STEVE OLSON, Consultant Writer
DEREK VOLLMER, Associate Program Officer, Science and Technology for Sustainability Program


National Academies Office of Communications
BARBARA KLINE POPE, Executive Director, Communications and the National Academies Press
STEPHEN MAUTNER, Executive Editor, National Academies Press
ANN MERCHANT, Director, Outreach and Marketing
TERRELL SMITH, Senior Communications Officer


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