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Capitalizing on Science, Technology & Innovation:
An Assessment of the Small Business Research Program (Phase II)

SBIR project page image

Project Scope

In accordance with H.R. 5667, Sec. 108, enacted in Public Law 106-554, as amended by H.R. 1540, Sec. 5137, enacted in Public Law 112-81, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine is to review the Small Business Innovation Research and Small Business Technology Transfer (SBIR/STTR) programs at the Department of Defense, the National Institutes of Health, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the Department of Energy, and the National Science Foundation. Building on the outcomes from the Phase I study, this second study is to examine both topics of general policy interest that emerged during the first-phase study and topics of specific interest to individual agencies.

Drawing on the methodology developed in the previous study, an ad hoc committee will issue a revised survey, revisit case studies, and develop additional cases, thereby providing a second snapshot to measure the program's progress against its legislative goals. The committee will prepare one report on the SBIR program at each of the five (5) agencies listed above, providing a second review of the operation of the program, analyzing new topics, and identifying accomplishments, emerging challenges, and possible policy solutions. The committee will prepare an additional report focused on the National Science Foundation Phase IIB Program and a third report focused on the STTR Program at all five agencies. The agency reports will include agency-specific and program-wide findings on the SBIR and STTR programs to submit to the contracting agencies and the Congress. 

Although each agency report will be tailored to the needs of that agency, all reports will, where appropriate:

1. Review institutional initiatives and structural elements contributing to programmatic success, including gap funding mechanisms such as applying Phase II-plus awards more broadly to address agency needs and operations and streamlining the application process. 
2. Explore methods to encourage the participation of minorities and women in SBIR and STTR. 
3. Identify best practice in university-industry partnering and synergies with the two programs. 
4. Document the role of complementary state and federal programs. 
5. Assess the efficacy of post-award commercialization programs. 
In addition, the committee will convene symposia to gather information on specific topics related to the SBIR/STTR programs overall or specific agency requests, with some of the workshops resulting in an individually-authored summary of the event. 

Meetings & Events

Workshop on the Assessment of SBIR and STTR Programs
December 21, 2016
Washington, DC

Workshop on SBIR/STTR and the Commercialization Challenge
April 12, 2016
Washington, DC

Workshop on the Economics of Entrepreneurship
June 29, 2015
Washington, DC

Committee Meeting
May 1, 2015
Washington, DC

Workshop on the Small Business Technology Transfer Program
May 1, 2015
Washington, DC

Committee Meeting
October 7, 2014
Washington, DC

SBIR/STTR & the Role of State Programs
October 7, 2014

Committee Meeting
July 2014
Washington, DC

Commercializing University Research:  The Role of SBIR and STTR
February 5, 2014
Washington, DC
Committee Meeting
February 4, 2014
Washington, DC


SBIR at DoE big SBIR at NASA fine STTR: An Assessment of the Small Business Technology Transfer Program SBIR at NSF SBIR at NIH cover - fine Innovation, Diversity and the SBIR/STTR Programs SBIR at DoD
SBIR at the Department of Energy SBIR at NASA STTR: An Assessment of
the Small Business Transfer Program

SBIR at the National Science Foundation
SBIR at the National Institutes of Health
Innovation, Diversity,
and the SBIR/STTR Programs
SBIR at the Department of Defense


Committee Members

The Honorable Jacques S. Gansler - (Chair)
University of Maryland, College Park 

Jacques Gansler, former Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology and Logistics, is the first holder of the Roger C. Lipitz Chair in Public Policy and Private Enterprise. As the third ranking civilian at the Pentagon from 1997 to 2001, Dr. Gansler was responsible for all research and development, acquisition reform, logistics, advanced technology, environmental security, defense industry, and other programs. Before joining the Clinton Administration, Dr. Gansler held a variety of positions in government and the private sector, including Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense (Material Acquisition), Assistant Director of Defense Research and Engineering (Electronics), Vice President of ITT, and engineering and management positions with Singer and Raytheon Corporations. Throughout his career, Dr. Gansler has written, published and taught on subjects related to his work. He is the author of Defense Conversion: Transforming the Arsenal of Democracy, MIT Press, 1995; Affording Defense, MIT Press, 1989, and The Defense Industry, MIT Press, 1990. He has published numerous articles in Foreign Affairs, Harvard Business Review, International Security, Public Affairs, and other journals and newspapers and has frequently testified in Congressional hearings.

Dr. Gansler is a member of the National Academy of Engineering.


Dr. David B. Audretsch
Indiana University 

David B. Audretsch is a Distinguished Professor and the Ameritech Chair of Economic Development and Director of the Institute for Development Strategies at Indiana University and the Director of the Max Planck Institute of Economics in Jena, Germany. He also serves as a Scholar-in-Residence at the Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation. In addition, he is an Honorary Professor at the Friedrich Schiller University of Jena, Research Professor at Durham University, an External Director of Research at the Kiel Institute for the World Economics, and is a Research Fellow of the Centre for Economic Policy Research (London).

Dr. Audretsch's research has focused on the links between entrepreneurship, government policy, innovation, economic development and global competitiveness. Dr. Audretsch is ranked as the 21st most cited scholar in economics and business, 1996-2006. He has received support for his research from a broad spectrum of foundations and government agencies, including the Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation, the Advanced Technology Program (ATP) of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), U.S. Department of Education, and the National Science Foundation. His research has been published in over one hundred scholarly articles in the leading academic journals. His books include Entrepreneurship and Economic Growth, with Oxford University Press in 2006, and The Entrepreneurial Society, also with Oxford University Press in 2007. He is co-founder and co-editor of Small Business Economics: An Entrepreneurship Journal. He was awarded the 2001 International Award for Entrepreneurship and Small Business Research by the Swedish Foundation for Small Business Research. In 2008 he received an honorary doctorate degree from the University of Augsburg.

Dr. Audretsch has consulted with the World Bank, National Academy of Sciences, U.S. State Department, United States Federal Trade Commission, General Accounting Office and International Trade Commission as well as the United Nations, Commission of the European Union, the European Parliament, the OECD, as well as numerous private corporations, state governments, and a number of European Governments. He is a member of the Advisory Board to a number of international research and policy institutes, including the Zentrum fuer Europaeisch Wirtschaftsforschung (ZEW, Centre for Economic Research), Mannheim, the Deutsches Institut fuer Wirtschaftsforschung (German Institute for Economic Analysis), the Basque Institute for Competitiveness, the Deutsche Telekom Foundation, and the Swedish Foundation for Research on Entrepreneurship and Small Business.


Mr. Michael G. Borrus
X/Seed Capital Management 

Michael Borrus is the founding general partner of XSeed Capital, a seed-focused early-stage venture fund. An entrepreneur and former academic, he has authored three books and over 70 chapters, articles, and monographs on topics including the internet and data networking, management of technology, and strategies for technology companies.

At XSeed, Michael invests in a variety of areas including Enterprise Data Infrastructure and Predictive Analytics, and in opportunities where computer science intersects with other disciplines to disrupt large, vertical markets. He sits on the Board of Directors for AtScale, Biota, BrightBox, CellScape, and HMicro, and led X/Seed’s investments in Trifacta, OPXBIO, GeneWeave Biosciences, Playnomics (acquired by Unity Technologies), MuseAmi, Siva Power, Allopartis (acquired by Novozymes), and Citrine Informatics.

Prior to founding XSeed, he was an Executive in Residence (EIR) at Mohr Davidow Ventures (MDV), did a financial services start-up, and was Adjunct Professor in UC Berkeley's College of Engineering, Co-founder and Co-Director of the Berkeley Roundtable on the International Economy (BRIE), and a partner in Industry and Trade Strategies, a business consultancy.

Industry Associations: Michael has served on the Advisory Committee to the U.S. Government’s Advanced Technology Program (ATP) and several Academies committees and currently serves on the Board of Trustees of the National Center for Women and Information Technology and of the Bay Area Council Economic Institute and the External Advisory Board for UC Berkeley’s School of Mechanical Engineering.

Education: Michael is an honors graduate of Harvard Law School, the University of California, Berkeley, and Princeton University. He is a member of the California State Bar.

Dr. J. Michael Brick
Westat, Inc. 

Dr. Michael Brick is a senior statistician, a Westat Vice President, Director of Survey Methods, and Associate Director of the Statistical Staff. With more than 30 years of experience, he has special expertise in sample design and estimation for large surveys, the theory and practice of telephone surveys, the techniques of Total Quality Management and survey quality control, nonresponse and bias evaluation, and survey methodology. Dr. Brick has contributed to the statistical and substantive aspects of numerous studies and to statistical methodology research in several areas, including establishment, education, transportation, and product injury studies. Dr. Brick is a Fellow of the American Statistical Association, an elected member of the International Statistical Institute, and a research professor in the Joint Program in Survey Methodology at the University of Maryland.

He received a Ph.D. and M.A. in statistics from American University and a B.S. in mathematics from Dayton University. 


Dr. Gail H. Cassell
Harvard Medical School 

Dr. Gail H. Cassell is Senior Lecturer in the Department of Global Health and Social Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Senior Scientist Brigham and Women’s Hospital Boston, and Vice President of TB Drug Development of the not-for-profit Infectious Disease Research Institute in Seattle. Dr. Cassell has recently retired as Vice President, Scientific Affairs and Distinguished Lilly Research Scholar for Infectious Diseases, Eli Lilly and Company in Indianapolis, Indiana. In this capacity among other things, she was responsible for initiating and leading the not-for-profit Lilly TB Drug Discovery Initiative launched in 2007. In 2003, she was one of two individuals at Lilly who initiated and developed the Lilly Multidrug Resistant Tuberculosis (MDRTB) Partnership. The partnership has resulted in company support to date exceeding $135 million dollars and is the largest philanthropic effort in Lilly’s 135 year history. The partnership now involves over 20 partners. She is the former Vice President of Infectious Diseases Drug Discovery and Clinical Development of Eli Lilly and Company where she led the programs of a recently FDA approved hepatitis C protease inhibitor from the discovery phase to clinical candidate and the development of a new class of antibiotics from clinical development to product decision after which it was successfully out licensed and was recently approved by FDA. Prior to moving to Lilly in 1997, Dr. Cassell was the former Charles H. McCauley Professor and Chairman of the Department of Microbiology at the University of Alabama Schools of Medicine and Dentistry at Birmingham, a department which ranked first in research funding from the National Institutes of Health during the decade of her leadership. She obtained her B.S. from the University of Alabama in Tuscaloosa and in 1993 was selected by that institution as one of the top 31 female graduates of the Centennial following the admission of the first female to the University in 1893. She obtained her Ph.D. in Microbiology from the University of Alabama at Birmingham and was selected as its 2003 Distinguished Alumnus.

She is a past President of the American Society for Microbiology [the oldest and single largest life sciences organization with a membership of over 42,000 (over 20% international members)]. She was named to the original Board of Scientific Councilors of the Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and served as Chair of the Board. She has served on the Advisory Board of the Director of National Institutes of Health, the Director of the Centers for Disease Control, and the Secretary of Health and Human Services Advisory Council of Public Health Preparedness, the Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA) Science Board, the Advisory Committee to the Commissioner. She just completed a four year term as a member of the NIH Science Management Board, the newly appointed “NIH Board of Trustees” and the Advisory Council of the Fogarty International Center of NIH. Since 1996 she has been a member of the Steering Committee of the U.S.-Japan Cooperative Medical Science Program responsible for advising the respective governments on joint research agendas, (U.S. State Department/Japan Ministry of Foreign Affairs). She was instrumental in establishment of the U.S./Russia Cooperative Medical Sciences and Training Program under the Bilateral Presidential Commission in 2009 which represents a collaboration involving NIH, the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Medicine, the Russian Academy of Sciences, and the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences. In 2012, the American Society for Microbiology and the Federation of European Microbiology Societies established the Mäkelä–Cassell Exchange Program for pioneering international engagement for young scientists. She has served on several editorial boards of scientific journals and has authored over 350 articles and book chapters. Dr. Cassell has received national and international awards for her research in infectious diseases, including two honorary degrees and the CDC Honor Award in Public Health for exceptional leadership and contributions in the development and implementation of CDC’s Emerging Infectious Disease Plan 1997 and a Citation from the FDA Commissioner for her role as Chair of the review of science and technology at the FDA and the Report FDA: Science and Mission at Risk 2008 and the Emmy Klineberger-Nobel Award in 2008 by the International Organization for Mycoplasmology for outstanding and sustained research contributions to the field of mycoplasmology. She is a member of the National Academy of Medicine (NAM) of the National Academy of Sciences and has recently completed a second 3-year term on the NAM Council, the governing board. She was elected in 2011 to membership on the U.S Council of Foreign Relations and appointed by the Secretary of the Department of Health and Human Services as a member of the CDC Advisory Committee on Tuberculosis Elimination.

Dr. Cassell has been intimately involved in establishment of science policy and legislation related to biomedical research and public health. For nine years she was chairman of the Public and Scientific Affairs Board of the American Society for Microbiology; has served as an advisor on infectious diseases and indirect costs of research to the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy, and has been an invited participant in numerous Congressional hearings and briefings related to infectious diseases, anti-microbial resistance, and biomedical research. She has served two terms on the LCME, the accrediting body for U.S. medical schools as well as other national committees involved in establishing policies in training in the biomedical sciences. She is an Emeritus Member of the Board of Research!America and a former member and Chair of the Board of Directors of the Burroughs Wellcome Fund. She has recently completed terms on the Leadership Council of the School of Public Health of Harvard University, and the Executive Committee of Columbia University Medical Center Board of Visitors. Currently she is a member of the Chancellor’s Advisory Cabinet for the University of Texas System, Advisory Council of the University of North Carolina Gillings School of Global Public Health, Advisory Committees to the Deans of the University of Alabama School of Medicine and Johns Hopkins School of Nursing, and the Stakholders Advisory Committee of the newly established Howard Hughes Kwazulu-Natal Reseach Institute for Tuberculosis and HIV in Durban, South Africa.


Dr. M. Christina Gabriel
University Energy Partnership 

Dr. Christina Gabriel is President of the University Energy Partnership, an energy technology research and innovation partnership among Carnegie Mellon University, Oregon State University, the Pennsylvania State University, the University of Pittsburgh, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, and West Virginia University. She has extensive experience in research, research management, university-industry collaboration, and technology transfer.

Previously, she was Director for Innovation Economy grant making at The Heinz Endowments, with responsibility for the foundation’s efforts to capitalize on the research strengths of the region’s universities, medical centers, corporate and government laboratories to promote economic growth and opportunity in southwestern Pennsylvania.

After receiving her doctorate in electrical engineering and computer science from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dr. Gabriel began her professional career in 1985 as principal investigator conducting experimental research at AT&T Bell Laboratories in New Jersey. Her work focused on lasers, optical fibers and thin-film waveguide devices for telecommunications, switching and computing applications. She holds three patents.

Dr. Gabriel joined the National Science Foundation in 1991 to direct industry-university collaborative centers programs and by 1997 was deputy head of the $350 million engineering directorate. During the 1994 legislative cycle she served a detail on Capitol Hill as one of three majority professional staff members for the $90 billion VA, HUD and Independent Agencies Subcommittee of the U.S. Senate Committee on Appropriations. From 1998 to 2006, she worked at Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh, eventually becoming vice provost and chief technology officer. While in that position she was responsible for restructuring the university's tech transfer function to enable a higher volume of transactions and stronger collaboration with the business and investor communities. She also represented the region’s three major research universities on the leadership team of the corporate consortium that competed successfully in 2004 to manage the five-year R&D Services Support Contract for the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory.

Dr. Gabriel received both her master’s and doctoral degrees from MIT and her undergraduate degree in electrical engineering from the University of Pittsburgh. In 1990 she was a visiting professor at the University of Tokyo in Japan. She has served as a reviewer and steering committee member for the National Science Foundation and the Academies, as a board member for several Pittsburgh-region nonprofits and as a member of the MIT Corporation Visiting Committee on Sponsored Research. In 2010 Dr. Gabriel was appointed by Secretary of Commerce Gary Locke to serve as a member of the National Advisory Council on Innovation and Entrepreneurship.


Dr. Charles E. Kolb, Jr.
Aerodyne Research, Inc. 

Dr. Charles Kolb is the President and Chief Executive Officer of Aerodyne Research, Inc. (ARI), a position he has held since 1985. Since 1970, ARI has provided research and development services requiring expertise in the physical and engineering sciences to commercial and government clients working to solve national and international environmental, energy and defense problems. These include a wide range of topics such as global and regional environmental quality and the development of clean and efficient energy and propulsion technologies.

Dr. Kolb has received numerous professional honors and has served in a broad range of professional and Academy related positions. He is currently Chair of the Advisory Council for the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at Princeton University and has served as a committee member (2003-2011) and Chair (2006-2008) of the Committee on Environmental Improvement of the American Chemical Society. He has contributed to a variety of National Academy of Sciences activities including service on the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine’s Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology and Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate. He is a member of of the National Academy of Engineering and is a Fellow of the American Physical Society, the American Chemical Society, the American Geophysical Union, the Optical Society of American, and the American Association for the Advancement of Science.

Dr. Kolb holds an S.B. in chemistry (chemical physics option) from Massachusetts Institute of Technology and an M.A. and Ph.D. in physical chemistry from Princeton University. His research interests include: atmospheric chemistry, combustion chemistry, and the physics and chemistry of aircraft and rocket exhaust plumes. Dr. Kolb has published over 225 archival journal articles and book chapters on these and related topics.


Dr. Virginia Lesser
Oregon State University 

Dr. Virginia Lesser is a Professor and Departmental Chair for Statistics at Oregon State University (OSU) where she has been on the faculty since 1992. She is also Director of the OSU Survey Research Center, a position she has held since 1993. She holds a bachelor’s degree in Biology from Lebanon Valley College a Master’s degree in Statistics from North Carolina State University, and a Doctorate in Biostatistics from the University of North Carolina Chapel Hill.

The Survey Research Center (SRC) designs, conducts and analyzes surveys for a wide range of state, university and private organizations. Within the SRC, Dr. Lesser supervises projects and is responsible for the coordination of final study reports. She provides particular expertise in determination of sample size to meet the precision desired in the study objectives. She also advises on the choice of delivery methodology and statistical analyses to meet survey objectives. Her personal research has included survey sampling focusing on the determination of cost-efficient survey designs, comparison of survey modes, and investigations of nonsampling errors, primarily in researching methods to reduce and adjust for nonresponse errors.

Dr. Lesser has published more than 150 reports and reviews (including sections of reports by the Academy and government agencies); she also publishes widely in peer-reviewed journals in statistics and biometrics.

Dr. Lesser is a Fellow of the American Statistical Association (ASA) and an Elected Member of the International Statistical Institute. She has served on a wide range of committees and sections for the ASA, government departments and agencies, and the Academy.

Mr. Henry Linsert
Columbia Biosciences Corporation 

Henry Linsert is the Chairman and CEO of Columbia Biosciences Corporation.

Previously, he served as Chairman and CEO of Martek Biosciences Corporation, a company that develops and sells products from microalgae. Microalgae are microplants. The Company is engaged in the commercial development of microalgae into a portfolio of high-value products and product candidates consisting of Nutritional Products, Advanced Detection Systems and Other Products, primarily Algal Genomics. Nutritional products include nutritional oils for infant formula, dietary supplementation and other products. Advanced Detection Systems products include fluorescent dyes from various algae for use in scientific applications for detection of certain biological processes.

From 1987 to 1988, he was primarily engaged as President of American Technology Investments Corp. ("ATI"), a consulting company specializing in the development and financing of early-stage companies in the Mid-Atlantic area. He was President and Chief Executive Officer of Suburban Capital Corporation, a venture capital subsidiary of Sovran Financial Corporation (now part of Bank of America) from 1983 to 1987. Before 1983, Mr. Linsert was Vice President of Inverness Capital Corporation, a small business investment company, and Vice President of First Virginia Bank. He also served as a Captain in the U.S. Marine Corps and as an artillery officer in Vietnam.

Mr. Linsert received an M.A. in economics from George Washington University and a B.A. from Duke University. In 2006, he received the Ernst & Young Entrepreneur of the Year Life Sciences Award for the Washington, DC, area and was a national runner up for the same category. In 2009, he was one of three inductees into the Space Technology Hall of Fame.


Mr. W. Clark McFadden, II
Orrick, Herrington & Sutcliffe 

W. Clark McFadden II is Senior Counsel, International Trade and Compliance, at Orrick. He represents corporate clients in international trade, encompassing work in litigation, regulation and legislation. He also specializes in international corporate transactions, especially the formation of joint ventures and consortia, and international investigations and enforcement proceedings.

Mr. McFadden has a broad background in foreign affairs and international trade, having experience with Congressional committees, the U.S. Department of Defense and the National Security Council.

In 1986, he was appointed General Counsel, President's Special Review Board ("Tower Commission"), to investigate the National Security Council system and the Iran-Contra Affair.

In 1979, Mr. McFadden served as Special Counsel to the Senate Foreign Relations Committee on the Strategic Arms Limitations Treaty (SALT II). Previously, from 1973-1976, he was General Counsel, Senate Armed Services Committee, and was responsible to the Committee for all legislative, investigatory and oversight activities.

Mr. McFadden is the secretary to the Board of Directors of the Semiconductor Industry Association, the Optoelectronics Industry Development Association and the Semiconductor Research Corporation. He was also a member of the Steering Committee for Government-Industry Partnerships for the Development of New Technologies of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine.

Mr. McFadden received his J.D. from Harvard Law School, his M.B.A. from Harvard Business School, and his B.A. from Williams College. He is a member of the American Bar Association, the District of Columbia Bar Association, and the Massachusetts Bar Association.


Dr. Duncan T. Moore
University of Rochester 

Dr. Duncan Moore is Vice Provost for Entrepreneurship and the Rudolf and Hilda Kingslake Professor of Optical Engineering at the University of Rochester. He is also Special Assistant to the University President and Executive Director of the University, Industry and Government Partnership for Advanced Photonics. Previously, from 1995 until the end of 1997, he served as Dean of Engineering and Applied Sciences at the University.

In 1996, Dr. Moore also served as President of the Optical Society of America (OSA), a professional organization of 12,000 members worldwide. From January 2001 to the present, he has served as Senior Science Advisor at OSA.

The U.S. Senate confirmed Dr. Moore in the fall of 1997 for the position of Associate Director for Technology in The White House Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP). In this position, which ended December 2000, he worked with Dr. Neal Lane, President Clinton's Science Advisor, to advise the President on U.S. technology policy, including the Next Generation Internet, Clean Car Initiative, elder tech, crime tech, and NASA. From January through May 2001, Dr. Moore served as Special Advisor to the Acting Director of OSTP.

The PhD degree in optics was awarded to Dr. Moore in 1974 from the University of Rochester. He had previously earned a master's degree in optics at Rochester and a bachelor's degree in physics from the University of Maine.

Dr. Moore has extensive experience in the academic, research, business, and governmental arenas of science and technology. He is an expert in gradient-index optics, computer-aided design, and the manufacture of optical systems. He has advised nearly 50 graduate thesis students. In addition, Dr. Moore began a one-year appointment as Science Advisor to Senator John D. Rockefeller IV of West Virginia in 1993. He also chaired the successful Hubble Independent Optical Review Panel organized in 1990 to determine the correct prescription of the Hubble Space Telescope. Dr. Moore is also the founder and former president of Gradient Lens Corporation of Rochester, NY, a company that manufactures the high-quality, low-cost Hawkeye boroscope.

Dr. Moore was elected to the National Academy of Engineering in February 1998. He has been the recipient of the Science and Technology Award of the Greater Rochester Metro Chamber of Commerce (1992), Distinguished Inventor of the Year Award of the Rochester Intellectual Property Law Association (1993), Gradient-Index Award of the Japanese Applied Physics Society (1993), and an Honorary Doctor of Science degree from the University of Maine (1995). In 1999, he received the National Engineering Award of the American Association of Engineering Societies and also was recognized as the Engineer of the Year by the Rochester Engineering Society. Most recently, he was the recipient of the 2001 OSA Leadership Award.


Dr. Donald Siegel
University at Albany 

Dr. Donald Siegel is Dean of the School of Business and Professor of Management at the University at Albany, SUNY. He received his bachelor’s degree in economics and his master’s and doctoral degrees in business economics from Columbia University. He has published 10 books and 106 articles in such leading journals as the American Economic Review, Economic Journal, The Review of Economics and Statistics, Journal of Law and Economics, Journal of Financial Economics, Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Research Policy, Academy of Management Review, Academy of Management Journal, Academy of Management Perspectives, Academy of Management Learning & Education, Strategic Management Journal, Journal of Business Venturing, Journal of International Business Studies, Journal of Management Studies, and the Journal of Management. His most recent books are Innovation, Entrepreneurship, and Technological Change and the Oxford Handbook of Corporate Governance, both published by Oxford University Press, and the Chicago Handbook of University Technology Transfer and Academic Entrepreneurship (University of Chicago Press). His citation count, according to Google Scholar, is 25,501, with an h-index of 63, which makes him the most widely cited academic at UAlbany.

Dr. Siegel has received grants or fellowships from the Sloan Foundation, NSF, Kauffman Foundation, NBER, American Statistical Association, W. E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, and the U.S. Department of Labor. His most recent NSF grant (with David Waldman of ASU) is the first study of the impact of “organizational justice” on university technology transfer/academic entrepreneurship. He served as chair of the NRC Committee on “Best Practice in National Innovation Programs for Flexible Electronics.”


Dr. Jeffrey E. Sohl
University of New Hampshire 

Jeffrey E. Sohl is Director of the Center for Venture Research and Professor of Entrepreneurship and Decision Sciences at the Peter T. Paul College of Business and Economics at the University of New Hampshire. He received his bachelor’s degree in electrical engineering from Villanova University and his MBA and Ph.D. in management science from the University of Maryland. Prior to joining the University of New Hampshire he was a consultant to the Department of Energy in the area of public policy analysis. His current research interests are in early-stage equity financing for entrepreneurial ventures. In addition to service on this committee, he currently serves on the Board of Borealis Ventures and the New Hampshire Community Loan Fund, Babson College Entrepreneurship Research Conference Review Board, and the Editorial Board for Venture Capital and Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice. In 2006 he was awarded the national Hans Severiens Award by the Kauffman Foundation in recognition of his research on angel investing in the US. He has presented his angel research in academic and practitioner forums in North America, Europe and Asia, and in briefings for several government agencies and scholars from North America, Europe, Scandinavia, Australia, Asia and Africa. He has appeared on CNBC, MSNBC, National Public Radio, NHPTV's NH Outlook, and has been quoted in Inc., Forbes, Fortune, the Wall Street Journal, Red Herring, Newsweek, Business Week, Newsweek-Japan, Financial Times, New York Times, Chicago Tribune, Los Angeles Times, the Economist and the Financial Times-France. He has written numerous articles which have been published in academic and business journals, including Venture Capital: An International Journal of Entrepreneurial Finance, Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, Journal of Business Venturing, Economic Development Quarterly, International Small Business Journal, Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship, Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, the Social Science Journal, the Journal of Forecasting, Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research, and Entrepreneurship 2000.


Mr. Tyrone C. Taylor
Capitol Advisors on Technology, LLC 

Tyrone C. Taylor has held senior management positions at NASA and the private sector; and worked extensively in the science and technology community. He is the President, Capitol Advisors on Technology, a technology management and consulting firm, and also the founder of the Entrepreneurial Technology and Innovation Institute. His experience includes supporting federal department and agencies such as Energy, Army, DARPA, NASA, Homeland Security, Commerce, small and large businesses and non-profits.

He has served on numerous technology advisory committees including the National Science Foundation Advisory Committee, Center for Commercialization of Advanced Technologies, and is a former Chair, National Defense Industrial Association, Small Business Committee. Over the years he has worked with Congressional science and technology and small business committees to assess the impact of potential legislation affecting the technology community.

As an executive on loan while at NASA, Mr. Taylor represented the entire Federal R&D community as the Washington, DC, Representative for the Federal Laboratory Consortium for Technology Transfer, a congressionally chartered organization. In this capacity, he provided leadership in crafting legislation that governs the private and public sectors ability to collaborate with the federal government in R&D activities, manage intellectual property and commercialize technologies.

Mr. Taylor served as a senior executive in a variety of executive management positions at NASA including Office of Space Station, Policy and International Affairs, Education, and Space Science as examples. He also participated in a number of Agency special projects including an internal review of the Challenger Space Shuttle accident. He has extensive program management experience having managed almost $1 billion in contracts and grants for systems engineering, information systems, facilities management, and technical and administrative services during his tenure at NASA.

Tyrone Taylor has a Master’s in Business Administration from Southeastern University. He earned an A.B. in Business Administration from Wilmington College, and has served as Adjunct Professor for numerous technology transfer and commercialization courses. Other activities include serving on the board of Pediatric AIDS/HIV Care in Washington, DC, Wilmington College Trustee, supporting the United Negro College Fund as a Senior Fellow, nurturing small businesses, and providing training for budding entrepreneurs in the area of technology management. He is the recipient of several awards including the NASA Exceptional Service and Outstanding Service Awards, Federal Laboratory Consortium Distinguished Service Award, Harold Metcalf Technology Transfer Award, and National Defense Industrial Association Gold Medal. Congressional science, technology and small business committees have also recognized him for his efforts in support of the federal science and technology community.

Dr. John P. Walsh
Georgia Institute of Technology 

John Walsh is a Professor of Public Policy at the Georgia Institute of Technology. John P. Walsh teaches and does research on science, technology and innovation, using a sociological perspective that focuses on organizations and work to explain how research organizations respond to changes in their policy environment. Recent work includes studies of university-industry linkages in the US and Japan, the effects of research tool patents on biomedical researchers and country and industry differences in the role of patents in firm strategy. His work has been published in Science, Research Policy, Social Studies of Science, and Management Science. His work has been funded by the National Science Foundation, the Japanese Society for the Promotion of Science, the Matsushita Foundation and the Japan Foundation, and he has done consulting for the National Academy of Sciences, the OECD, the European Commission and the American Association for the Advancement of Science.

He received a Ph.D. and M.A. in Sociology from Northwestern, and a B.A. in Sociology from the University of Cincinnati. 

Mr. Patrick H. Windham
Windham Consulting 

Mr. Patrick Windham is a consultant on science, technology, and innovation policy and operates his own firm, Windham Consulting. In addition, he is a principal in Technology Policy International (TPI), a three-person consulting firm that analyzes U.S. technology policies and policy trends for international clients. He is also a visiting professor at the University of California’s Washington, DC, Center. From 1999 until returning to the Washington, DC, area in 2012, he was a Lecturer in the Public Policy Program at Stanford University. From 1984 until 1997, he served a Senior Professional Staff Member for the Subcommittee on Science, Technology, and Space of the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, in the U.S. Senate. His work there focused primarily on policies to strengthen U.S. industrial competiveness. He worked in other U.S. Senate positions from 1976 to 1978 and from 1982 to 1984. Mr. Windham received an A.B. from Stanford University and a Master of Public Policy degree from University of California at Berkeley.

Project Staff

Study Director
Sujai Shivakumar (Email)

Program Officer
David Dierksheide (Email)

  • Department of Defense
  • National Institutes of Health
  • National Aeronautics and Space Administration
  • Department of Energy
  • National Science Foundation