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Cycle 6 (2017 Deadline)

Converging climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction strategies into agglomeration policy for coastal metropolitan planning

PI: Harkunti Pertiwi Rahayu (, Institut Teknologi Bandung
U.S. Partner: Louise Comfort, University of Pittsburgh
Project Dates: December 2017 - November 2020

Project Overview

Existing and planned urban agglomerations in Indonesia, especially in coastal areas, are exposed to the impact of climate change and various coastal hazards, including tsunami. Of the 146 coastal municipalities in the country, 130 (or 89%) are exposed to tsunami risk. In the coming decades, climate-induced extreme events are expected to increase (IPCC, 2014), and for Indonesian coastal cities the impact may range from sea level rise (Latief et al, 2012) to changes in precipitation and increased surface temperature that may lead to negative impact across sectors (Bappenas, 2014). Moreover, the increasing concentration of economic activities in urban areas will make those agglomerated cities highly sensitive to impacts of disasters and climate change. This PEER project is aimed at filling the gaps of current climate change adaptation (CCA) and disaster risk reduction (DRR) strategies in Indonesia, which currently tend to work in silos. The aim is to develop locally relevant integration of DRR and CCA strategies that can protect and enhance the resilience of economic growth centers and agglomerated coastal cities by:
  1. Assessing associated coastal risks and climate change impact for coastal urban agglomeration, through identifying various coastal hazards induced by climate change impact at an early stage
  2. Exploring synergies and conflicts between DRR and CCA in coastal urban development policies
  3. Identifying innovative and integrated approaches that foster multi-stakeholder involvement and equal participation of groups, and indicators to characterize and measure DRR and CCA integration
  4. Developing a multi-stakeholder transition pathway and policy statement that integrate and mainstream DRR and CCA in development processes, including accommodating people’s right to access to early warnings using the Logic Model and Social Network Analysis Model
  5. Studying and estimating economic impact through statistics data. Based on historical data, estimation of the benefit-cost ratio of an integrated DDR and CCA strategies on regional development economic size will be made with a value to improve a more resilient economic growth
  6. Ensuring convergence and a coherent DRR and CCA strategies and policy instruments for mainstreaming into appropriate spatial and non-spatial planning documents
  7. Ensuring the integration of a coherence CCA and DRR plan and strategies into the Improvement of Local Disaster Management Plan covering jurisdictions of each agglomerated urban area
  8. Ensuring the upscaling of the Improved Local Disaster Management Plan into the Regional Disaster Management Plan covering all jurisdictions of agglomerated urban areas
This research project, which advocates an integrated concept and implementation guidelines on DDR and CCA for urban coastal areas in Indonesia, should have a positive impact in promoting resilient development. Tentatively, this research focus includes national strategic areas in the Mamminasata (Makassar-Maros-Sunggumiansa and Takalar) metropolitan area in South Sulawesi Province and ITBM Palapa metropolitan area (Indarung, Teluk Bayur, Bungus, Mandeh, Padang, Pariaman and Padang Pariaman) in West Sumatra Province. The ITBM Palapa metropolitan area provides the logistical and transportation hub for other provinces in the west coast of Sumatra Island, while Mamminasata has greater role as the key and main port for both Sulawesi island and also the rest of eastern Indonesia. Given the high level of development and high economic growth rate in these two areas, protecting and improving resilience of both ITBM Palapa and Mamminasata from various coastal hazards should have a positive impact on Indonesia’s development in general. Both provinces are also champions in terms of innovative development, so if an integrated DRR-CCA effort can be introduced there, it is likely that other provinces in Sumatra and Sulawesi will follow suit. ITBM Palapa and Mamminasata can become models of disaster- and climate-resilient investment and development.

Summary of Recent Activities

6-025 Pad City Emergency Op Center
The PEER team visits the Padang City Emergency Operations Center during filming of a documentary on their previous project under PEER Cycle 3 (photo courtesy of Dr. Harkunti).
On April 4, 2018, Dr. Harkunti and her team held the official kick-off event for their PEER Cycle 6 project, a panel discussion workshop on Investing in Disaster Risk Reduction for Coastal Resilience (City). One main aim was to introduce the project to the research community, so the meeting was held as part of the 4th PlanoCosmo International Conference and Conference 01 of ITB's 100th Golden Commemoration. The discussion covered several issues related to disaster risk reduction initiatives for coastal resilience, which served initial brainstorming for project implementation. On May 1, three members of the research team (Prof. Syahril M. Kusuma, Dr. M. Farid, and Dr. Arno) made a preliminary survey visit to the PALAPA agglomeration area, observing two coastal areas in Pariaman City (Pantai Ulakan and Pantai Gandoriah). These locations were selected as a result of the team’s preliminary analysis of topographic maps to identify the boundary of the coastal zone with high inundation potential due to meteorological hazard, as well as preliminary analysis of land use type. The site visit allowed for ground-truthing by direct observation of the coastal areas focused on the physical indications of inundation potential, such as elevation, area and period of inundation, erosion, and sedimentation. The researchers also interviewed local residents to gather more information about past inundation events. The team continued their project work by organizing an internal focus group discussion on May 31 in Bandung, with the 20 participants including experts, researchers, and students who will be involved in the project. They discussed strategic issues related to the research framework and agreed on a detailed work plan. The participants were divided into four teams: Tsunami, Climate Change, DRR and CCA Convergence, and Agglomeration Policy Review. On June 11, the team convened again for a sharing session and discussion on Social Network Analysis (SNA) and Discourse Network Analysis (DNA) for Disaster Management Research led by Dr. Mizan Bustanul Fuady.

In the coming months, the team will disseminate and process the results of an online survey they developed to collect baseline data from key stakeholders in the Palapa and Mamminasata areas. They will also continue preparing a separate survey in the form of a questionnaire to be used in semi-structured interviews with stakeholders. In the second week of August 2018, several members of the project team will conduct a field data collection visit to the Mamminasata metropolitan area in South Sulawesi Province. Plans for the visit include observations of coastal areas and meetings and semi-structured interviews with local government officials representing agencies including BPBD (Local Disaster Management Office), Bappeda (Local/Regional Planning Agency), Dinas Lingkungan Hidup (Environment Service Agency), Dinas Pariwisata (Government Tourism Office), Dinas Perhubungan (Department of Transportation), Dinas PU (Public Works Agency), Dinas Pertanian (Department of Agriculture), and Dinas Kesehatan (Department of Health).

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