Phase 3 (2007 Deadline)
Response Modification Factors of Typical Pakistani Reinforced Concrete
and Masonry Buildings for Pakistani Seismic Code Development
Bassem Andrawes and Amr Elnashai, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC)
Qaisar Ali, NWFP University of Engineering and Technology (UET), Peshawar
Pakistani Funding (HEC): $ 66,000
US Funding (USAID): $ 100,750
Project Dates on US Side: April 1, 2008 - October 31, 2011
The response modification factor (R) and displacement amplification factor (Cd) play a key role in safety and economy of buildings because they make it possible to reduce elastic seismic forces and amplify displacement to arrive at cost-effective and safe designs. However, these crucial design factors do not currently offer a uniform margin of safety and cost effectiveness for different seismic regions, given the diversity in structural systems, construction practices, and quality control. Improving the reliability and cost effectiveness of earthquake-resistant buildings in Pakistan requires accurately evaluating and calibrating these factors for typical Pakistani structures, not merely importing largely irrelevant and non-rigorous factors from other regions. This project included comprehensive analytical simulations and a limited number of confirmatory tests to calibrate the R and Cd factors for typical reinforced concrete and masonry buildings in Pakistan. The primary objectives included: 1) to fully calibrate and verify earthquake design response factors (R and Cd) of reinforced concrete and masonry buildings for immediate use in the new Pakistani seismic code; 2) to transfer state-of-the-art methodology, technology, and software platforms to UET Peshawar for use in research and teaching; and 3) to build top quality capacity in Pakistan in research, education, and training by holding a series of seminars in Pakistan and hosting Pakistani personnel at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC)
- Conducted a survey of the building stock in Islamabad and four Pakistani provincial capitals and created a database of mechanical properties of concrete and steel reinforcement
- Published a report on Pakistani reinforced concrete buildings in the World Housing Encyclopedia of the Earthquake Engineering Research Institute
- Trained one Pakistani PhD student and one graduate student at UIUC
- Obtained additional funding from the Board of Advanced Studies and Research at UET Peshawar
- Established linkage with the Pakistan Engineering Council (PEC), including service by the Pakistani PI on the PEC committee responsible for updating Pakistan's national building code
During the last year of the project, the team focused on completing two remaining tasks of the project: 1) conducting experimental quasi-static test of beam-column joint (Task D) and 2) calibrating analytical models based on experimental observations (Task E) which will be started after completion of all the experimental work and the interpretation of all the available data. For task D, seven exterior beam-column joints specimens were casted with various deficiencies observed during the building stock survey. Quasi static tests have been performed on initial batch of specimen and further tests are being conducted on interior joint specimens. Yasir Irfan Badrashi, a PhD student of Civil Engineering Department in UET Peshawar has been actively involved in carrying out the building stock survey task and conducting the quasi-static tests. On the U.S. side, Mr. Adeel Zafar, a graduate student at the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering in UIUC has been assisting Dr. Andrawes in this project. His MSc thesis topic was related to this project and he is expected to obtain his Ph.D. degree from UIUC. The project was ended on October 31, 2011.
Progress Report Summaries
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2011 Show summary || Hide summary
During the last year of the project, the team focused on completing two remaining tasks of the project: 1) conducting experimental quasi-static test of beam-column joint (Task D) and 2) calibrating analytical models based on experimental observations (Task E) which will be started after completion of all the experimental work and the interpretation of all the available data. For task D, seven exterior beam-column joints specimens were casted with various deficiencies observed during the building stock survey. Quasi static tests have been performed on initial batch of specimen and further tests are being conducted on interior joint specimens. Yasir Irfan Badrashi, a PhD student of Civil Engineering Department in UET Peshawar has been actively involved in carrying out the building stock survey task and conducting the quasi-static tests. On the U.S. side, Mr. Adeel Zafar, a graduate student at the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering in UIUC has been assisting Dr. Andrawes in this project. His MSc thesis topic was related to this project and he is expected to obtain his Ph.D. degree from UIUC.
2010 Show summary || Hide summary
In 2010, three major activities were carried out to move this project forward. These activities were a) the conduction of a detailed survey of the building stock in Pakistan (Task A), b) the design of representative buildings (Task B), and c) modeling and preparation for analytical simulations (Task C).
In Task A, the survey was carried out for selection of representative buildings in Reinforce Concrete and Masonry buildings despite the instabilities in Pakistan. During the survey, 13 construction sites were visted in Pakistan and 51 professionals including structural designers, site engineers, contractors and architects were interviewed for their opinions regarding prevalent construction practices in Pakistan. Data generated from the survey have been processed and main deficiencies that exist in construction practices have been identified. Those deficiencies will be used in experimental and analytical work to assess performance degradation of these structures resulted from them.
In Task B consisted of two parts : a) design of representative buildings, which was carried out at UIUC; and b) determination of material properties, which was carried out in Pakistan. The researchers on this project built up a database of mechanical properties of concrete and steel reinforcement and tested samples of concrete and steel collected from building sites in Peshawar region. Extensive database of masonry units and assemblages have been prepared for numerical and experimental work.
In order to develop Task C, several activities were carried out for the purpose of preparation. These preparations included: a) a review of Pakistan seismic code and a comparison to IBC and UBC codes; b) a study on various technique and methods to compute R factor; c) the development of some material models; d) the development of a 2D models of an administration and academic block of a university in Pakistan.
As part of the research team, two graduate students (Yasir Irfan Badrashi, a PhD student at UET, and Adeel Zafar, a PhD student at UIUC) have been actively contributing to this project. Three research papers have been prepared as a result of this project. Additional funding was sought from the Board of Advanced Studies and Research (BOASAR) UET Peshawar.
2009 Show summary || Hide summary
In 2009 plans called for an exchange of visits between the two research teams. Dr. Andrawes had invited Dr. Ali and his graduate student to spend two weeks at UIUC during the summer of 2009 to observe the confirmatory experimental tests that will be conducted using the MUST-SIM hybrid simulation facility. All costs for the trip were to be paid for by the Pakistani side. However, the funding delays in Pakistan pushed back the work schedule on the project, so Dr. Ali and his team needed more time to catch up. During 2009 they provided the UIUC partners with design drawings for several reinforced concrete buildings under construction in Pakistan, which were used to develop advanced 2-D models incorporating the effect of infill masonry walls, a crucial feature of such buildings. These models were then used to predict the R factor for each building. The two teams also worked to establish the methodology for their survey of the Pakistani building stock, which should help to ensure that their models take into account typically encountered deficiencies such as those associated with the quality of the construction materials or of construction practices. After much consultation they agreed on the survey methodology, which involves collection of design information in the form of architectural and structural drawings and quantification of the disparity between the design specifications and actual construction. This second component would be addressed through interviews with architects, engineers, and contractors, who would be asked a set of questions addressing compliance with various construction parameters. The survey was delayed somewhat by conditions in Pakistan but is expected to be complete by the end of February 2010. In addition, the Pakistani team is also compiling a database on the properties of prototypical construction materials as well as ground motion data from various sites. Data acquisition has been slower than anticipated, but the Pakistani team is working with the relevant organizations to resolve the issue.
Dr. Andrawes and/or his graduate student, Mr. Adeel Zafar, were to visit UET Peshawar during the fall of 2009 to give several presentations related to the project. Those plans are on hold depending on the security situation in Peshawar. Drs. Andrawes and Ali expect to have the chance to meet in Toronto during the 10th Canadian Conference on Earthquake Engineering in July 2010, after which Dr. Andrawes has invited Dr. Ali and his graduate student to visit UIUC for a week or two. In the meantime, they may continue to meet via videoconference as they focus on refining their numerical model and defining the building models based on the results of the building stock survey.
2008 Show summary || Hide summary
After the start of the project on the US side in April 2008, Drs. Andrawes and Elnashai recruited a graduate research assistant (a master’s degree student already enrolled at the university) to work on the project. Although the project suffered several months of funding delays on the Pakistani side, these researchers continued working to made progress toward their goals, and Dr. Ali also recruited a graduate student to work with him on the project. Communicating regularly by e-mail and phone, the US and Pakistani partners initially focused on collecting data on design information and drawings for representative reinforced concrete and masonry buildings in Pakistan and on starting the preliminary analytical phase of the project. In addition, a series of preliminary analytical models of reinforced concrete frames was developed using the OpenSees finite element platform, a state-of-the-art inelastic analytical tool for static and dynamic analysis of steel, concrete, and composite structures.
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