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Pakistan-US Science and Technology Cooperation Program                                                            
Phase 3 (2007 Deadline)

Response Modification Factors of Typical Pakistani Reinforced Concrete
and Masonry Buildings for Pakistani Seismic Code Development

Bassem Andrawes and Amr Elnashai, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC)
Qaisar Ali, NWFP University of Engineering and Technology (UET), Peshawar
Pakistani Funding (HEC):  $  66,000
US Funding (USAID):    $ 100,750
Project Dates on US Side: April 1, 2008 - October 31, 2011

Project Overview

The response modification factor (R) and displacement amplification factor (Cd) play a key role in safety and economy of buildings because they make it possible to reduce elastic seismic forces and amplify displacement to arrive at cost-effective and safe designs. However, these crucial design factors do not currently offer a uniform margin of safety and cost effectiveness for different seismic regions, given the diversity in structural systems, construction practices, and quality control. Improving the reliability and cost effectiveness of earthquake-resistant buildings in Pakistan requires accurately evaluating and calibrating these factors for typical Pakistani structures, not merely importing largely irrelevant and non-rigorous factors from other regions. This project included comprehensive analytical simulations and a limited number of confirmatory tests to calibrate the R and Cd factors for typical reinforced concrete and masonry buildings in Pakistan. The primary objectives included: 1) to fully calibrate and verify earthquake design response factors (R and Cd) of reinforced concrete and masonry buildings for immediate use in the new Pakistani seismic code; 2) to transfer state-of-the-art methodology, technology, and software platforms to UET Peshawar for use in research and teaching; and 3) to build top quality capacity in Pakistan in research, education, and training by holding a series of seminars in Pakistan and hosting Pakistani personnel at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC)

Major Results

  • Conducted a survey of the building stock in Islamabad and four Pakistani provincial capitals and created a database of mechanical properties of concrete and steel reinforcement
  • Published a report on Pakistani reinforced concrete buildings in the World Housing Encyclopedia of the Earthquake Engineering Research Institute
  • Trained one Pakistani PhD student and one graduate student at UIUC
  • Obtained additional funding from the Board of Advanced Studies and Research at UET Peshawar
  • Established linkage with the Pakistan Engineering Council (PEC), including service by the Pakistani PI on the PEC committee responsible for updating Pakistan's national building code

Quarterly Update

During the last year of the project, the team focused on completing two remaining tasks of the project: 1) conducting experimental quasi-static test of beam-column joint (Task D) and 2) calibrating analytical models based on experimental observations (Task E) which will be started after completion of all the experimental work and the interpretation of all the available data. For task D, seven exterior beam-column joints specimens were casted with various deficiencies observed during the building stock survey. Quasi static tests have been performed on initial batch of specimen and further tests are being conducted on interior joint specimens. Yasir Irfan Badrashi, a PhD student of Civil Engineering Department in UET Peshawar has been actively involved in carrying out the building stock survey task and conducting the quasi-static tests. On the U.S. side, Mr. Adeel Zafar, a graduate student at the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering in UIUC has been assisting Dr. Andrawes in this project. His MSc thesis topic was related to this project and he is expected to obtain his Ph.D. degree from UIUC. The project was ended on October 31, 2011.

Progress Report Summaries

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