Cycle 1 (2011 Deadline)
Assessment of impacts of the emission reduction measures of short-lived climate forcers on air quality and climate in SE Asia
PI: Nguyen Thi Kim Oanh, Asian Institute of Technology
Co-PIs: Huang Xuan Co, Hanoi University of Sciences Vietnam National University; Asep Sofyan, Institute of Technology Bandung; and
Nguyen Tri Quang Hung, Nong Lam University
US Partner: Philip Hopke, Clarkson University
Project Dates: June 2012 - May 2015
Prof. Kim Oanh and her student (Ms. Nhung) interviewing a farmer about mushroom harvesting at Dong Lao commune on 26 December 2012 (photo courtesy Dr. Hoang Anh Le)
In Southeast Asia (SEA) the levels of strong short-lived climate forcers (SLCFs) such as black carbon and tropospheric ozone have been reported to be high and increasing, which may have multiple effects on air quality, health, crops, and climate. SEA is also recognized as a major emitter of both air pollution and climate forcers in Asia, with several typical emission source types of importance such as agroresidue field burning, residential combustion, solid waste open burning, and small and medium industries. As yet, no comprehensive study has been conducted to explore quantitative links between the SEA source emission intensity and resulting air quality, the associated effects, and the climate impacts within the region and beyond. To meet the need for data and analysis on the topic, this project will bring together leading SEA and US research groups to study air pollution – climate interactions. The project will involve assessment of the impacts of various mitigation measures of important SLCFs in the SEA region on air quality and climate using a co-benefit approach and will generate a scientific basis for policy recommendations to integrate air quality and climate policies.
The concrete objectives and planned activities of this project include a comprehensive emission inventory database of key air pollutants and climate forcers for major emission sources for SEA, development of action plans for emission reduction, and pilot scale emission reduction projects for the target sources in selected SEA countries. Two countries, Indonesia and Vietnam, were selected for the emission inventory and pilot scale projects. The target sources will be selected based on the results of the emission inventory and should have the potential to multiply, such as agroresidue field burning, solid waste open burning, and residential cooking. Realistic emission reduction scenarios will be developed and assessed using a modeling tool. Through its involvement of researchers from Vietnam, Indonesia, and the United States, the project should create new knowledge on the interactions between emissions, local and regional air quality, and regional climate as it promotes the development of a strong research network.
Summary of Recent Activities
During the last quarter of 2013, the Asian Institute of Technology (AIT) research team continued updating the monitoring data for black carbon (BC) and particulate matter (PM) in Thailand. Additional data of PM and ozone levels for Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia were also obtained to enrich the database of the levels of SLCFs for the region. Source apportionment studies using 10 years of available monitoring data at AIT are being conducted using receptor models of Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF). For the emission inventory, regionals estimation of crop residue open burning and forest fires for Southeast Asia (SEA) are now being evaluated, with more local specific data being incorporated. As part of their research, AIT students are collecting additional data for the emission inventory through the survey of residential combustion in Myanmar and stationary sources in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Meanwhile, the Institute of Technology Bandung (ITB), Hanoi University of Science (HUS), and Nong Lam University (NLU) teams continued collecting available data in their study areas for the ambient air quality assessment of SLCFs (focusing on BC and surface ozone) and for the emission inventory in their cities/countries. ITB and NLU prepared for the survey on rice straw open burning activity in agricultural areas in West Java and Southern Vietnam, respectively. HUS is working on a more detailed survey to investigate the root cause of biomass open burning in Northern Vietnam. ITB has begun developing city-based modeling using WRF/Chem to cover Surabaya, Jakarta, and Bandung (Java), while the data compilation for the emission inventory for Palembang (South Sumatra) is ongoing. All four research teams involved in the project have begun developing emission reduction action plans to be implemented in a case study focusing on crop residue open burning.
Prof. Kim Oanh delivering a keynote at the Environmental Modeling Workshop 2013 (EMW-2013), Hanoi, Vietnam.
Prof. Kim Oanh and her students (Mr. Dong and Ms. Hang) interviewing a farmer harvesting potatoes at Dong Lao commune on 26 December 2012 (photo courtesy Dr. Hoang Anh Le)
Several papers are being prepared to disseminate the research results obtained under this project. Three papers submitted by the AIT PEER-SEA team on regional biomass open burning emission inventory and high resolution emission invetory in Bangkok, Thailand, have been accepted for oral and poster presentations at the 2014 AWMA annual meeting in California. HUS co-organized an Environmental Modeling Workshop (EMW2013) in Hanoi, Vietnam, at which the PEER-SEA PI delivered a keynote and PEER co-PI from NLU attended. The AIT PEER-SEA team presented major findings on co-benefit research at the SDCC/AIT-France final project workshop, which was held on 20-21 December 2013 in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. With partial support from the PEER-SEA project, two PhD AIT students graduated with dissertations on BC co-benefit for SEA using the modeling approach and PM satellite monitoring. AIT is closely coordinating project activities with the teams of all co-PIs, and all project participants are preparing for the upcoming regional workshop to be held in Bali, Indonesia, in June-July 2014. The event will be followed by two national workshops for the Indonesia and Vietnam teams to be attended by local policymakers, researchers, and other related stakeholders.