Cycle 1 (2011 Deadline)
Assessment of impacts of the emission reduction measures of short-lived climate forcers on air quality and climate in SE Asia
PI: Nguyen Thi Kim Oanh, Asian Institute of Technology
Co-PIs: Huang Xuan Co, Hanoi University of Sciences Vietnam National University; Asep Sofyan, Institute of Technology Bandung; and
Nguyen Tri Quang Hung, Nong Lam University
US Partner: Philip Hopke, Clarkson University
Prof. Kim Oanh and her students (Mr. Dong and Ms. Hang) interviewing a farmer who was harvesting potatoes at Dong Lao commune on 26 December 2012. Photo courtesy of Dr. Hoang Anh Le.
Project Dates: June 2012 - May 2015
In Southeast Asia (SEA) the levels of strong short-lived climate forcers (SLCFs) such as black carbon and tropospheric ozone have been reported to be high and increasing, which may have multiple effects on air quality, health, crops, and climate. SEA is also recognized as a major emitter of both air pollution and climate forcers in Asia, with several typical emission source types of importance such as agroresidue field burning, residential combustion, solid waste open burning, and small and medium industries. As yet, no comprehensive study has been conducted to explore quantitative links between the SEA source emission intensity and resulting air quality, the associated effects, and the climate impacts within the region and beyond. To meet the need for data and analysis on the topic, this project will bring together leading SEA and US research groups to study air pollution – climate interactions. The project will involve assessment of the impacts of various mitigation measures of important SLCFs in the SEA region on air quality and climate using a co-benefit approach and will generate a scientific basis for policy recommendations to integrate air quality and climate policies.
The concrete objectives and planned activities of this project include a comprehensive emission inventory database of key air pollutants and climate forcers for major emission sources for SEA, development of action plans for emission reduction, and pilot scale emission reduction projects for the target sources in selected SEA countries. Two countries, Indonesia and Vietnam, were selected for the emission inventory and pilot scale projects. The target sources will be selected based on the results of the emission inventory and should have the potential to multiply, such as agroresidue field burning, solid waste open burning, and residential cooking. Realistic emission reduction scenarios will be developed and assessed using a modeling tool. Through its involvement of researchers from Vietnam, Indonesia, and the United States, the project should create new knowledge on the interactions between emissions, local and regional air quality, and regional climate as it promotes the development of a strong research network.
Summary of Recent Activities
Prof. Kim Oanh and her student (Ms. Nhung) interviewing a farmer about mushroom harvesting at Dong Lao commune on 26 December 2012. Photo courtesy of Dr. Hoang Anh Le.
During the third quarter of 2013, Asian Institute of Technology (AIT) researchers analyzed the available PM2.5 and black carbon (BC) data collected at the AIT ambient laboratory by using receptor modeling to find the source contribution to particulate matter (PM) pollution at the site. Available data for PM2.5 and BC over the past 10 years are being analyzed by positive matrix factorization and chemical mass balance receptor modeling. In addition, the AIT team updated the data on burn areas required for emission inventory (EI) in southeast Asia for further modeling study. AIT has received its new OT21 equipment, purchased with funds from the PEER Science grant, and it has been running BC measurements on samples of PM2.5 collected at the AIT ambient laboratory. Meanwhile, the teams from the Institute of Technology Bandung (ITB), Hanoi University of Science (HUS), and Nong Lam University (NLU) continued compiling the available data in their study areas for ambient air quality assessment (focusing on BC and surface ozone) and for the EI in their cities/countries. ITB improved the EI from biomass burning, especially from rice straw in fields, and set up and ran the Weather Research and Forecast model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) for Surabaya city. HUS and NLU have collected data on crop residues and crop residue burning activity and practices focusing on rice straw. All three institutions collaborating with AIT on this project have begun developing action plans for emission reduction. During the report period, several meetings were carried out at AIT and its partner institutes. After the AIT-based PI and her team leaders (co-PIs) attended the first PEER participants' conference in Bangkok September 30 through October 4, 2013, they hosted visiting USAID and National Academies program staff at AIT. The visitors met with the project team (staff and students), toured AIT’s laboratory facilities, and met with the AIT management team.
AIT has expanded activities on this project to Cambodia and Myanmar through the research of AIT students on monitoring and EI. The team has launched a project website, which is currently active at http://www.peer.ait.asia
. The next annual project workshop will be held in Indonesia around June 2014. The Indonesia and Vietnam teams will also organize their national workshops during that period.