U.S. partner Ben Bostick and PI Pham T.K. Trang with water samples(Photo courtesy Dr. Trang).
Arsenic contamination is heterogeneous but widespread in the Red River and Mekong River deltas of Vietnam, where more than 10 million people depend on arsenic-impacted aquifers for drinking and irrigation water. Many of these wells are private tube wells with dangerous levels of arsenic. The Vietnamese researchers conducting this project have been documenting the extent and nature of this contamination for many years in collaboration with scientists from around the world. Development and urbanization has facilitated the installation of numerous domestic water supplies that draw heavily upon low-arsenic parts of the aquifer. These wells provide safe drinking water but have drastically changed the regional hydrology and are beginning to draw contaminated water into previously uncontaminated areas. The long-term sustainability of these precious water supplies needs to be established. To address this need, the project team will sample these and other groundwater resources regionally around the Hanoi area, with the work to involve training of young scientists and incorporation of a comprehensive suite of quality parameters that are indicative both of current and future risks. This will increase local capacity to evaluate these resources and provide the information needed to effectively recommend solutions for the sustainable use of aquifers.
Capacity building will be carried out through a series of training courses that address critical knowledge gaps in evaluating water quality and the effects of arsenic in the environment. The first course to be presented will be on the chemistry of groundwater arsenic contamination. This course would consist of background information about sediment processes, adsorption, and a description of the factors that affect arsenic retention, as well as a discussion of potential remediation options, with a focus on sand filters and others that are locally widespread and useful. These programs will increase the capacity to interpret regional geochemistry and provide students with the knowledge and critical skills needed to make decisions about the sustainable use of their groundwater resources. The results will provide a regional picture of the impacts of large scale regional groundwater withdrawal in one of the most extensively used, and thus possibly one of the most threatened, aquifers in the region. Mutual collaborations that will arise from this work will be invaluable in developing future research projects for this and other pressing issues related to the sustainable use of our environment.
Summary of Recent Activities
In the first months of the PEER project since it began in August 2013, Dr. Trang and her colleagues met with U.S. partner Dr. Benjamin Bostick to discuss an implementation plan for the study. The PI recruited students for training on groundwater sampling procedures, UV-Vis spectrometer operations, and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) analyzer techniques. Dr. Trang and Vi Thi Mai Lan, a fellow researcher with Hanoi University of Science, led the group in preparing the grid map for locating sample sites, as well as procuring supplies for the sampling campaign. From November 2013 through January 2014, the group collected water samples in a 120 square-kilometer area south and east of Hanoi that includes a significant stretch of the Red River. The team drilled a well to get water samples as well as sediment samples for a stratification study.
In the next few months, the team is planning a study of the water samples, which will be analyzed for anions, cations, and total organic carbon. Data generated from this analysis will be integrated in both the city center and the suburbs. More water samples will be collected and studied. Dr. Bostick will be giving a training course to students at the Hanoi University of Science, and exchange visits will be arranged for project staff to visit Columbia University to learn biogeology research techniques.