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Cycle 6 (2017 Deadline)

Converging climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction strategies into agglomeration policy for coastal metropolitan planning

PI: Harkunti Pertiwi Rahayu (, Institut Teknologi Bandung
U.S. Partner: Louise Comfort, University of Pittsburgh
Project Dates: December 2017 - March 2022

Project Overview

Existing and planned urban agglomerations in Indonesia, especially in coastal areas, are exposed to the impact of climate change and various coastal hazards, including tsunami. Of the 146 coastal municipalities in the country, 130 (or 89%) are exposed to tsunami risk. In the coming decades, climate-induced extreme events are expected to increase (IPCC, 2014), and for Indonesian coastal cities the impact may range from sea level rise (Latief et al, 2012) to changes in precipitation and increased surface temperature that may lead to negative impact across sectors (Bappenas, 2014). Moreover, the increasing concentration of economic activities in urban areas will make those agglomerated cities highly sensitive to impacts of disasters and climate change. This PEER project is aimed at filling the gaps of current climate change adaptation (CCA) and disaster risk reduction (DRR) strategies in Indonesia, which currently tend to work in silos. The aim is to develop locally relevant integration of DRR and CCA strategies that can protect and enhance the resilience of economic growth centers and agglomerated coastal cities by:
  1. Assessing associated coastal risks and climate change impact for coastal urban agglomeration, through identifying various coastal hazards induced by climate change impact at an early stage
  2. Exploring synergies and conflicts between DRR and CCA in coastal urban development policies
  3. Identifying innovative and integrated approaches that foster multi-stakeholder involvement and equal participation of groups, and indicators to characterize and measure DRR and CCA integration
  4. Developing a multi-stakeholder transition pathway and policy statement that integrate and mainstream DRR and CCA in development processes, including accommodating people’s right to access to early warnings using the Logic Model and Social Network Analysis Model
  5. Studying and estimating economic impact through statistics data. Based on historical data, estimation of the benefit-cost ratio of an integrated DRR and CCA strategies on regional development economic size will be made with a value to improve a more resilient economic growth
  6. Ensuring convergence and a coherent DRR and CCA strategies and policy instruments for mainstreaming into appropriate spatial and non-spatial planning documents
  7. Ensuring the integration of a coherence CCA and DRR plan and strategies into the Improvement of Local Disaster Management Plan covering jurisdictions of each agglomerated urban area
  8. Ensuring the upscaling of the Improved Local Disaster Management Plan into the Regional Disaster Management Plan covering all jurisdictions of agglomerated urban areas
This research project, which advocates an integrated concept and implementation guidelines on DRR and CCA for urban coastal areas in Indonesia, should have a positive impact in promoting resilient development. Tentatively, this research focus includes national strategic areas in the Mamminasata (Makassar-Maros-Sunggumiansa and Takalar) metropolitan area in South Sulawesi Province and ITBM Palapa metropolitan area (Indarung, Teluk Bayur, Bungus, Mandeh, Padang, Pariaman and Padang Pariaman) in West Sumatra Province. The ITBM Palapa metropolitan area provides the logistical and transportation hub for other provinces in the west coast of Sumatra Island, while Mamminasata has greater role as the key and main port for both Sulawesi island and also the rest of eastern Indonesia. Given the high level of development and high economic growth rate in these two areas, protecting and improving resilience of both ITBM Palapa and Mamminasata from various coastal hazards should have a positive impact on Indonesia’s development in general. Both provinces are also champions in terms of innovative development, so if an integrated DRR-CCA effort can be introduced there, it is likely that other provinces in Sumatra and Sulawesi will follow suit. ITBM Palapa and Mamminasata can become models of disaster- and climate-resilient investment and development.

Summary of Recent Activities

6-025 Pad City Emergency Op Center
The PEER team visits the Padang City Emergency Operations Center during filming of a documentary on their previous project under PEER Cycle 3 (photo courtesy of Dr. Harkunti).
During the last quarter of 2021, Dr. Rahayu and her team carried out several activities on their multifaceted project. They finalized their discourse network analysis and social network analysis and began synthesizing their findings. They also organized a mini focus group discussion (FGD) with several local stakeholders in Mamminasata Metropolitan Area on November 25, 2021. The aim of the FGD was to present the result of the study and discuss the potential development impact for Mamminasata. Currently, the national government is updating its metropolitan spatial plan to comply with the omnibus law that requires synchronization of land and coastal area plans. The FGD participants concluded that the results of the PEER study would contribute to the upcoming metropolitan spatial plan and discussed several challenges in the management of Mamminasata, especially in institutional matters. There is a need for a coordinating body with authority in program and budget planning and for coordination with the national government, especially the National Land Agency (ATR/BPN), the governing body that manages metropolitan development in Indonesia. Another mini FGD was held in Palapa Metropolitan Area in Padang on November 29, with participants from several local institutions in West Sumatra Province such as the Planning Agency, Public Works Agency, and Local Disaster Management Office. The objectives of this FGD were to present the results of the study and discuss future development of Palapa. At this time, the area is being proposed as a provincial strategic area (Kawasan Strategis Provinsi – KSP) but the national government has not yet moved forward with putting this in place. The process was halted halfway, including the termination of the spatial planning development process following the enactment of the omnibus law. This new law does not acknowledge any particular plan for the provincial strategic area but includes it in the provincial spatial plan. Nevertheless, collaboration between regions within the metropolitan area can still be organized under an existing memorandum of understanding in West Sumatra.

As the project moves towards its close at the end of March 2022, the PI and her team will be completing their analysis of DRR/CCA activities recommended for prioritization for Mamminasata and Palapa. To disseminate their findings, they will be finishing scientific papers for publications and delivering policy briefs to local government agencies in the two study areas.

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