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Partnerships for enhanced engagement in research (PEER)
Cycle 4 (2015 Deadline)

Integrated watershed management for enhancing local livelihoods and biodiversity conservation in Indonesia

PI: Terence Sunderland ( and co-PI Ani Adiwinata Nawir, Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR)
U.S. Partner: Jefferson Fox, East-West Center
Project Dates:  November 2015 - October 2018

Project Overview

4-393 Project Locations
This map shows the project research sites and partner NGO locations. © CIFOR PEER Project

This project seeks to promote effective implementation of integrated watershed management (IWMA), thereby enhancing local livelihoods, biodiversity conservation, and the research capacity of the partners involved. The project is aimed at overcoming several resource management problems, biodiversity threats, and conflicting policy and regulation frameworks. Its specific objectives include (1) assessing a variety of institutional arrangements for more effective IWMA; (2) developing approaches for implementing landscape-level biodiversity conservation in remaining natural ecosystems that are key habitats of endemic endangered plant and animal species; and (3) promoting IWMA for enhancing local livelihoods supported by policy and regulation frameworks at national and local levels, based on good governance principles. Activities in Year 1 will include a review of policy and regulatory frameworks that now hinder integrated watershed management, landscape-based biodiversity conservation approaches in identified areas, and existing institutional arrangements, as well as an analysis of stakeholders and their divergent needs and capabilities. In Year 2, the project team will develop follow-up activities in collaboration with their U.S.-based partners based on data collected to develop scenarios for integrating the above three aspects. In Year 3, the project will focus primarily on capacity building for local stakeholders.

By the time the project is completed, NGO partners in Indonesia should have better capacity to conduct relevant research and apply research results to management on the ground. Government agencies and communities should have a better understanding of effective IWMA and landscape-based biodiversity conservation and how it is applied in the three research sites to be included in the project (Bantaeng and Bulukumba districts in South Sulawesi and Sunbawa District in West Nusa Tenggara). Experiences will also be shared with the other project site in West Kalimantan (Kapuas Hulu District), especially in developing community-based conservation approaches. Skills gained will give these key stakeholders the approaches and experience to continue implementing key project recommendations, ensuring that IWMA is applied after the project ends. It will also build capacity among these stakeholders to participate in research and monitoring in future conservation and/or REDD+ activities. Triangular cooperation with the U.S. Government-supported partner at the East-West Center will enhance the scientific research capacity of project members and partners by sharing local and global knowledge on the issue of IWMA.
Summary of Recent Activities

Guided by the framework of IWMA (Integrated Watershed Management Approach), a PAR (Participatory Action Research) approach has been implemented in the four project sites in the second quarter of 2017. CIFOR received the narrative reports from the four NGO partners as part of the requirements before the second term of funding payment could be executed. Overall, in-depth data collection in Year 2 has been implemented, including collecting spatial data of the watersheds being researched. Associated data analysis has been progressing into preliminary results, with some progress variations in the four sites. Specific policy advocacy strategies have been identified and designed taking into account these preliminary results. 

Balang Institute is now at the last stage in the participatory mapping processes to produce the thematic maps on land and water utilization along the three watersheds: Raowa in Kajang Bulukumba and Biangloe and Tangga in Bantaeng, South Sulawesi. The last activities included the verification process with local communities, as well as collecting the remote sensing data using drone in seven villages located in the upstream, midstream and downstream areas along the watersheds. River tracking had also been conducted along the inter-connected rivers to have a better understanding on river-based communities’ daily practices. The NGO is now also the member of the task force in Kajang District with the goal to produce the regulatory framework in clarifying the local government roles in protecting the customary right of local community of Ammatoa Kajang.

Samawa Center in Sumbawa has been conducting parallel activities of field research and policy advocacy. The field activities included preparing the methodology for participatory FGD (Focus Group Discussion) and stakeholder analysis in the upstream area of the Sumbawa Watershed as part of designing the mechanism for environmental services payment, particularly to the upstream communities that have been conserving the forest and water resources. Field activities also included collecting water samples as part of the water quality assessment survey along the watersheds. Students from Sumbawa University have been conducting this study as part of the capacity building program in the project. Collecting and analyzing the spatial data for the Sumbawa Watershed is another important field activity. Intensive engagement with key government partners such as the regional planning agency, local parliament members, the secretary office to the local government, and the Forest Management Unit (FMU) has also been conducted. This engagement aims to involve government partners in the ongoing initiatives and also to seek input in drafting an academic manuscript on the policy framework of integrated watershed management and associated environmental services. 

As part of the research on tengkawang, particularly on its roles in maintaining the hydrological function and biodiversity conservation in the surrounding watersheds, the Riak Bumi Foundation has been collaborating with the Tanjungpura University in providing opportunities for students to do their research in the project area.

Finally, Teras Community research activities in Southeast Sulawesi have been affected by the enactment of the Law No. 23/2014 ( implemented in early 2017) and the newly appointed head of Grand Forest Nipa-nipa technical management unit. These developments have required Teras to re-introduce the project in ensuring continuing support from relevant government agencies. Nevertheless, Teras staff have started to conduct the household survey of the water users, as well as the followed-up FGD. On-going activities include compilation and analysis of collected data and map development on the distribution of water source points by recording their GPS coordinates. These water sources are utilized by different user groups including individual and collective household-based users and illegal water bottling companies. With these databases, policy recommendations for an improved water management can be formulated so that over-exploitation of these water sources could be prevented.


3-393 Local community4-393 Forest mapping4-393 River tracking
Training for local communities as part of the participatory mapping exercises of land/water utilization in Bulukumba, and river tracking to observe communities' daily practices of using the main                                                                                                                         river of the Raowa Watersheds, Bulukumba                            © Balang Institute 2017 for CIFOR

The next immediate important plan at the project level is for CIFOR PEER Project Team to organize writing training and workshop for NGO partners. This training and workshops have been put in the annual working plans developed for Year 2, and aim to improve the writing skills of PEER Project members, so they will be adequately equipped with the writing skills to produce a series of info-brief. The training will be conducted in Bogor on 7-11 August 2017. Prior to the writing workshop, project meeting and GIS training will also be organized. Several project members will also be participating in the PEER Indonesia Forum organized by NAS Washington DC for three days (1-3 August 2017).

At the project site level, in the next three to four months, Teras Community NGO will be continuing to execute the following activities: (1) finalizing their baseline data (by conducting in-depth research on the number of families using water, stakeholder analysis, and gathering information on water from the management board administering environmental services); (2) implementing the collaboration with a local university and supervising students to conduct research in the project site; (3) facilitate the multi-stakeholder processes for initiating the management of environmental services for water resources inside Nipa-Nipa; Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) with 11 groups managing water resources and their users; FGDs with four companies producing bottled water and ice blocks, government authorities at all levels; and (4) building a shared commitment based on a similar understanding and vision on the way forwards for multi-stakeholders’ collaboration under participative management approach in Tahura Nipa-nipa.

In the next three-four months, Balang will be continuing to work in completing the participatory mapping activities and compiling baseline data: maps of village administration, land use, vegetation cover, and springs; data/ information on village history, local institution; description of the land and water use potential and problems in each of the mapped villages. Further, based on these data, a draft will be developed for village based watershed governance model for Tangnga and Biangloe Watershed in Bantaeng and Raowa Watershed in Bulukumba. This draft will be important to formulate and develop the Head of Bulukumba District regulation (Peraturan Bupati). Following the workshop at the district level, three main homework for Riak Bumi are: (a) Facilitating the formation of the IWMA Forum (Forum DAS terpadu) at the district level; (b) Supporting the initiative in producing regulation as the legal basis for policy on IWMA; (c) Designing the collective actions to support the efforts in improving local communities' livelihoods and better ecosystem; (d) Designing a creative and innovative funding-generated models in ensuring the sustainability of the program; and (e) Supervising and mentoring the four students in conducting the capacity building to these students, including in the fieldworks.

In the next three to four months, milestones to be achieved by colleagues at Samawa Center are: (a) Drafting the regulation at the district level on the proposed mechanism for payment mechanism and scheme for services in conserving the water resources – based on the reflection from comparative study in West Lombok District; (b) Stakeholder analysis through a series of FGDs and identifying community-based conservation activities impacted the watershed, as the basis for formulating required payments; (c) Designing and formulating the appropriate institutional arrangements at various levels in governing the payment mechanism; and (d) Preparing and analyzing relevant spatial data to support the recommendation on the proposed payment mechanism.

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