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Cycle 5 (2015 Deadline)

Incorporating climate change induced sea level rise information into coastal cities’ preparedness toward coastal hazards

PI: Syamsidik (, Tsunami and Disaster Mitigation Research Center, Syiah Kuala University
U.S. Partner: Louise K. Comfort, University of Pittsburgh
Project Dates: December 2016 - September 2021

Project Overview

Research has not yet identified all the impacts of climate changes on island nations like Indonesia. One of the challenges is the complexity of the available data in Indonesia. This project is aimed at combining two sets of processes—climate change-induced sea level rise and coastal hazards (coastal erosion, tsunami, and coastal flooding)—using three projected periods (30, 50, and 100 years). Climate change-induced sea level rise coupled with coastal hazards is a rarely studied topic in Indonesia. Dr. Syamsidik and his team expect that the project should produce newly developed scenarios for assessing impacts of climate change-induced sea level rise in Indonesia’s coastal cities, combining information on sea level rise (a slow process) and coastal hazards (a relatively fast process). Their work will also incorporate scientifically based policy analysis of urban development planning in order to increase the preparedness of cities in the region. In addition, this research will compare the projected impacts of sea level rise coupled with coastal hazards between two coastal cities representing the northern hemisphere and southern hemisphere of Indonesia. The impact comparisons will highlight variations resulting from geographical differences. This research will also offer examples for incorporating scientific evidence on climate change and coastal hazard impacts with techno-social approaches for disaster mitigation and climate change adaptation.

U.S. partner Dr. Comfort will assist this research team with her expertise in analyzing development planning policies. Her techno-social approach will a valuable resource for the Indonesian team. To gather input and disseminate their findings, Dr. Syamsidik and his colleagues will organize several forums for stakeholders from the national and local levels. Two policy briefings will be made to address the issue of climate change impacts and their incorporation into development planning for coastal cities in Indonesia. This research team will also produce inputs for improving university-level instruction in courses involving climate change and disaster management. Lessons learned from this research process will be used in revising the relevant course curricula at Syiah Kuala University in Banda Aceh and Mataram University in Mataram.

Summary of Recent Activities

5-395 Coastal Monitoring5-395 Banda Aceh Survey
The team conducted a series of activities in Banda Aceh including resident surveys and coastal dynamic monitoring (photos courtesy of Dr. Syamsidik)
In this reporting period, January – March 2021, project activities focused on training, publications, and preparations for future field work. The first in-house training, which was held on February 3, was aimed at updating knowledge and skills for researchers and students in Delft3D modelling of particles, waves, and water quality. Due to COVID-related restrictions, attendance was limited to 10 participants, all of whom were researchers or students at the PI’s university. The second training, held April 5-6, covered the use of drone technology for mapping, and 11 participants attended. During this past quarter, Dr. Syamsidik reports that he and his colleagues published one article in the International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction (Elsevier), with title being “Coupling sea-level rise with tsunamis: Projected adverse impact of future tsunamis on Banda Aceh city, Indonesia.” The paper presents an extensive set of data from 120 tsunami scenarios coupled with four periods of sea level rise (present vs. 50, 100, 150, and 200 years out). They also published a Springer book chapter entitled “The 2004 Indian Ocean Earthquake and Tsunami: Resettlement and Demographic Challenges,” which is included in the book Climate Change, Disaster Risk, and Human Security. The PI and his team are currently preparing for their last series of field expeditions to Mataram, Ambon, and South Lampung, tentatively scheduled for June and July 2021. In Mataram, they will officially submit the Book of Mitigation Strategies for Coastal Hazards for Mataram Coasts to the Government of Mataram. In Ambon, they plan to conduct a final focus group discussion to assess tsunami impacts for Ambon city. A no-cost extension is being issued to provide time to convene a final dissemination webinar in August 2021, and additional publications are also expected.

Publications and Other Useful Links

Tursina, Syamsidik, Shigeru Kato, and Mochammad Afifuddin. 2021. Coupling sea-level rise with tsunamis: projected adverse impact of future tsunamis on Banda Aceh City, Indonesia. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction 55:102084. (available at

Syamsidik, A. Nugroho, and M. Fahmi. 2021. The 2004 Indian Ocean Earthquake and Tsunami: Resettlement and Demographic Challenges. In: Pulhin J.M., M. Inoue, and R. Shaw (eds), Climate Change, Disaster Risks, and Human Security. Disaster Risk Reduction (Methods, Approaches and Practices). Springer, Singapore. (available at

Syamsidik, Benazir, Mumtaz Luthfi, Anawat Suppasri, and Louise K. Comfort. 2020. The 22 December 2018 Mount Anak Krakatau volcanogenic tsunami on Sunda Strait coasts, Indonesia: tsunami and damage characteristics. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences 20, 549-565, 1561-8633. (available at

Syamsidik, T.M. Rasyif, A. Suppasri, M. Fahmi, M. Alala, W. Akmal, T.M. Hafli, and A. Fauzia. 2020. Challenges in increasing community preparedness against tsunami hazards in tsunami-prone small islands around Sumatra, Indonesia. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction 47, 101572-101572, 2212-4209. (available at

Rusydy, I., Y. Idris, Mulkal, et al. 2020. Shallow crustal earthquake models, damage, and loss predictions in Banda Aceh, Indonesia. Geoenvironmental Disasters 7, 8. (available at

Oktari, R.S., Louise K. Comfort, Syamsidik, and Putra Dwitama. 2020. Measuring coastal cities' resilience toward coastal hazards: Instrument development and validation. Progress in Disaster Science 5, 100057, 2590-0617. (available at

Oktari, R.S., Syamsidik, K. Munadi, R. Idroes, and H. Sofyan. 2020. City resilience towards Coastal Hazards: An Integrated Bottom-Up and Top-Down Assessment. Water 12(10), 2823.
(available at
Syamsidik, Tursina, Anawat Suppasri, Musa Al'ala, Mumtaz Luthfi, and Louise K. Comfort. 2019. Assessing the tsunami mitigation effectiveness of a planned Banda Aceh Outer Ring Road (BORR), Indonesia. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences 19, 299–312. (available at

Syamsidik, Benazir, Muksin Umar, Giordano Margaglio, and Afri Fitrayansyah. 2019. Post-tsunami survey of the 28 September 2018 tsunami near Palu Bay in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia: Impacts and challenges to coastal communities. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction 38, 101229. (available at

The team's brief reports on the Sunda Strait Tsunami of December 2018 are available through the links below:

Media coverage and reports posted at the TDMRC website may be accessed below:
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