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DSC Publications 2001-2009                                                                                             

View recent publications  |  Published 2001-2009  |  Published before 2001  

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Publications in 2009

A Survey of Attitudes and Actions on Dual Use Research in the Life Sciences: A Collaborative Effort of the National Research Council and the American Association for the Advancement of ScienceA Survey of Attitudes and Actions on Dual Use Research in the Life Sciences: (2009)
The same technologies that fuel scientific advances also pose potential risks--that the knowledge, tools, and techniques gained through legitimate biotechnology research could be misused to create biological weapons or for bioterrorism. This is often called the dual use dilemma of the life sciences. Yet even research with the greatest potential for misuse may offer significant benefits. Determining how to constrain the danger without harming essential scientific research is critical for national security as well as prosperity and well-being.
site with radioactive materialCleaning Up Sites Contaminated with Radioactive Materials: International Workshop Proceedings (2009)
This publication features papers presented at the workshop on Cleaning Up Sites Contaminated with Radioactive Materials, held in Moscow in June 2007. The workshop was designed to promote exchanges of information on specific contaminated sites in Russia and elsewhere and to stimulate greater attention to the severity of the problems and the urgent need to clean up sites of concern to the local and international communities.

 Interacademy program US & Eastern Europe

Interacademy Programs Between the United States and Eastern Europe 1967-2009: The Changing Landscape (2009)
This report documents how interacademy programs have played a significant role in establishing and maintaining American scientific contacts with colleagues in Eastern Europe prior to and following the lifting of the Iron Curtain. The book also discusses the changing roles of the science academies of the region and the changing nature of interacademy cooperation that has emerged since 1991. The countries of interest are Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, the former German Democratic Republic, and the countries that previously were united politically within the framework of the former Yugoslavia.

 Countering Biological ThreatsCountering Biological Threats: Challenges for the Department of Defense's Nonproliferation Program Beyond the Former Soviet Union (2009)
The risk of bioterrorism in other countries is too great for the Department of Defense (DOD) not to be among the leaders in addressing threats beyond the Former Soviet Union (FSU). This report examines how the unique experience and extensive capabilities of the DOD can be extended to reduce the threat of bioterrorism within developing countries outside the FSU.
Russian Views on Countering TerrorismRussian Views on Countering Terrorism During Eight Years of Dialogue: Extracts from Proceedings of Four Workshops (2009)
Few countries have endured as many attacks of terrorism during the past two decades as has Russia. The measures that have been undertaken to reduce vulnerabilities to terrorist attacks and to mitigate the consequences of attacks have been of widespread interest in many other countries. In June 1999, the Presidents of the National Academy of Sciences and the Russian Academy of Sciences initiated an inter-academy program to jointly address common interests in the field of counter-terrorism. This report includes 35 of the Russian presentations during a series of workshop held from 2001 to 2006. Collectively they provide a broad overview of activities that have been supported by Russian institutions.
 Beyond Fortress AmericaBeyond "Fortress America": National Security Controls on Science and Technology in a Globalized World(2009)
The report provides an account of the costs associated with building walls that hamper our access to global science and technology that dampen our economic potential. It also makes recommendations to reform the export control process, ensure scientific and technological competitiveness, and improve the non-immigrant visa system that regulates entry into the United States of foreign science and engineering students, scholars, and professionals.
 Countering Terrorism: Bio ThreatsCountering Terrorism: Biological Agents, Transportation Networks, and Energy Systems. Summary of a U.S.-Russian Workshop (2009)
During the past 12 years, DOD has invested $800 million in reducing the risk from bioterrorism with roots in the states of the former Soviet Union (FSU). This workshop report examines how the unique experience and extensive capabilities of the Department of Defense can be extended to reduce the threat of bioterrorism within developing countries outside the FSU.
Publications in 2008
 Future dev of societiesScience and Technology and the Future Development of Societies: International Workshop Proceedings (2008)
In June 2006, 17 scientists and educators selected by the National Acadmies, the Academy of Sciences of Iran, and the Académie des Sciences of France held a workshop at the estate of the Fondation des Treilles in Toutour, France to discuss issues concerning the role of science in the development of modern societies. These proceedings summarize the presentations made at the workshop and the discussions that followed them. The participants’ expertise represented a broad array of science and technology disciplines, including anthropology, engineering, education, chemistry, agriculture, psychology, and health sciences. The topics addressed science-oriented themes in K-12 education, management, ethics, socioeconomic development, and policymaking. The National Academies is currently exploring opportunities to continue such discussions in Iran, and this report provides useful background for the further development of interactions of Western scientists and educators with Iranian specialists.
 2nd Intl Forum on Biosecurity The 2nd International Forum on Biosecurity (2008)
The 2nd International Forum on Biosecurity, held in Budapest, Hungary on March 30 - April 2, 2008, represents the efforts of a number of individuals and organizations, over the last five years, to engage the international community of life scientists in addressing how to reduce the risk that the results of their work could be used for hostile purposes by terrorists and states. The focus of the meeting was on what had been accomplished and what challenges remaind. The Forum's presentations, discussions, and results are summarized in this book.
Setting the stageSetting the Stage for International Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage Facilities: International Workshop Proceedings (2008)
This publication is a collection of papers presented at the Workshop on Setting the Stage for International Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage Facilities, held Vienna in June 2005, as well as a second session held in Washington, D.C., in October 2005. Papers included in these proceedings cover international monitoring at a proposed Russian spent fuel storage facility, transportation requirements, liability and insurance concerns, and the status of Russian legislation important in locating and operating such a facility.
 Democracy reportImproving Democracy Assistance: Building Knowledge through Evaluations and Research (2008)
An ad hoc Committee on Evaluation of USAID Democracy Assistance conducted a study that provides a road map to enable USAID and its partners to build, absorb, and act on improved knowledge about assisting the development of democracy in a variety of contexts. USAID is already implementing a number of the study’s recommendations.
Lost Crop 1

Lost Crops of Africa: Volume III: Fruits (2008)
This book is the third in a series evaluating underexploited African plant resources that could help broaden and secure Africa's food supply. The volume describes 24 little-known indigenous African cultivated and wild fruits that have potential as food- and cash-crops but are typically overlooked by scientists, policymakers, and the world at large. The book assesses the potential of each fruit to help overcome malnutrition, boost food security, foster rural development, and create sustainable landcare in Africa. Each fruit is also described in a separate chapter, based on information provided and assessed by experts throughout the world.

View the report brief (PDF, 154KB)
Podcast: Lost Fruits of Africa (Fri, 6 Jun 2008 11:18:58 -0400)

Publications in 2007
 Energy FuturesEnergy Futures and Urban Air Pollution: Challenges for China and the United States (2007)
The United States and China are the top two energy consumers in the world. As a consequence, they are also the top two emitters of numerous air pollutants which have local, regional, and global impacts. Urbanization has led to serious air pollution problems in U.S. and Chinese cities; although U.S. cities continue to face challenges, the lessons they have learned in managing energy use and air quality are relevant to the Chinese experience. This report summarizes current trends, profiles two U.S. and two Chinese cities, and recommends key actions to enable each country to continue to improve urban air quality.

Mobilizing Science-Based Enterprises for Energy, Water, and Medicines in Nigeria (2007)
Developed in collaboration with the Nigerian Academy of Science, this report explores the ways in which science-based private enterprises can be created and encouraged in Nigeria and other developing countries to provide products and services that the government is unable to supply in a timely and sustainable manner. Focusing on three critical challenges to health and development-- safe water, electrical lighting, and malaria therapy—the report identifies a sample technology to address each of these challenges with potential for commercialization in Nigeria and Africa, and uses that sample technology to identify opportunities and barriers to creating science-based enterprises in Nigeria.

 Bio Threat Reduction Prog of DODThe Biological Threat Reduction Program of the Department of Defense: From Foreign Assistance to Sustainable Partnerships (2007)
This report identifies areas for further cooperation with Russia and other states of the former Soviet Union under the Cooperative Threat Reduction (CTR) program of the Department of Defense in the specific area of prevention of proliferation of biological weapons. The report reviews relevant U.S. government programs, particularly the CTR program, and identifies approaches for overcoming obstacles to cooperation and for increasing the long-term impact of the program. It recommends strong support for continuation of the CTR program.
 Radiological TerrorismU.S.-Russian Collaboration in Combating Radiological Terrorism(2007)
The International Atomic Energy Agency reports numerous incidents of illicit trafficking in radioactive materials, including ionizing radiation sources (IRSs) used in medical, agricultural, and industrial applications. This report assesses the threats posed by inadequately protected IRSs in Russia and recommends steps to enhance the effectiveness of DOE’s current cooperative program with Russia.

Science and Technology in Kazakhstan: Current Status and Future Prospects (2007)
Kazakhstan has an ambitious program to increase its technological competitiveness in the global market place during the next few years, but achieving success will depend in large measure on the effectiveness of upgraded science and technology (S&T) capabilities. This report identifies important opportunities and limitations in the education system, research and development (R&D) institutions, production companies, and service organizations to help governmental organizations in Kazakhstan with strong interests in S&T to chart the future course of the country. 

Publications in 2006
 Countering Urban Terrorism

Countering Urban Terrorism in Russia and the United States: Proceedings of a Workshop (2006)
This report presents papers focused on various organizations’ integrated response to acts of urban terrorism, recent acts of terrorism, radiological terrorism, biological terrorism, cyberterrorism, and the roots of terrorism presented at a Workshop on Urban Terrorism held in winter 2005. Prior to the workshop, three working groups convened to focus on the topics of energy systems vulnerabilities, transportation systems vulnerabilities, and cyberterrorism issues; their work is also represented in this report.  

 Globalization & Biosecurity

Globalization, Biosecurity, and the Future of the Life Sciences (2006)
The risks posed by bioterrorism and the proliferation of biological weapons capabilities have increased concern about how the rapid advances in genetic engineering and biotechnology could enable the production of biological weapons with unique and unpredictable characteristics. This report examines current trends and future objectives of research in public health, life sciences, and biomedical science that contain applications relevant to developments in biological weapons 5 to 10 years into the future and ways to anticipate, identify and mitigate these dangers. 

 S&T in intl devThe Fundamental Role of Science and Technology in International Development: An Imperative for the U.S. Agency for International Development (2006)
An NRC committee assessed the capabilities of USAID to draw on the science and technology resources of the nation in designing and carrying out development assistance programs and recommends steps that USAID should consider in enhancing these capabilities. Special attention is devoted to partnerships that involve USAID and other organizations in the fields of heath care, agriculture and nutrition, education and job creation, and energy and environment.
 Lost Crop 2

Lost Crops of Africa: Volume II: Vegetables (2006)
This volume describes the characteristics of 18 little-known indigenous African vegetables (including tubers and legumes) that have potential as food- and cash-crops but are typically overlooked by scientists and policymakers and in the world at large. The book assesses the potential of each vegetable to help overcome malnutrition, boost food security, foster rural development, and create sustainable landcare in Africa. Each species is described in a separate chapter, based on information gathered from and verified by a pool of experts throughout the world.

View the report brief  (PDF, 163KB)
View the summary (PDF, 48.09MB)
Podcast: Lost Crops of Africa Volume II: Vegetables (Fri, 1 Jun 2007 13:54:57 -0400)

Letter ReportLetter Report on the Threat Agent Detection Response System Database (2006)
This letter report by the Committee to Review Research Proposals from Former Soviet Biological Weapons Institutes addresses the question of which U.S. government organization should house the data repository for information collected under the Threat Agent Detection Response (TADR) Project, implemented by the U.S. Defense Threat Reduction Agency. Also considered is the question of whether and how the U.S. government should provide this information to relevant international health organizations.
Food Safety

Food Safety and Foodborne Disease Surveillance Systems: Proceedings of an Iranian-American Workshop (2006)
In October 2004, the Research Center for Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases of Shaheed Beheshti University hosted in Tehran an Iranian-American workshop on Food Safety and Surveillance Systems for Foodborne Diseases. The purposes of the workshop were to initiate contacts between Iranian and American specialists, exchange information about relevant activities in the two countries, and set the stage for future cooperation in the field. The participants also identified important aspects of food safety that should be addressed more intensively by both countries, including surveillance, research, international trade, and risk assessment. The framework for the workshop had been developed during a meeting of Iranian and American specialists in June 2003 in Les Treilles, France. More that 100 specialists participated in the workshop in their personal capacities, along with representatives of the World Health Organization and the Food and Agriculture Organization. These proceedings include a number of papers that were presented at the workshop together with summaries of discussions following the presentation of the papers.  

 Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage FacilityAn International Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage Facility -- Exploring a Russian Site as a Prototype: Proceedings of an International Workshop (2006)
As part of a long-standing collaboration on nuclear nonproliferation, the National Academy of Sciences and the Russian Academy of Sciences held a joint workshop in Moscow in 2003 on the scientific aspects of an international radioactive disposal site in Russia. The passage of Russian laws permitting the importation and storage of high-level radioactive material (primarily spent nuclear fuel from reactors) has engendered interest from a number of foreign governments, including the U.S., in exploring the possibility of transferring material to Russia on a temporary or permanent basis. The workshop focused on the environmental aspects of the general location and characteristics of a possible storage site, transportation to and within the site, containers for transportation and storage, inventory and accountability, audits and inspections, and handling technologies.
Publications 2005
 Biological science/Russia

Biological Science and Biotechnology in Russia: Controlling Diseases and Enhancing Security (2005)
This report offers a number of recommendations that could help restore Russia's ability to join with the United States and the broader international community in leading an expanded global effort to control infectious diseases. A proposed bilateral intergovernmental commission could play a pivotal role toward that end as cooperation moves from assistance to partnership. The report proposed the establishment of two model State Sanitary Epidemiological Surveillance Centers in Russia, more focused support of competitively selected Russian research groups as centers of excellence, the promotion of investments in biotechnology niches that are well suited for Russian companies, and expanded opportunities for young scientists to achieve scientific leadership positions in Russia. Also, the report highlighted the importance of U.S. programs that support the integration of former Soviet defense scientists with civilian researchers who had not been involved in military-related activities.  

 Innovating for Profit

Innovating for Profit in Russia: Developments in the Urals Region - Summary of a Workshop (2005)
The National Research Council hosted an interacademy workshop in Yekaterinburg, Russia together with the Russian Academy of Sciences in October 2004 as a means of exploring various aspects of industrial innovation in the Urals region of Russia. Workshop presenters focused on the establishment of cooperative business partnerships between Russian industrial companies and Russian research organizations, particularly those in the closed nuclear cities of Russia. The concept of “market pull” was therefore an important aspect of the workshop, including partnerships between Russian researchers and international companies, as well as those with international research centers. However, given the complex economic and research climates in Russia, which are intensified in the nuclear cities, cooperation between Russian industry and Russian researchers were of primary during the workshop presentations and subsequent discussions as captured in this workshop summary.  

Water Conservation

Water Conservation, Reuse, and Recycling: Proceedings of an Iranian-American Workshop (2005)
In December 2002, a group of specialists on water resources from the United States and Iran met in Tunis, Tunisia, for an interacademy workshop on water resources management, conservation, and recycling. This was the fourth interacademy workshop on a variety of topics held in 2002, the first year of such workshops. Tunis was selected as the location for the workshop because the Tunisian experience in addressing water conservation issues was of interest to the participants from both the United States and Iran. This report includes the agenda for the workshop, all of the papers that were presented, and the list of site visits.  

 Protection, Control, Accounting of Nuclear MaterialProtection, Control, and Accounting of Nuclear Materials: International Challenges and National Programs -- Workshop Summary (2005)
The U.S. and Russian academies convened a workshop in 2003 for sharing best practices in nuclear materials protection, control, and accounting (MPC&A), including the status and application of remote monitoring technologies, personnel issues, and both national and international safeguards worldwide. The goals of the workshop were to identify areas in which the United States and Russia can promote best practices in MPC&A globally and expand U.S.-Russian cooperation on nuclear non-proliferation. The papers presented at the workshop and the outcomes of workshop discussions form the basis for this workshop summary.
 Strengthening long-term nuclear security

Strengthening Long-Term Nuclear Security: Protecting Weapon-Usable Material in Russia (2005)
In July 2005, the National Academies released the report Strengthening Long-term Nuclear Security: Protecting Weapon-Usable Material in Russia. The report highlighted several obstacles in the transition from a U.S.-Russian cooperative program to a Russian-directed and Russian-funded fully indigenized program that will ensure the security of 600 tons of weapon-usable nuclear material at a level of international acceptability. Overcoming these obstacles requires an increased political commitment at a number of levels of the Russian Government to modern material protection, control, and accounting systems (MPC&A). Adequate resources must be provided to facilities where weapon-usable material is located for upgrading and maintaining MPC&A systems. Additionally, the technical security systems that are being installed through the cooperative program need to be fully embraced by Russian managers and specialists. The report recommends the establishment of a ten-year indigenization fund of about $500 million provided by Russia and its G-8 partners as a new mechanism for gradually shifting the financial burden of MPC&A to the Russian Government.

 International spent nuclear fuel storage facility

An International Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage Facility -- Exploring a Russian Site as a Prototype: Proceedings of an International Workshop (2005)
As part of a long-standing collaboration on nuclear nonproliferation, the National Academy of Sciences and the Russian Academy of Sciences held a joint workshop in Moscow in 2003 on the scientific aspects of an international radioactive disposal site in Russia. The passage of Russian laws permitting the importation and storage of high-level radioactive material (primarily spent nuclear fuel from reactors) has engendered interest from a number of foreign governments, including the U.S., in exploring the possibility of transferring material to Russia on a temporary or permanent basis. The workshop focused on the environmental aspects of the general location and characteristics of a possible storage site, transportation to and within the site, containers for transportation and storage, inventory and accountability, audits and inspections, and handling technologies.  

Publications 2004

Science and Technology in Armenia: Toward a Knowledge-Based Economy (2004)
An NRC ad hoc committee analyzed the current status and future development potential of Armenia’s science and technology base, including human and infrastructural resources and research and educational capabilities. The committee identified those fields and institutions offering promising opportunities for contributing to economic and social development, and particularly institutions having unique and important capabilities, worthy of support from international financial institutions, private investment sources, and the Armenian and U.S. governments. The scope of the study included both pure and applied research as well as education in science-related fields. The committee’s report addresses the existing capacity of state and private research institutions, higher education capabilities and trends, scientific funding sources, innovative investment models, relevant success stories, factors hindering development of the science sector, potential domestic Armenian customers for scientific results and products, and opportunities for regional scientific collaboration. An Armenian language version of the report is also available.  

 Conflict and ReconstructionConflict and Reconstruction in Multiethnic Societies: Proceedings of a Russian-American Workshop (2004)
This report is the proceedings of a December 2001 international symposium in Washington, DC organized by the National Academies and the Russian Academy of Sciences. The symposium addressed (1) characteristics of peaceful management of tensions in multiethnic societies, particularly in Russia; (2) policies that have contributed to violence in such societies; (3) steps toward reconciliation; and (4) post-conflict reconstruction.
 Track-two Diplomacy

Scientists, Engineers, and Track-Two Diplomacy: A Half-Century of U.S.-Russian Interacademy Cooperation (2004)
This report provides a brief historical perspective of the evolution of the interacademy program during the past half-century, recognizing that many legacies of the Soviet era continue to influence government approaches in Moscow and Washington and to shape the attitudes of researchers toward bilateral cooperation in both countries (of special interest is the changing character of the program during the age of perestroika (restructuring) in the late 1980s in the Soviet Union); to describe in some detail the significant interacademy activities from late 1991, when the Soviet Union fragmented, to mid-2003; and to set forth lessons learned about the benefits and limitations of interacademy cooperation and to highlight approaches that have been successful in overcoming difficulties of implementation. 

 Urbanization, Energy, Air PollutionUrbanization, Energy, and Air Pollution in China: The Challenges Ahead -- Proceedings of a Symposium (2004)
In October 2003, a group of experts met in Beijing under the auspices of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Engineering, and National Academy of Engineering (NAE)/National Research Council (NRC) of the National Academies to continue a dialogue and eventually chart a rational course of energy use in China. This collection of papers is intended to introduce the reader to the complicated problems of urban air pollution and energy choices in China.
 Biotech Research in Age of TerrorismBiotechnology Research in an Age of Terrorism (2004)
In recent years much has happened to justify an examination of biological research in light of national security concerns. The destructive application of biotechnology research includes activities such as spreading common pathogens or transforming them into even more lethal forms. Policymakers and the scientific community at large must put forth a vigorous and immediate response to this challenge. This new book by the National Research Council recommends that the government expand existing regulations and rely on self-governance by scientists rather than adopt intrusive new policies. One key recommendation of the report is that the government should not attempt to regulate scientific publishing but should trust scientists and journals to screen their papers for security risks, a task some journals have already taken up. With biological information and tools widely distributed, regulating only U.S. researchers would have little effect. A new International Forum on Biosecurity should encourage the adoption of similar measures around the world. Seven types of risky studies would require approval by the Institutional Biosafety Committees that already oversee recombinant DNA research at some 400 U.S. institutions. These “experiments of concern” include making an infectious agent more lethal and rendering vaccines powerless.
 Terrorism - Vulnerabilities

Terrorism: Reducing Vulnerabilities and Improving Responses: U.S. - Russian
Workshop Proceedings
This book is devoted primarily to papers prepared by American and Russian specialists on cyber terrorism and urban terrorism. It also includes papers on biological and radiological terrorism from the American and Russian perspectives. Of particular interest are the discussions of the hostage situation at Dubrovko in Moscow, the damge inflicted in New York during the attacks on 9/11, and Russian priorities in addressing cyber terrorism.

Publications 2003
Personal Cars in China

Personal Cars and China (2003)
This collaborative study between the NRC and the Chinese Academy of Engineering (CAE) addresses the problems facing China in the next twenty years as it attempts to provide personal transport desired by millions of Chinese, while preserving the environment and the livability of its cities. According to Song Jian, president of the CAE, the decision has already been taken to produce a moderate cost family car in China, which will greatly increase the number of vehicles on the roads. This study explores the issues confronting the country, including health issues, the challenge to urban areas, particularly the growing number of megacities, environmental protection, infrastructure requirements, and technological options for Chinese vehicles. It draws on the experience of the United States and other countries and review model approaches to urban transportation and land use planning. Recommendations and policy choices for China are described in detail.  

Ethics US-IranThe Experiences and Challenges of Science and Ethics: Proceedings of an American-Iranian Workshop (2003)
In April 2002, the U.S. National Academies hosted an interacademy workshop involving participants from the United States and Iran on the topic of Science and Ethics. The explicit purposes of the workshop were (a) to engage important members of the American and Iranian scientific communities in meaningful discussions of the topic of science and ethics and particularly differences in the approaches in the west and in Islamic countries in general and Iran in particular, (b) to encourage greater participation by Iranian scientists in international scientific discussions by exposing them to seasoned veterans in international meetings, and (c) to identify specific topics and approaches that could be carried out by the Academies in the two countries to contribute to international understanding of the importance of considering the ethical dimensions of scientific research and related activities. This report includes documents prepared by four breakout groups and a statement on priority areas for future interacademy cooperation developed at the final plenary session. Also included are background papers prepared by some participants prior to the workshop that were not previously published.
End PointsEnd Points for Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste in Russia and the United States(2003)
This report provides an analysis of the management of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in Russia and the United States, describing inventories, comparing approaches, and assessing the end-point options for storage and disposal of materials and wastes. The committee finds that despite differences in philosophy about nuclear fuel cycles, Russia and the United States need similar kinds of facilities and face similar challenges, although in Russia many of the problems are worse and funding is less available. The report contains recommendations for immediate and near-term actions, for example, protecting and stabilizing materials that are security and safety hazards, actions for the longer term, such as developing more interim storage capacity and studying effects of deep injection, and areas for collaboration.
Publications 2002   
High Impact TerrorismHigh-Impact Terrorism: Proceedings of a Russian-American Workshop (2002)
In June 2001 the National Academies and the Russian Academy of Sciences held a bilateral workshop in Moscow on terrorism in a high--technology society and modern methods to prevent and respond to it. The purpose of the workshop was to begin a dialogue on high--impact terrorism that could lead to further U.S.--Russian collaboration. This volume includes papers presented at the workshop by 31 Russian and American experts on various types of high-impact terrorism, including biological and agricultural terrorism, nuclear and electromagnetic terrorism, explosives, chemical, and technological terrorism, and cyber terrorism. The papers also address legal issues, Russian internal affairs, and the future of international cooperation in this area.
Knowledge and Dimplomacy

Knowledge and Diplomacy: Science Advice in the United Nations System (2002)
In the international effort to advance human health, welfare, and development while better managing and conserving the environment and natural resources, there is a clear and growing recognition of the role of scientific and technical knowledge in global governance. This has created an urgent need for the United Nations to equip itself with the capability to bring scientific knowledge to inform international decision making. Given the complexity and diversity of United Nations programs, organs, and mandates, this report focuses on the main functions of the United Nations that affect international governance in the fields related to sustainable development, with reference to the taxonomy of the key United Nations organs in which these functions are undertaken. Efforts have been made to ensure that the major categories of United Nations organs have been covered and therefore the results of the review are representative of the functioning of the United Nations system.  

small innovative firms in Russia

Successes and Difficulties of Small Innovative Firms in Russian Nuclear Cities:Proceedings of a Russian-American Workshop (2002)
This workshop report focuses on successes and failures of small innovative firms in five science cities in Russia. The workshop was organized by the NRC with the cooperation of Minatom. 

Publications 2001   
Growing populations, changing landscapesGrowing Populations, Changing Landscapes:
Studies from India, China, and the United States


The science academies of the three most populous countries have joined forces in an unprecedented effort to understand the linkage between population growth and land-use change, and its implications for the future. By examining six sites ranging from agricultural to intensely urban to areas in transition, the multinational study panel asks how population growth and consumption directly cause land-use change, and explore the general nature of the forces driving the transformations.

This report explains how disparate government policies with unintended consequences and globalization effects that link local land-use changes to consumption patterns and labor policies in distant countries can be far more influential than simple numerical population increases. Recognizing the importance of these linkages can be a significant step toward more effective environmental management.

Role of Environmental NGOs

The Role of Environmental NGOs--Russian Challenges, American Lessons:Proceedings of a Workshop (2001)
An NRC committee was established to work with a Russian counterpart group in conducting a workshop in Moscow on the effectiveness of Russian environmental NGOs in environmental decision-making and prepared proceedings of this workshop, highlighting the successes and difficulties faced by NGOs in Russia and the United States.