Phase 1 (2005 Deadline)
Determination of Heavy Metals and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in
Airborne Particulates in Lahore, Pakistan, and Madison, Wisconsin, USA
James Jay Schauer, University of Wisconsin-Madison
Tauseef A. Quraishi, University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore
Pakistani Funding (HEC): $107,625
US Funding: $ 80,000
Project Dates on US Side: January 1, 2006 - December 31, 2008 (Completed)
Implementation of an air pollution control strategy is still at its early stage in Pakistan, and while some emissions standards have been set, national and provincial environmental protection agencies lack sufficient resources and expertise for monitoring and enforcement. The researchers involved in this project collected data on ambient air quality in Lahore, especially with regard to particulates, heavy metals, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Source apportionment techniques developed at the University of Wisconsin were then applied to the Lahore data to identify the main sources of air pollutants. By identifying and quantifying the pollution sources, they worked to devise a cost-effective control strategy to improve air quality in Pakistan. The project included improvements in the laboratory infrastructure at UET Lahore as well as in the capabilities of its faculty to conduct research and train much-needed new PhDs in this field.
- Demonstrated very high concentrations of PM 10 and PM 2.5 pollution in Lahore, with the toxic components and biological activity of the particular matter in Lahore being much more toxic on a per unit mass than PM in many other highly polluted urban areas around the world
- Facilitated three annual summer-long research visits to UW-Madison by the Pakistani principal investigator
- Provided research experience to five U.S. and six Pakistani students
- Produced seven papers and three international conference presentations
Progress Report Summaries
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2008 Show summary || Hide summary || Download full report
The measurements and associated source apportionment analyses on the collected samples continued through the end of Year 2 of the project and were completed in Year 3. Dr. Quraishi returned to Madison as a visiting professor again in the fall of 2008. One paper was published in the journal Aerosol and Air Quality Research in 2008, two more have been submitted for publication, and four papers are currently in preparation. According to Dr. Schauer, these manuscripts not only document the very high concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 pollution in Lahore but also demonstrate that the toxic components and biological activity of the particulate matter in Lahore are much more toxic on a per unit mass than PM in many other highly polluted urban areas around the world.
2007 Show summary || Hide summary || Download full report
In January 2007, Dr. Quraishi and his graduate students began conducting a year-long air sampling project in Lahore, following up on the pilot study they conducted in the spring of 2006. They used a comprehensive PM2.5 and PM10 sampler—the same model being used by the University of Wisconsin for other projects the Middle East and Asia—that was prepared for use during Dr. Quraishi’s summer 2006 visit to Madison. Dr. Quraishi has also initiated several new analytical methods in his laboratory both for use in this project and in future efforts. Chemical analyses of the samples collected in the study were carried out at both the University of Wisconsin and UET Lahore. As part of these efforts, Dr. Quraishi returned to Madison as a visiting professor during the summer of 2007 and again in the fall of 2008. Two joint papers on the unique data set compiled during the project were presented at the 14th World Congress of the International Union of Air Pollution Prevention and Environmental Protection Associations, held in Brisbane in September 2007.
2006 Show summary || Hide summary || Download full report
In the first 9 months of the project a one month pilot study was conducted in Lahore, Pakistan to collect daily atmospheric particulate matter samples that were analyzed by advanced chemical measurements jointly by the US and Pakistan collaborators. The major goals of the pilot study was develop the capacity for atmospheric particulate matter sample collection in Pakistan that is suitable for advanced chemical analysis and to use these samples to train the Pakistani project leaders in advanced chemical analysis methods. With support from the US project team, Prof. Quraishi and his project team collected daily atmospheric particulate matter samples in Lahore, Pakistan for one month in March and April of 2006. Prof. Quraishi was appointed a visiting professor at the University of Wisconsin for the summer of 2006 were he worked with Prof. Schauer’s research team to analyze the samples for organic and elemental carbon, water soluble ions by ion chromatography, water soluble metals by inductively couples plasma mass spectrometry, and organic tracers using gas-chromatography and mass spectrometry techniques.
During Professor Quarishi's visit to the University of Wisconsin-Madison, an atmospheric particulate matter sampler was prepared for the year long sampling effort planned for the project that will be used to collect PM 2.5 and PM 10 atmospheric particulate matter samples every 6th day for a year in Lahore that will subsequently be used detailed analysis.
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