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The National Academies
500 5th St NW - KWS 502
Washington, DC 20001
Tel: (202) 334-2800
Fax: (202) 334-2139
Phase 2 (2006 Deadline)
Development of Biosecure, Sustainable, and Cost-Effective Culture Technologies for Edible Shrimp (Fenneropenaeus merguiensis) in Pakistan, Establishment of Viral-Pathogen-Free Populations of Farfantepenaeus duorarum, and Refinements of Super-Intensive Production Practices for Table-Litopenaeus vannamei in the United States
Shakeel-ur-Rehman Rajput and Khalid Mahmood monitoring water flow into a reservoir pond at the Texas AgriLife Mariculture Research Lab near Corpus Christi. This procedure is used to minimize the potential introduction of viral diseases into the incoming water (photo courtesy of Dr. Tzachi Samocha, March 2010).
Tzachi Samocha, Texas A&M University, Corpus Christi
Zarrien Ayub, University of Karachi
Pakistani Funding (HEC): $271,677
US Funding: $116,003
Project Dates on US Side: February 1, 2007 - December 31, 2011
Pakistan does not have a previous history of farming shrimp, although it possesses considerable potential and resources for the development of such an industry, particularly along the Balochistan coast. Following the recommendations and guidelines available in the literature, and with the help of American partners, Pakistan can establish management practices for the successful production of edible shrimp under local environmental conditions, with an emphasis on biosecurity and sustainability.
The objectives of this project are to adopt and establish sustainable, biosecure, and cost-effective management practices for the production of edible shrimp suitable for the local environment and conditions in Pakistan to include (1) isolation of VPF broodstock population of Fenneropenaeus merguiensis; (2) building and operation of a closed-recirculating induced maturation system for F. merguiensis; (3) construction of a shrimp hatchery and development of a larval rearing protocol; (4) construction, operation, and development of protocols for intensive nursery and grow-out systems for shrimp under biosecure and limited discharge conditions; and (5) transfer of the technology to the end-users. The objectives for the portion of the project to be conducted in the United States are (1) development of VPF broodstock populations of Farfantepenaeus duorarum; (2) production of table-size shrimp in a super-intensive limited discharge and biosecure system; and (3) training and transfer of shrimp production technology to Pakistan.
- Developed breeding population of native shrimp species that are viral pathogen free and a biosecured super-intensive shrimp production system with no water exchange
- Carried out more than 10 workshops / seminars were carried involving a total of more than 500 participants
- Trained two PhD students from Pakistan and two MS students from the United StatesCompleted infrastructure construction and started operation of two 100 m3 super intensive raceways in Pakistan for production of marketable size shrimp
- Established relationship with MIRZAM Holdings to develop live bait shrimp production and super intensive food shrimp production sites in Pakistan
A view of the now completed shrimp research facility at Sonmiani
(photo courtesy of Dr. Zarrien Ayub, March 2010).
During 2011, the research team on the U.S. side is continuing to do research on induced maturation, larval rearing, and grow-out of live bait Atlantic White Shrimp, Litopenaeus setiferus. They are performing an intensive nursery and grow-out study with the Pacific White Shirmp, L. vannamei, and will also continue with the testing of the Taeration® system.
Progress Report Summaries
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2010 Show summary || Hide summary || Download full report
The training on operation of the facilities for induced maturation, larval rearing, algae production, water treatment, and grow-out under sustainable and biosecure management conditions was crucial for the project, so Dr. Samocha agreed to cover part of the costs of their visits, and the visitors reapplied for their J-1 visas through the USAID visa process. This time, the visas were issued, and the visitors arrived in Texas on February 27, 2010, just in time to take part in operations related with the annual maturation of shrimp larvae. Khalid Mahmood and Shakeel-ur-Rehman Rajput gained many new skills and valuable experience from their time in Dr. Samocha's lab. Their initially scheduled three-month visit was extended for an additional month, and on June 28 they departed for Karachi, where they will immediately put their training to use at their university's shrimp research facility.
During 2011, the research team on the U.S. side will continue to do research on induced maturation, larval rearing, nursery and grow-out of live bait Atlantic White Shrimp, Litopenaeus setiferus. They will perform intensive nursery and grow-out study with the Pacific White Shirmp, L. vannamei, under no water exchange. The team will also continue with the testing of the Taeration® system.
2009 Show summary || Hide summary || Download full report
Two Pakistani research associates had been invited to come to Texas in February 2009 for training on operation of the facilities for induced maturation, larval rearing, algae production, water treatment, and grow-out under sustainable and biosecure management conditions. The costs of their visits were to be paid entirely by the Pakistani side using their grant funds. However, their visa applications were denied by the US Consulate.
2008 Show summary || Hide summary || Download full report
All conceptual designs of the systems to be built were finalized and in February 2008 a tender was opened requesting bids for the construction of the water purification and treatment systems, the induced maturation, larval rearing, algae production, Artemia hatching, nursery buildings and tanks, and the grow-out ponds. The basic infrastructure has been completed and various pieces of equipment and accessories were being finished and installed at the end of 2008. The reasons for the slight delay in completion of the work were shortages of raw materials such as sand and cement, the law and order situation at the site, and recent price hikes. A photo of the completed facility is shown above, and additional photos are available in the attached document.
2007 Show summary || Hide summary || Download full report
The US side, which received its grant funds earlier in 2007, has been pursuing its research on Litopenaeus vannamei, or the Pacific white shrimp. Results from the first year of the project showed that more than 9 kg/m3 of table-size shrimp can be produced in 94 days from juvenile shrimp (1.25 g) with a good survival rate (>88%), good growth (1.2-1.3 g/wk), and low feed conversion ratio (1.2-1.4). The work with the Atlantic pink shrimp, Farfantepenaeus duorarum, showed that viable F1 VPE generation can be produced under a controlled environment. Meanwhile, Dr. Samocha also provided conceptual designs, equipment lists, and reviews of plans of the research facilities being built in Pakistan. Although the Pakistani side received its funds in August 2007, extensive efforts proceeded through the spring and summer of that year to acquire land for the proposed research center at Damb, Sonmiani, Balochistan. The governor of Balochistan took a personal interest in the issue, and on July 12 he heard a presentation on the project. It was decided that a four-acre plot would be provided for the purpose free of charge at Sonmiani, where the hatchery of the National Institute of Oceanography (NIO) is located. The governor visited the site on September 4, 2007, and the land acquisition was finalized. At the governor’s recommendation, an agreement has been signed between NIO and the Center of Excellence in Marine Biology at the University of Karachi instituting research cooperation between the two parties for the development of shrimp farming in Pakistan.
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