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Christine Mirzayan Christine Mirzayan Science & Technology Policy Graduate Fellowship Program
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Past Fellow Activities
* Reminder the program’s name changed from internship program to policy fellowship program in September 2004

2003 Fellows

“My role at STEP was to highlight the scientific nuances of current projects being pursued. The unit has a strong social science leaning, which made my scientific background greatly utilized and appreciated. I was personally involved in generating proposals for projects and was exposed to the process that the National Academies goes through to get studies up and running. The office environment was supportive and not a day passed when I did not learn something new, not always directly related to my project area. It was a fantastic experience that I would recommend to anyone who is even thinking of a life beyond the bench.”

“I interned with the Media Relations department in the NAE/Public Understanding of Engineering division.”

“My primary activity was the Engineer Girl Website. I developed content for the fun facts and gallery of engineers pages. I found interesting engineering trivia and researched it so that I could create a fun fact. I researched historical women engineers and added their bios to the gallery of engineers. I also attended a Committee on Diversity in the Engineering Workforce meeting and a Diversity Summit hosted by the NAE and the American Association of Engineering Societies.”

“I interned with the Science and Technology for Sustainability Program at PGA. The Program involves two activities Roundtable of “Challenges and Opportunities for Science and Technology in Support of Transition Toward Sustainability” and a series of workshops in developing countries to facilitate “science-based decision-making.” I was involved with agenda development and background material preparation of the Roundtable and topic research of the Workshops.”

“My activities were divided between two separate mentors. For one of them, I assisted in preparations to host a group of representatives from seven African scientific academies who visited the National Academies around the time that the internship program was ending. This task involved coordinating panels, visits, and individual speakers for a two-week activities program and then helping out with miscellaneous arrangements once the visiting group arrived. For my other mentor, I primarily conducted background research for a pair of projects under development that are related to national and international archives for scientific data. In addition, I helped prepare the first edition of an electronic newsletter on projects related to intellectual property rights at the National Academies.”

“I spent my time interning on the Board of Global Health within IOM doing mainly HIV/AIDS research and writing concept papers for our AIDS meeting, which got cancelled recently.”

“I interned for two groups, the Engineering and the Environment Program (NAE) and the Board on Energy and Environmental Systems (BEES/DEPS/NRC). I learned about how the Academies work and also about several interesting topics, namely: the hydrogen economy; agricultural engineering opportunities for developing countries; adaptive management/controlled flooding of dams. I performed background research; wrote up reports; met with members of government agencies; and interacted with an NRC committee.”

I collaborated on three projects at BASC including Weather Research for Surface Transportation: The Roadway Environment, Climate Data Records from Operational Satellite Observations, and EPA Workshop Series on Atmospheric and Climate Issues.”

“I was an intern with COSEPUP. My two main responsibilities were to identify committee members to serve on the committee, Facilitating Interdisciplinary Research and compile a list of current internship and fellowship programs that the National Academies currently undertakes to identify possible new programs that the Academies might consider in the future. Although these were my main responsibilities, I spent a great deal of time on a variety of other tasks from researching the domestic and foreign student workforce issue to attending congressional hearings on human cloning.”

“Report writing, Lit Survey, Participated in committee meetings, attended conferences, etc. for NMAB and BMAED.”

“I interned for CWSE. I reviewed materials (data, reports, articles) on women faculty in S&E; I did some editing on publications; and I developed a pitch for journalists and connected with several reporters in order to cultivate their interest in covering CWSE-related issues. I made several gambits to connect with other related programs in the NA (including NAE) to explore cross-unit synergy around public communications.”

“I collaborated on three major projects this summer for the Board on Science, Technology and Economic Policy. The first was building a list of candidates for a potential study examining patent policy for protein research. My work involved determining the breadth of expertise such a committee would require and then identifying 3-4 candidates with the relevant expertise. After soliciting input from other staff members, I compiled biographies on approximately 85 potential candidates and distributed this information to staff on the three boards working on the project. My other two projects were similar as both were short papers assessing the impact of changes in patent law. The first paper focused on a recent patent office imitative to improve examinations of business method patents and the second examined a series of guidelines the patent office has issued relating to patents on DNA-related inventions. Beyond these projects, I attended meetings at the AAAS and the US Patent Office related to my board’s areas of interest and participated in an exploratory meeting my board held on a potential future study on the hydrogen economy.”

“I compiled a comprehensive bibliography of what research has been done integrating social psychology and aging for the committee on the Social Psychology of Aging. I also did some research and writing for future study proposals, one on children and traumatic experiences and one on foster care in the United States.”

“Within my board (Food and Nutrition Board) I was exposed to the areas of obesity prevention in children, dioxin in the food supply, and genetically modified foods, and these weren’t even half of the projects going on in this board. Within my board, I attended a public workshop, a committee meeting, and a board meeting. I attended sponsor, Capitol Hill, and public briefings for a report which was released during my stay. Prior to the release, I helped in the final preparations of the report, fact checking, etc. My main project was to help research and write the introductory chapter of a report. I got to learn a lot about the topic, and was able to actively participate during a committee meeting. Outside of my board, I did less than I would have liked to, but still managed to fit in a few things. I attended a seminar on contraceptive research sponsored by a different unit at the Academies, attended a briefing on science and technology within the Department of Homeland Security, and attended congressional hearings.”

“I interned in the Board on Testing and Assessment within the Division of Behavioral and Social Science and Education. I conducted research to facilitate the work of several committees. For the Committee on Participation of English Language Learners and students with Disabilities in NAEP and other large scale assessments, I researched states’ polices on defining English Language learners and the accommodations that were to be provided to students on assessments. In addition, I researched the literature on the validity of accommodated test scores. For the Committee on Standards for Adult Literacy, I researched skill standards for several industries which included identifying what types of skills (e.g levels of reading) were required to perform certain jobs the methods used to make such determinations. For the Science Assessment Committee, I compiled a report on the state of the states in science assessments. I attended a committee meeting and a board meeting.”

“My primary responsibilities involved assisting my mentor in writing the Engineer 2020 report. In working on this report I also researched pertinent aspects such as the world population for 2002 and 2020, cultural literacy, the Broadband Institute Residential Lab at Georgia Tech, and the design approach of the Boeing 777. Additionally, I reformatted another report on IT-based educational materials (I never knew MSOffice had so many capabilities!).”

“This summer session I was involved in various projects with the NMAB and BMED. I attended a conference for a subgroup in NMAB which is called BEMA (Bio-Engineering Materials Applications). I was responsible for preparing a GBEC item on Globalization of R&D of Materials. I prepared several reports of a previous manufacturing forum to be entered into the final report for BMED based on presentations. I helped write one white paper for a decadel study on materials in the 21st century as well as one on Design for X which deals mostly with sustainability. I put together a list of current documents (1989-present) of NMAB documents on the NAP website to ensure all the proper documents were available as well as abstracts and formatting of the page.”

“During this session I interned for COSEPUP, the Committee of Science, Engineering, and Public Policy. I conducted background research on an ongoing study called Facilitating Interdisciplinary Research and composed formal statement of tasks for several projects which may become new projects for the unit. Topics included the presidential appointment process, the organization of science departments in the federal government, and the selection process for federal advisory committees. In addition, I assisted the COSEPUP staff in planning the August 2003 COSEPUP committee meeting.”

“I composed background/briefing documents related to a large project on capacity-building in Africa, in addition to miscellaneous tasks like reviewing proposals, attending meetings and seminars, etc.”

“I conducted an extensive literature review for the Committee on Facilitating Interdisciplinary Research. I wrote a short research paper on evaluation methods and compiled charts of federal and private funding opportunities for interdisciplinary research. I also contacted many university professors and scientists about their experiences with interdisciplinary research. I compiled a large bibliography for the project and learned how to use ProCite. I also attended various committee meetings and gained a better understanding of the NAS committee process.”

“I interned for the Science and Technology for Sustainability unit (STS) in PGA. In STS, my main project was redesigning the Sustainability web site. Since STS is a relatively new program, this activity was important to help give the unit a recognizable presence on the web. In addition, the web page now organizes and presents all Academy reports and activities related to sustainability – both in STS and throughout the other Academy boards and committees – which I spent time researching and finding. I also helped edit documents and proposals for a workshop series in developing countries, and attended meetings related to sustainability at the National Academies, EPA, World Bank, and Woodrow Wilson International Center. I also had the opportunity to spend some time at and do work for ONPI, the Office of News and Public Information. At ONPI, I wrote several articles for the “Science in the Headlines” section of the National Academies homepage. I also attended a press conference for a report that had garnered media attention, and got the chance to sit in on a “murder session” – a sort of practice press conference for the committee members -- prior to the conference itself.”

“I interned with the Roundtable for Scientific Communication and National Security (DSC). The first Roundtable meeting was June 18-19, so for the first couple weeks, I helped prepare for the meeting. That involved gathering materials for the briefing book that went out to Roundtable members, helping to find potential speakers, writing biographies for speakers, assembling the briefing book. Since, I have been researching various topics that were raised during the meeting and collecting relevant articles possibly for future briefing books, making contact with people whose names I’ve run across that may be invited to speak at the next meeting. There have been both open-ended research assignments, as well as discrete ones.”

“I was in charge of two long term projects at the Board of Applied Mathematics and their Applications. Writing a white paper on “Statistical Validation of Complex Computer Models”, I discussed the topic with members of the board, retrieved and read academic papers and reports on the topic from several areas such as engineering, social sciences, economics, and atmospheric sciences and summarized the information in a white paper that is being reviewed. I was also in charge of finding and collecting information on “Quantifying Operational Risk” in preparation for an upcoming workshop. I retrieved information on the different research teams working on the topic and on published papers; I discussed the topic with specialists in the area and summarized articles.

Other tasks I did for the board were: compiled biographies of 25 scientists that were considered for elections as a board member, collecting information on “Risk Assessment and Risk Management”. Since my board didn’t have any Committee meeting this summer, I went to two meeting in the Committee on National Statistics. Also went to congressional hearings and meetings.”

“I came up to DC expecting to spend much of my time doing background research and arranging a workshop on separating the direct and indirect human-effects on CO2 sequestration. Indeed, my first couple weeks were spent doing just that, which since it was in my field was quiet enjoyable. However, the workshop was delayed, and I got the impression my board was scrambling a little bit after that to find things for me to do. I helped develop a committee slate for the NRC’s review of the National Zoo; developed a suite of media products that were for the general public, translating a previous study on predicting the spread of invasive species to common, everyday language; helped edit a study on the bioconfinement of invasive species; and researched, wrote, and presented two Statements of Task for two potential studies with the US Forest Service on their fire policy and invasive species. At the end of my tenure here I’ve gotten a chance to return to the CO2 workshop, and I hope to finalize the agenda before I leave, and return briefly in September to see how it goes!”

“I interned at the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) in various aspects of media and editorial operations of the journal.  Each week, PNAS sends out a "tipsheet" alerting members of the media to upcoming articles of interest.  The tipsheets are embargoed, and the media are not allowed to disclose the contents to the public until publication online with PNAS.  My long-term project was an analysis and review of the embargo policy of the journal.  First, I conducted a survey of the embargo policies of major science and medical journals.  I then researched the history and justification of embargo policies.  I gathered data on academic research concerning the effect of embargo policies on media coverage and scientific communication.  I compiled a policy report and presented a summary and recommendations to the managing staff and editors at PNAS.

The majority of my work has been selecting and writing highlights of articles for the weekly tipsheet sent to the media; the highlights also appear online for the public at a later date.  It was very exciting to see news coverage of one of my news tips; for example, one article was covered on the evening news of the major networks.  This has been a great exposure to science journalism!   I learned so much about science writing and editing from my mentors and this experience will help guide my career decisions.  I also participated in some editorial aspects of the journal, like editing commentaries and writing tag lines for the covers.  In general, I was exposed to all the aspects of a science journal.”

“I spent the summer doing directed, mostly on-line research in a developing field of engineering education. My unit included one other intern, the unit Director, and me – the compactness gave me an opportunity to hold some responsibility, such as software selection, and report writing. Our unit does not produce NRC reports, nor does it have a report committee, so our report was submitted for publication in an industry Journal. My research focused on finding a research base that supports the suggested “best practices” in undergraduate education and science education research. Much of my time was spent doing basic research, but also included analysis of the findings, and presentation of the results.”

“A wide assortment of things: I did some lit review on studies that were in the very beginning stages, wrote the rough draft for a white paper on a potential future study, organized lists of reports and their status on the National Academies Press website and wrote short report summaries, did some prep work for meetings and workshops (including writing up summaries, compiling surveys, as well as some travel related logistics), I traveled to Seattle to help-out and attend the fall Board meeting, I attended congressional hearing on (both related to board activities and unrelated subjects), attended a wise assortment of lunches, seminars and meetings on the Hill, at the Academies, and through other organizations such as (AAAS, Resources for the Future), and helped organize a seminar about Outsourcing in the National Parks.”

“I collaborated on the report of the workshop on Access to Research Data: Assessing Risks and Opportunities.”

“As an intern in the Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology (BCST) I had multiple activities. I completed the response to review on one report and saw that same report through publication. I also significantly reworked a second report and also saw it through to publication. Additional activities included writing, editing, and calling potential reviewers. Furthermore, I performed extensive background research for a potential workshop. During my time in BCST, we had a workshop, a BCST meeting, a Chemical Sciences Roundtable meeting, and a committee meeting, so I was exposed to all types of National Academies events. As a side project outside of my board I collaborated with a fellow intern on developing hands-on chemistry experiments to be used at the Koshland Museum when it opens in April 2004.”

“I collaborated on two projects. The first was the COSEPUP study reviewing NSF’s large research facility program. My main responsibility was to write Appendix C of the report which contained histories of all projects funded or proposed for funding through the NSF Major Research Equipment and Facilities Construction account (MREFC). Because we were trying to get the report out to review and very little had been done on this appendix, it was quite a bit of work though I learned a lot by being thrust straight into it.

I also collaborated on a project with Bruce Alberts for the InterAcademy Council (a council of academies of science around the world). Because the staff member normally assigned to IAC projects was busy working on another report, Bruce needed someone to facilitate the process of putting together a proposal for a new study to be presented at the January meeting of the IAC. Because the two major drivers behind this project are Dr. Zerhouni, NIH Director, and Dr. Ramphele, a managing director at the World Bank, it brought me in touch with some very amazing and interesting people. Like the NSF project, I was thrown into this with no background in international development, but ultimately it was extremely interesting and educational.”

“I collaborated on a brand new study collecting background information, finding possible funding sources, picking possible committee members, and coordinating the first conference call for the planning committee.”

“I have been working on several projects relating to human resources issues in the science and engineering fields. Most of the projects that I was assigned to were in the approval process limbo, so I spent a lot of my time drafting statements of task, policy contexts and researching potential funders for these studies. I’ve also put together panels of speakers and committee members slates for different COSEPUP projects. What made this internship really great was the “entrepreneurial component,” which allowed me to create my own Washington experience by attending Congressional hearings, seminars at other organizations and even organize my own field trips. I’ve been to lectures and receptions at the World Bank, IMF, The Life Sciences Summit at Georgetown University, attended policy breakfasts at AAAS and the list goes on.”

“I collaborated on two reports, getting one ready for review and researching background information for the other. I was also involved in the proposal process for several other projects.”

“I collaborated with both the Board on Higher Education and the Workforce and the Committee on Women in Science and Engineering. I was basically involved in two main projects. One of the projects required me performing literature searching, background reading, and writing on an issue related to the Research Doctorate Program Assessment Report. The second project also involved a great deal of information gathering for a new project--assessing gender differences in the careers of science and engineering faculty. Much of my time here was also spent attending committee meetings, board meetings, lectures, seminars, and hearings. There is always something interesting and exciting going on here in Washington.”

“For GUIRR--Background research for a white paper and a funding proposal, redesigned our website, looked for speakers for our council meetings, dabbled in some fundraising for a project, directed the logistics of a project- this included keeping committee members on schedule in terms of conference calls, typing minutes of meetings, creating power point presentations that committee members used for talks at meetings. Other stuff--congressional hearings, visited my professional society office, attended advocacy group seminars, informational interviews.”

“I created a powerpoint presentation for a meeting on mentoring and for interns to take back to their home institutions after the program. I helped create a list of committee members for a panel discussion at the IDR convocation and for “On Being aScientist””

“I Went to congressional hearings, ate at a constituent breakfast with one of my state senators, saw a talk at the World Bank, went to several conferences, some at ACS, AAAS, went to political breakfasts & lunches, and attended Science policy happy hour.”

“To assist my committee in preparing for the fall panel meeting, I conducted a literature search and developed a bibliography of my findings with a brief introduction summarizing them. I also had the opportunity to attend and compare several different types of meetings including the panel meeting for which I had been preparing, my parent committee’s bi-annual meeting, a larger board level meeting, and report releases.”

“For my first assignment I created a CD report documenting a workshop held last year on The Role of Mathematics in Homeland Security. Using a CD format allowed us to include video and slide material from the workshop along with summaries of each presentation and biographical sketches of each speaker. For my second assignment I conducted background research on Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for a study on the upcoming Los Alamos management competition. My tasks included collecting information from selected Department of Energy RFPs, gathering relevant information from the Internet, and writing a background paper on the history of LANL and its current organizational structure. In addition to these assignments, I also created webpages for my Board’s website and compiled information for the Board’s annual meeting.”

“During my tenure as intern with BANR I collaborated on two projects that were at different stages. The first project was a review of the Smithsonian National Zoological Park, which was requested by Congress. My primary responsibilities were to contact and arrange a speaker’s panel for the Committee, whose goal was to gather information about zoo management, animal care and record keeping. I also assisted my mentor with preparation of the interim report by reading draft chapters and offering editorial suggestions. The second project that I collaborated on was project development. Prior to my coming, some of the Board members wanted to expand BANR’s study agenda to include rural issues. I collaborated closely with one of our Board members and the Director to develop a draft statement of task, which was then used to further define a project on rural issues when the Board met for their fall meeting in November.”

“I edited two papers for publication, I helped upgrade a conference poster, and I helped to write a proposal to the NSF for funding.”

“My experiences here fell into three categories, though there was overlap among the three and each enriched the others: the work I did in my board, my learning experiences about the National Academies as a whole, and my explorations of the Washington D.C. and how policy really works.

I interned in the Board on Physics and Astronomy, within the Division of Engineering and Physical Sciences, and I found it to be an excellent and supportive unit to work in. I was very much encouraged to explore as widely as possible, and I was given the choice to involve myself in those projects which I found most interesting and useful. While here, I focused on primarily two aspects of policy and report-writing groundwork. The first was data collection on research facilities both domestically and internationally. This included interacting with committee members to design letters and questionnaires to solicit information from the research and research management community, collating that data with other sources, and writing a summary of the results that could be used as a reference by these committees in writing their reports. I collaborated with two committees in different fields doing this: the Committee on Opportunities in High Magnetic Field Science and the Committee on Smaller Facilities (small- and mid-sized user facilities for materials research). As I experienced it, much of the work done in the Academies is of this nature, doing the basic investigative work to provide the committees with a document that they can then work from. The second aspect I was involved in was participation in a series of committee meetings, the two listed above plus the oversight Board on Physics and Astronomy meeting. Primarily I was there to learn how committees operate, and to see some of the different ways they reach consensus over time, but I also took notes from the meetings and wrote summaries for use by staff and committee members, as well as helping the program staff to take care of smaller tasks that arose as a consequence of the committees’ deliberations. Finally, I also had the opportunity to see projects in other stages of development, including proposal development, and report release and Congressional/agency briefings (in this case, for the Burning Plasma Assessment report).

Through the internship program activities, as well as through talking with as many others as I could throughout the Academies (especially on the National Materials Advisory Board, which overlaps with the Board on Physics and Astronomy in covering materials science), I got a broader sense of how the Academies as a whole operates: its mission, its process, its culture and outlook, and its procedures. The Academies is a unique place, and its intricate mechanisms for insuring objectivity, its diversity of approaches within individual boards, and its extensive depth and breadth of expertise, were of value to try to understand in and of themselves. Of course, I also participated in the internship seminar series, and I ultimately found the planning process for these seminars really did mirror many of the aspects of planning for and running a committee meeting or hearing.

Finally, I used my time here to explore the mechanisms of how things work in D.C.. Although I attended a number of smaller lectures and meetings, the primary focus of my endeavors was to familiarize myself as much as possible with the Congressional process, including a number of Committee Hearings and press releases, as well as specifically taking the time to ask questions of people who have the knowledge and experience of working in Congress.”

  

2002 Interns

“I interned with the NAS Marian E. Koshland Science Museum group to develop content and display ideas for potential museum exhibits. This involved meeting with leading scientists in each field, compiling their ideas and views into a preliminary content outline, and researching each topic to understand the history.”

“I assisted the Polar Research Board in an NSF-sponsored report called Frontiers in Polar Biology. The project had just received funding when I arrived, and my main task was to help research and compose the nominations slate and inquire as to availability of our top candidates for the committee. I will finalize the slate and continue to have a key role in the administration of that project, including preparations for the first committee meeting, which hopefully will occur before I leave. This project made use of my broad background in molecular biology and environmental science. I also contributed as needed to studies other than Frontiers in Polar Biology, including inviting reviewers for one report and helping with nominations slates for candidates for the board rotation and the US representatives to the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR). The above assignment was a good introduction both to polar research and to scientific administrative work in general. It also allowed me the specific opportunity to learn about the work done by program managers at the National Academies at several stages of the committee process.”

“I interned in the NAE program office, developing educational materials for students and teachers to use: Web quests, science/engineering K-12 standards with links to useful resources for teachers to use in the classroom, Ask an Engineer questions, Features for the Engineer Girl web page about nanotechnology and its use in medicine.”

“The First few weeks interning for DELS involved preparing for my committee’s meeting in Irvine. I contacted committee members and speakers, requesting background literature for the agenda book. My mentor provided me with numerous Academy reports and journal articles that included background information on the topics of the committee meeting. I began compiling annotated bibliographies of previous Academy studies for both of the topics (Climate Observing Systems and Safe Levels of Greenhouse Gases).

We had a couple of meetings with the DELS executive office on the possibility of future studies. We also met with program directors from other committees to discuss collaborating on a study. I drafted the policy context, technical context, and statement of task, with the plan of submitting a GBEC proposal on the climate observing system study. Shortly after our return from Irvine, I was informed that there was a DELS review of the CGCR underway. This review was critical of the committee, and it became apparent that the projects that were proposed might be derailed for a short period. Due to the delay, I started working on the web page by making corrections and reformatting some pages”

“I interned with the Committee on Science, Engineering and Public Policy (COSEPUP) on a number of projects. The main project that I was primarily responsible for was related to a recent COSEPUP guide called Enhancing the Postdoctoral Experience for Scientists and Engineers. Data from a survey of ~40 institutions conducted two years ago were used in developing this guide. I coordinated a follow-up survey of the same organizations to evaluate whether or not postdoctoral working conditions have changed since the original survey was conducted. I was also involved in various stages of development (e.g., proposal generation, workshop organization or report release) of projects ranging from examining the scientific and medical aspects of human cloning to coordinating counterterrorism efforts among disciplinary societies and think tanks.”

“In the program I met lots of interesting and experienced people in D.C. I became wonderful friends with the crazy, multi-talented, and educated interns! I really discovered what the Academies and Washington D.C. has to offer. At work I got lots of great advice from my mentor and co-workers. I learned more then i ever wanted to know on breast cancer and mammography, as well as information on the FDA, our health care system, and cutting edge technology for cancer detection. I'm even more fascinated with the complex workings of our health care system!”

“I interned for two groups – the Natural Disasters Roundtable (NDR) and the Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate (BASC)! NDR had a two-day forum on lessons learned from natural disasters for countering terrorism; for that I flew to NYC to scope a similar meeting, recruited speakers, helped with the planning details, and wrote the ensuing summary of the forum. Additionally, I helped NDR polish and release the summaries of two previous forums, and I’m currently helping plan their next forum on impacts of climate extremes.

BASC is coordinating a summer workshop to analyze tools available to emergency managers to model the transport and dispersion of chemical, biological, and nuclear weapons released via terrorist attacks. For this study I helped establish the steering committee, research related background information, and establish the agenda for the first organizational committee. Also for BASC, I traveled to California to attend a committee meeting for a weather modification study, and I’m doing background research for another possible study on potential impacts of climate change on hurricanes.

Outside of my assignments for NDR and BASC, I attended many seminars as well as congressional briefings and hearings. I went to anything related to NDR or BASC studies or anything in which I personally am interested.”

“I preformed a variety of tasks from writing study prospectuses to web page design.”

“I interned for the Board of Global Health at the IOM. The first project, on which I supported for about two- three weeks, was called Birth Defects. I helped finalize the text of the report for external review. The job involved text editing, research for additional references, and putting the whole report together with figures, appendices, and tables.

The main report, on which I focused my efforts, was Birth Outcomes. I had to write sections of the text to incorporate comments by all the committee members and the primary writer, to supply additional, better and more up-to-date references to support given passages of the report. Whenever necessary, I provided little bits of research support for other projects in the office. The Birth Outcomes report is now ready to be released for external review. I have done work on most of the chapters in it.”

“I interned in the Division of Engineering and Physical Sciences (DEPS) in the Department of Military Science and Technology (DMST). I collaborated on two major projects while I was here. The first was a nomination package for a prospective study to be done on Ballistic Missile Defense. I sent out emails and made phone calls to nominees. I drafted the nomination package to be presented to the National Research Council (NRC), which included writing bios for the nominees. The second project was reviewing the graphics for the report "Implications of Emerging Micro and Nano Technologies." I edited the report to include proper descriptions of figures, collaborated with National Academy Press to make sure the quality of the graphics was of high enough quality for print, sent out requests for copyrights and worked with the editors to assure that the figures were in the proper format.”

“I read summaries of the projects that STL was currently undertaking, searched for and obtained articles on various topics relevant to the projects STL was currently working on, wrote summaries of three reports relevant to STL projects, collected biographical information on potential committee members, entered this information into a database, helped prepare materials for the STL panel meeting and data quality workshop, and attended the STL panel meeting as well as the data quality workshop. I also attended a PGA meeting concerning data sharing and security in academic science, and was asked for feedback.”

“Learned how the Academies work: Fundraising, Congressional directives, hiring, how committees conduct their work, etc.”

“I interned on CPOP’s “Transitions to Adulthood in Developing Countries” report which entailed a combination of writing, lit searches, and creation of annotated bibliographies. In addition, I attended a committee meeting in Mexico City where I was able to observe committee interactions firsthand.”

“I was able to sit in on two workshops, helping with small details. I helped organize one workshop from the beginning, calling participants , arranging facilitators and rapporteurs, etc. I also redid the entire web page for our board and wrote the annual report.”

“My primary contribution to the NMAB this summer was to proofread and edit an extensive report that will be published in the final quarter of this year. I also was asked to write several preliminary study proposals, and performed a variety of other short-term tasks. Beyond that, my board was very kind to me. I was exposed to the whole array of academies activities. I participated in several committee meetings, including final writing, information-gathering, and study kick-off meetings. Further, I had the opportunity to sit in on a roundtable on biological materials and devices, which to my understanding is relatively unique within the academies.”

“I interned with the NAE on the Engineering and the Health Care System project. In addition to my mentor, I collaborated with an engineer and a doctor on this project. I had a few main tasks, including writing a brief document outlining the framework/definition of the project; compiling a list of relevant projects/resources related to our project; and writing a paper on a specific engineering application which should serve as a format for analyzing other applications and may be included as a chapter in the final report.”

I interned for the Clinical Research Roundtable, which is a group of individuals convened by the IOM to discuss and make recommendations about clinical research. I had a primary project, which was to interview individuals by phone about the role of computers and clinical research. I essentially took this project from start to finish – I started with a list of academic institutions where I should try and interview people, then identified appropriate individuals, called/e-mailed to try and set up interview times, conducted the interviews, and wrote up a 20-page summary. In addition, I helped with a number of other projects that the Roundtable was involved in, especially writing papers. I made major revisions to one paper and then either wrote or ghost-wrote 3 additional papers, all of which are in the process of being published, reviewed, or revised prior to submission for publication.”

“I supported the firearms report with DBASSE, researching and writing an introductory section on the harm caused by firearms in the US.”

“I assisted in the creation of a discussion panel and did background research on the issue of the policy implications of foreign graduate students and postdocs. I also was involved to a lesser extent in a number of other activities.”

“I collaborated on the project evaluating children's health with the Board on Children, Youth and Families. I was mainly responsible for editing the first couple of chapters of the report and preparing for the July committee meeting, as well as other tasks.”

“I wrote a policy and technical context for the STL forensic science admissibility GBEC proposal. I read and indexed post-September 11th legislation affecting scientific research and universities and created a chart/index document for use in the roundtables regarding that subject. I also attended several meetings of interested parties and possible sponsors of the forensic science committee STL will form.”

“I Reviewed and evaluated tools for characterizing federal research and development activities. I also provided technical support for briefings with officials at NASA and DOD. Identified protocols and software used by federal agencies to manage and track research and development activities in science and technology. I prepared documentation comparing such protocols and software used by NASA, DOD, DOE, DOT, the National Technical Information Service, and RAND. I also reviewed and summarized U.S. and international counterfeiting and piracy laws, regulations, and pending legislation (particularly with respect to intellectual property, food and drug safety, and aviation safety).”

“I planned a meeting in Houston to address the region’s environmental health issues, supported a Mini-symposium for the 9th meeting of the Roundtable on Environmental Health, Medicine and Research, drafted GBEC items, helped ready Roundtable meeting material for publications, and Attended several meetings on the Hill and at Physicians for Social Responsibility.:

“I interned with the Committee on Human Rights of NAS. I learned a lot about the NAS as a result of this experience because it really made me aware of how much work the Human Rights Committee does in helping distressed scientists and other academics not only in the U.S. but also in all parts of the world.”

“I interned with the Marian E. Koshland Science Museum unit and researched potential educational activities to support the DNA and climate change exhibitions that the Museum is currently developing. I surveyed 20 museums for each of the two exhibitions about the ancillary materials and classroom activities they provide to teachers and students and their web sites. I then critiqued these same web sites for ease of engagement, ease of access, special features, and links to other educational web sites that were frequently cited. I also correlated the genetics and earth science content standards outlined in the National Science Education Standards and the inquiry-based science-teaching model described in Teaching About Evolution and the Nature of Science with the DNA and climate change exhibitions. I also cross-referenced classroom activities and reading materials with each of the different areas of the two exhibitions. I then developed recommendations for the types of ancillary materials, classroom activities, web site design and content, web links and the involvement of a teacher sub-committee to design an action plan to for the development of supporting educational material and presented the recommendations to the Koshland Museum staff and members of the Office for Public Understanding of Science, the Outreach and Community Relations unit, and the Web communications unit. The research that I conducted this fall will then be used by the Teacher Advisory Council sub-committee for the development of classroom and web resources to support the Museum's exhibitions. I also had an opportunity to attend several meetings with the Museum's advisory council, expert content group, architects, exhibit developers and evaluators.”

“I was an intern with the Natural Disaster Roundtable (NDR). My main program assignments were focused on: 1) the 6th NDR forum on Risk Communication; and 2) the history of natural disaster research. For the former assignment, I prepared the written summary of the forum and also helped with the preparations for the next NDR steering committee meeting as well as for forum #6, participating in the identification of speakers, confirmation of speakers, and compilation of speaker abstracts and bios. For the latest assignment, I conducted an analysis of the history of work carried out by the Academies on disasters, hazards, and risk, from the early years to today, involving a review of published reports and papers, and discussions with relevant staff members and former committee members. Based on this analysis, I prepared a report indicating trends in the Academies’ work over time, major conclusions reached and any identifiable or measurable policy impacts of the work and I also organized a brown bag presentation on the history of disaster research at the Academies.”

“I have participated in several panel meetings on a variety of subjects. I have written two proposals for projects, drafted and edited sections of a panel report on discrimination, and drafted a chapter for a report on the 2000 census. I attended several congressional hearings, some on topics related to my projects at NAS and some related to my other intellectual interests. I also attended several dissemination events for the polygraph report, including pre-release briefings, pre-press conference ‘murder’ sessions, and some follow-up briefings and discussions with interested federal parties.”

“I gathered background information for STEP on the diffusion of new technologies, specifically medical diagnostic devices. In the future there will be a workshop looking at the diffusion of new breast cancer detection technologies. For GUIRR, I collaborated on two speeches (neither of which has been used yet). One of the speeches was a synthesis of the recent NAS studies that contained recommendations for improving the science and engineering workforce. I also helped with assembling a steering committee which will organize a workshop on University-National Lab partnerships, and just started organizing a background piece on Nat’l Lab partnerships.”

“I assisted in preparing a workshop on Materials Science and Engg. Workforce in Irvine, California, I prepared White Paper on Flame Retardants & Membranes, and I edited Defense After Next Report.”

  

2001 Interns

“I worked on the Neuroscience and Behavioral Health Board at the IOM. My primary job was to set up a workshop looking at head injury in soccer. I called potential committee members, set an agenda, researched the literature, and wrote a background paper for the meeting. I also had a role in editing the stem cell committee meeting report.”

“I helped to write sections in the report on rapid urbanization for Committee on Population in DBASSE. Specifically, I wrote about the limitations of the conventional rural/urban distinction, the contextual differences as well as interactions between cities and rural areas, and finally about fertility and reproductive issues within urban areas. With a group of other interns, I also organized a seminar on privacy issues concerning genetic information. We invited speakers from the private privacy advocacy NGO, an insurance company, and a university professor who has been teaching the material for a few years. The seminar proceeded as intended, which was to have speakers discuss their viewpoints in a debate format.”

“I primarily worked on a proposal for a project that would examine the characteristics of scientific research generated as a result of litigation.”

“In principle, my project was to help coordinate a small, international meeting for the purpose of discussing trends in chemistry and how they affect the Chemical Weapons Convention.”

“Worked for ILAR (DELS: Institute of Laboratory Animal Research). Main project was to write a literature review on the ethical implications of transgenic research, prior to writing a proposal for a project on the same subject. In addition to writing the review, I presented my research findings to the ILAR council at a meeting in Wood’s Hole. I also contributed to a re-writing of an ILAR publication (Science, Medicine and Animals) and produced an updated version of the ILAR leaflet “Principles and guidelines for the use of animals in precollege education” which will be reviewed by council at their next meeting for approval prior to publication. In addition, I attended various meetings at Wood’s Hole and committee meetings in D.C. and a couple of senate hearings and NAS workshops/conferences.”

“PGA/DSC study on the Future of Personal Use Vehicles in China. The work I did for Dr. Greene was almost exclusively focused on this single report. [John traveled with his mentor to China to attend a committee meeting on this subject.]

“I wrote a 30-page paper on dioxin in the human food supply. I also worked on a forestry report. I worked on getting it to review – making edits and changes. I also helped respond to reviewers comments. I also spent a great deal of time working on our seminar on science in popular entertainment.”

“Collected and analyzed statistics on the state of the discipline: retention figures overall and by engineering fields (EE, ME, CE, etc.); degree production statistics by fields, sex, race/ethnicity, and type of school (including historical black colleges and universities, HBCU). Researched and located articles on: factors affecting the decision to become an engineer and factors affecting retention/degree production. Created a database of K-12 and undergraduate programs that increase science literacy and encourage women, men, and minorities to become engineers. Developed and sent out a survey form to gather more information on these programs (only complete initial distribution not the follow-ups). Wrote a report discussing the programs and how they impact production and retention of engineers, increasing knowledge of engineering, science literacy, and whether these programs may be important to the CEE mission. This report written as background for development of white paper and proposal for K-12 programs for CEE.”

“What didn't I do this summer? I did everything from condensing and editing minutes to drafting protocols for research. I also prepared the majority of the documents for the agenda books for our Executive Committee meeting in July. I also attended a couple of NRC hosted workshops and a education sub-committee hearing on the Hill.”

“For the majority of the summer, I worked on coordinating a planning meeting for a new project, “Hispanics in the U.S.: Transforming American Society.” The meeting took place in the main NAS building on June 30. Preparation for the meeting included inviting prominent academicians who research issues relevant to Hispanics, inviting government officials and foundation members who may wish to sponsor the project, and locating key review articles for the agenda book. I also searched for current census and demographic information pertaining to the Hispanic population in the U.S. This information, along with the discussion held at the planning meeting, will help to frame the scope of the proposed study.”

“I worked with the Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board on a variety of different projects. Most of my time was spent working on committee formation for the Aerospace Vision 2050 project. I also worked on 3 other projects on a limited basis.”

“As my primary responsibility, I developed content for Celebrating Women in Engineering website (CWE), a project of the Diversity in Engineering Workforce Program. Development involved needs assessment of who the target audiences for the site are, what information they need, research of issues related to recruitment and retention of girls and young women in engineering, designing the framework for the website, writing texts, and identifying Internet links to be added to the website.”

“I began the internship a week early because my board expressed a need for help with their work, and I happened to arrive in Washington early. During that first unofficial week, I worked mostly on updating and editing the Annual Report for the Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology (BCST) to reflect happenings during 2000. After that was finished, I started working on putting together a proceedings publication for a workshop of the Chemical Sciences Roundtable. The workshop focused on the problem of global climate change due to emissions of carbon dioxide. The speakers at the workshop were each asked to provide a textual adaptation of their talk from the workshop. Panel discussions at the workshop and question-and-answer sessions that took place between the talks were also to be included. A lot of the work I did involved editing and formatting the text, figures, and discussions. Included in that task was changing the submitted material so that it adhered to the style of the previous workshop reports and to NAP style.”

“I primarily worked for the OSB committee examining the effects of bottom trawling on benthic habitat. They had a series of meetings while I was an intern and I helped with a lot of the work involved in preparing for the meetings. I conducted a literature review on the subject, contacted and scheduled speakers, compiled background material for the committee to read before the meetings, and wrote summaries of issues discussed at the meetings. I was able to attend two of the committee meetings and interacted with both the committee members and invited speakers. I was also involved in several other activities. I attended the OSB board meeting and met all the board members. I helped with the early stages of formulating the committee to study the use of reference material in oceanography. I collected bibliographic information about potential committee members and help put together the nominating forms. Additionally, I created a report compiling the recommendations from all the OSB studies conducted over the past five years. My experiences at the OSB were defiantly worthwhile and I really enjoyed my time with the board.”

“I did research on intellectual property issues as they relate to technology transfer of biological inventions between academia and industry. This has been implicated as affecting sharing of research data and tools. This is part of a larger project to identify potential policy issues in the drug development pathway.”

“For my internship, I worked at COSEPUP. My main job was setting up a planning meeting for a possible Academy project on the state funding of research. However, the bulk of my time was spent on a variety of activities such as a report on human cloning, the postdoctoral convocation, the GPRA report, Presidential appointments issues, K-12 Math and Science education, as well as some others.”

“I worked with the Committee on Science Education K-12 (COSE), primarily on a project entitled “Taking Stock of the National Science Education Standards (NSES)”. This is a new project for COSE. I helped prepare materials for the committee meeting in February that served as an initial brainstorming and planning meeting for this project. With the output from the meeting, I helped to develop surveys and discussion guides used to gather feedback from educators and various other players in the K-12 education system. I attended a National Science Teachers Association conference and Council of State Science Supervisors meeting in St. Louis, leading discussions on the NSES and surveying individual teachers from around the country. I also did some searches of the education literature to find publications relevant to the project.”

“I did online research followed by research at the Library of Congress on a number of topics. For various papers my office is considering producing (for the Beyond Discovery series), I researched the histories of gasoline, RSA encryption, pheromones to control insect populations, and the game theory of auctions. I put together timelines for each topic and tried to “fill in the holes” and trace the origins of different branches of research that lead to each innovation. For gasoline, I wrote an assessment on the feasibility of doing the article and on how well it fit the purpose of the series. I also planned three focus groups to assess the “understandability” of the series. I researched “How to run focus groups” and information on readability tests. Then I put together a handout for the groups’ participants and a discussion guide for the moderator (my mentor). I helped run the groups. After, I analyzed the results (comments and suggestions from group participants), eventually writing up a memo for the head of our office with recommendations for improving the series.”

“I worked in the Science, Technology, and Law Program. I did anything that needed to be done, from basic photocopying and filing to researching information and writing briefs and reports.”

“My primary task was to help conceptualize and outline a research project on investigating health disparities among racially and ethnically diverse children. I conducted research on the concepts of race and ethnicity as well as health disparity issues. I attended several seminars on Capitol Hill dealing w/education and diversity. I also completed smaller tasks to help out with other Board reports.”

“I worked with the Board on Global Health filling in gaps of their Imporving Birth Outcomes in Developing Countries’ study with peer reviewed research articles. Went to a couple of congressional hearings and breifings.”

“I worked at the Board on Life Sciences on several projects of the Standing Committee on Agricultural Biotechnology, Health and the Environment. I helped develop 3 consensus report/workshop proposals (GBEC items), and worked with my mentor and NRC committee members to revise and develop the proposals until they reflected what the committee, our sponsors and our board had in mind for each project. I also prepared graphical and textual background materials for committee members, compiled a list of NRC reports relevant to another Standing Committee project, and gathered names and bios of potential committee members for another project. For another project, I did a literature search to generate a list of key references for the committee, and I compiled a list of potential workshop speakers and short bios. In addition, my mentor took me to sponsor meetings with FDA, USDA, EPA and the Pew Charitable Trusts. I also had the opportunity to attend a Board on Agriculture committee meeting and dinner, and the Standing Committee meeting and mini-workshop. Outside of my work for BLS, I attended and wrote a breakout session summary for the COSEPUP “Enhancing the Postdoctoral Experience” convocation, helped organize the intern-led seminar on complementary and alternative medicine, and attended several other interesting seminars, symposia and committee meetings. Other highlights included attending the Nature magazine-sponsored Human Genome Party, getting tours of the city, the National Academy Press and of the Capitol building, going to a talk by Rep. Tony Hall (OH), attending the Associateship and Ford Fellowship Program receptions, seeing the spacesuit-clad leader of the Raelian cult walking the halls of Congress at the House hearing on human cloning and spending a day with the director of the Office of Congressional and Government Affairs on the Hill.”

“I helped refine, research, and write a GBEC proposal for an international workshop on agriculture and natural resource management for BANR. I suggested using Information Technology to facilitate true stakeholder participation, which the team decided to do. We met with several potential workshop participants, and I attended relevant conferences, meetings, and hearings.

I researched the overall human rights situation in Colombia, and investigated particular cases of human rights violations in Colombia that CHR could adopt. I initiated contact and information exchange with relevant contacts in various governmental and non-governmental organizations, both domestic and international. I shall present the relevant case studies and possible courses of action to the Committee members during their semi-annual meeting in May 2001. I chaired a team of interns, which organized and ran a seminar on environmental stewardship.”

  

2000 Interns

“During my winter internship, I worked on two boards: Board on Biology and the Space Studies Board. My main project was to help set them set up the Astrobiology Life Detection workshop. I contacted committee members and speakers for the workshop. I also created a glossary for a report for the Space Studies Board and helped them proof read several reports. In addition, attended several workshops, conferences, and press releases located at the academies and at various other locations in DC.”

“I worked in the Board on Radiation Effects Research. I contributed to the advancement of one project: Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation part VII. I helped my mentor to organize a committee meeting, to organize the material for the committee members, to post the information on the web. I have assisted him during the meeting, helped him to write the “action items” after the meeting, helped him to organize the material for the public access file and with other tasks involved with the projects. I also followed the progress of another project in my board and participated to three committee meetings in the Board on Radiation Waste Management. In my spare time I search for information about radiation biology. Since I have a degree in radiation chemistry and my supervisor is a radiation biologist, in the spare time we often discussed about scientific issues.”

“I worked on a project relating to mental disorders in developing countries. My tasks included the following: Collecting relevant articles for committee members from various sources including the internet, NIH, and mental health sites. Wrote initial draft on the Global burden of disease and how it relates to mental health in developing countries. Using Excel application, I put together tables of already established estimates as well as used data to obtain projection measures of mental health in developing countries. I helped with all logistics for Board and Committee meetings Edited a committee member section and improved its coherence. Attended a few congressional hearings”

“I worked in the Policy Division (COSEPUP) of The National Academies. Specifically, I focused on tallying committee nominations, collecting biographical information, ranking nominees, and similar duties. After the list was narrowed to viable primary candidates and nominees, I collected the information and completed the various NAS forms for the nomination package. I also performed extensive research in order to compile an accurate chronology of past Presidential S&T Appointees. In addition, I also researched the “precautionary principle” for an upcoming COSEPUP meeting as well as a staff seminar. This may lead to future endeavors in this area (but those may involve future interns).”

“I worked on developing a guide for members of the National Academy of Sciences, to be used when creationists attempt to influence the teaching of evolution in public schools.”

“I worked at the Board on Radioactive Waste Management. I searched for background information for a Decontamination & Decommissioning committee meeting. I helped putting together a committee to study Hanford Subsurface Contamination. I had the opportunity to attend a Spring Board Meeting and several other meetings on topics such as high-level waste geological disposal and effects of low-dose radiations. I helped organizing an internship seminar on international issues, including international security and arms control, genetically-modified foods, and epidemics.”

“As an OPUS intern, I worked on a number of projects. I began background research on educational websites and both state and national science education standards, for a middle school science and math education portal website. OPUS will be developing science content for this site, and my part was to determine how we could align the national standards with those from key states. I decided to create a searchable database for this purpose, and organized and formed the database. I also evaluated and reported on the strengths and weaknesses of various existing websites, with particular attention to their use of inquiry-based learning and attention to standards, to help OPUS determine what elements should be included in their website.

I also helped with the Beyond Discovery series, proofreading new articles and searching the Internet for interesting links to include in the online articles. In addition, I identified ways to get the articles translated into foreign languages. OPUS used my suggestion, to purchase a software program to do a rough translation (I did these), thus saving a human translator some time and us some money. Also, we conducted an ad campaign for the Beyond Discovery series, and I helped to edit the ads and find photos at NAP to include in them. The ads will appear in Discover, Atlantic Monthly, and several other publications.

I also attended several seminars and a Congressional briefing, and was one of 3 interns organizing a panel discussion titled “Science, Press, and the Public”.

“I first of all did (5) several literature reviews and based on which wrote short essays concerning issues in sociological or demographic areas. Then I reviewed two academic articles to provide comments as well as critics. Meanwhile I was provided good chances to attend seminars and professional meetings such as the Annual Meeting at Los Angeles “Population Association of America (PAA).” And finally I have been in a process of helping CPOP establish a database regarding urbanization dynamics for developing countries and write a historical background on urbanization.”

“I worked with the Institute of Medicine’s (IOM) National Cancer Policy Board (NCPB) on the “Technologies for Early Detection of Breast Cancer” study. This study is a survey of existing and developing technologies for breast cancer detection and an analysis of the scientific, regulatory, and commercial impediments to the development and introduction of new technologies. I was responsible for identifying and writing reports on the emerging imaging technologies. Part of my time was spent searching for information in scientific journals, but many of these technologies are being developed outside of academia and so are not reported in the traditional journals. In addition, many of these technologies are developing so fast and scientific journal articles often report on work done a year or two years prior to publication that scientific journals give an incomplete picture. Much of my time was spent surveying patents, business journals, and the general press and simply calling companies (often the company CEOs) on the phone and discussing their work with them directly.”

“I worked in the Policy Division at the Board on Science, Technology and Economic Policy (STEP) and with the Government-University-Industry Research Roundtable (GUIRR).

At STEP, I was involved with two primary projects. The first project related to an intellectual property rights conference that was hosted by STEP at the beginning of the internship program. I helped one of the conference speakers identify patent classes for the biotech industry in order to estimate the rate of growth in biotech over the past ten years. This was not a straightforward task, because biotech inventions are fall under many different classifications.

The second task related to the intellectual property conference was to read through the talks and formulate questions for future study about the patentability of gene sequences. In addition to summarizing points discussed during the conference, I also researched the gene patenting issue on the internet and in the major scientific journals. I prepared a short report for my mentor on this topic.

The second project I worked on at STEP was to help in the initial stages of a project entitled, “The economic impact of human genome research.” For this project, I wrote a short summary of major developments and future products that will be developed from this research.

A third project that I will continue to work on through my internship extension is updating and analyzing funding data from government agencies for various scientific disciplines. These analyses will be included in the appendix of the updated version of the STEP publication “Securing America’s Industrial Strength.”

My work with GUIRR focused upon preparations for the March 14-15 Council meeting. My major role was to compile the meeting briefing book and to write a short meeting summary. For the briefing book, I compiled bio sketches from the speakers and located relevant articles for background reading. Materials for the briefing book came from the internet, major journals and publications, and specific suggestions from the meeting speakers. This was an excellent way for me to prepare for the meeting. The summary memo I wrote will be sent to the GUIRR Council Chairs and other GUIRR Council members.”

“I compiled a summary of both internal (NAS) and external organizations that have activities within the Science/Technology/Law intersection. This summary was included in the Agenda Book used for the first meeting of the Science, Technology and Law Panel, which I also complied. I attended the first panel meeting in Irvine. I began work on the Science, Technology and Law homepage. Throughout the length of the program, I complied relevant information to the program (newspaper clippings, court cases, journal articles, and information from web sites) to be used as a reference for the program.”

  

1999 Interns

"This summer I worked with the Office of News and Public Information. I was integrally involved in many projects ranging from writing lay summaries of manuscripts currently in press at The Proceedings of the National Academies of Science (PNAS) to helping committee panel members prepare for a press conference about the safety of silicon breast implants."

"I worked on technical writing for meeting minutes, planning meetings and gathering data needed by any of the three committees I worked with. The three committees I worked for are the Committee for the Strategic Assessment of the US Aeronautics Program, Advanced Engineering Environments Committee and the Space Launch Range Safety Committee."

"This summer I was involved with a project report titled "Nutrition Services for Medicare Beneficiaries." The report arose from the Balanced Budget Act of 1997 in which the Health Care Financing Committee (HCFA) requested that the FNB/IOM evaluate proposed Medicare care coverage extensions in nutrition services. The scope of the project was to review, summarize and evaluate the evidence related to the impact of the provision of comprehensive nutrition services on health and quality of life outcomes to Medicare beneficiaries. In addition, the committee was to evaluate, to the extent data were available, the cost and benefit of such services to Medicare beneficiaries. I was involved with researching the background papers and statistics involved with this report, conducting literature searches, helping to find appropriate speakers for seminar workshops, constructing a bibliography database, drafting part of the methods section for the report, and compiling a list of definitions and terms used throughout the report. I participated in the DC workshop and the writing conference held in California, where I assisted the committee with their draft writing and contributed my input. In addition, I was able to attend a Senate hearing on the Hill that examined financing Medicare coverage extensions."

"I worked on the Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources, editing a symposium celebrating the 70 year history of the Committee on Animal Nutrition, attending a committee meeting and helping to organize a workshop concerning the future of forestry, and putting together a proposal for a study on food irradiation."

"I worked (am working) with the Computer Science and Telecommunications Board (CSTB) on three projects. The Networked Systems of Embedded Computers examines technical opportunities and trends in networked embedded computing—the interconnection of microprocessors within dedicated devices for control or communications purposes. The Broadband Last Mile Technology deals with the current and future communication infrastructure, looking into what technologies, policy approaches, and business models would accelerate deployment and increase broadband access availability. The Internet in the Evolving Information Infrastructure tries to assess the problems that face the Internet over the next decade, identifying factors and issues that must be resolved in order to ensure that the Internet can continue to grow and evolve."

"There was an opportunity for me to work on a few projects in areas that I was not familiar. I researched some general areas of distance learning and was able to gather some information for the meeting of the Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications [1]. I then focused on a particular aspect of distance learning, cost. I did a more in-depth investigation of cost and wrote an article to be used to discuss cost at the 1999 Board on Mathematical Sciences’ Chairs Colloquium. Towards the latter portion of the internship, I had the opportunity to investigate computational science, which is a relatively new area."

"I worked at CBSSE (for both CPOP and BCYF), synthesizing the literature on street children (i.e. causes, adversities, interventions)."

"I spent my summer working for the Committee on International Security and Arms Control (CISAC), which is part of the NRC’s Office of International Affairs. In general, I spent about 75% of my time with CISAC projects, and about 25% with various internship-related activities, most prominently the preparation of our Intern Seminar on consumer protection on the Internet. In addition, I went to a number of congressional hearings, press conferences, and other activities on Capitol Hill, and I enjoyed the numerous intern lunches and meetings."

"For CISAC I worked primarily on two projects. About 25% of my time went into the preparation and support of a two-day symposium on "Finding the Balance: National Security and Scientific Openness," which responded to legislative initiatives following allegations of Chinese espionage at Los Alamos. I participated in numerous staff meetings, where we developed the symposium’s agenda, schedule, speakers list, committee list and so on. My main task was to define the target audience (DOE officials, scientists at DOE labs, arms control groups, Congress etc), inform this audience about our symposium and to make sure that they would participate."

"I spent about 50% of my time preparing a new CISAC study on a possible warhead transparency regime. My advisors trusted me with outlining the issues the committee should focus on and thereby challenged me with a fascinating and worthwhile project. I spent a lot of time reading DOE technical reports on verification measures, White House press releases, and news items on the internet to prepare for interviewing some of the leading experts in this area of nuclear arms control. Since I personally care about these issues, I could hardly stop working on this subject in the evening (when I should have worked on my dissertation). I interviewed experts at the State Department, the University of Maryland, Princeton University, Harvard University, the Union of Concerned Scientists, and the Natural Resources Defense Council. These meetings helped me to develop an annotated bibliography, which will guide CISAC committee members to quickly read up on relevant political and technical issues. I extended my internship by one week in order to present my findings to the CISAC meeting in Woods Hole."

"I worked on two studies. For the reserves (marine protected areas) study I was primarily researching and writing a case study on the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary. For the coastal eutrophication study, I was working on a wide variety of things, from editing material for an appendix to collecting reference material on topics to revising and organizing parts of the report. I also did some outlining and summarizing of parts of the report as well."

"I was assigned to three projects. The one which took most of my time involved following-up on previous interns as a way to evaluate the internship program; I wrote a 20-page or so report on this. The other two projects, which I slightly touched on, included writing a guide to improve the status of postdocs, and writing a guide for philanthropists on how to give to science, engineering, and health. Among other activities, I attended several workshops where issues presented on the NRC report "Evaluating Federal Research Programs" were discussed; a COSEPUP committee meeting; two congressional hearings (on educational reform and on internet privacy); a seminar at George Washington University on Bioethics; and the four seminars organized by the interns. In addition, I had the opportunity to speak with several staff members at the NRC and to chat over lunch, together with other interns, with the presidents of the three National Academies."

"I worked on several projects, associated with the Committee on Representation of Minority Children in Special Education. Specifically, I read and summarized scholarly papers from the 1982 NRC report and presented these summaries to the committee at their first meeting. I assisted in assembling resources for state databases related to various disabilities in special education. Finally, I researched and wrote a literature review on issues related to serious emotional disturbance."

"I worked with the National Cancer Policy Board at the Institute of Medicine. The board recently decided to do a series of case studies on various cancer therapeutics. The goal of these case studies is to identify various approaches that have been successful in cancer research. For my project, I wrote a case history on tamoxifen and a case history on raloxifene. The first part of my internship was spent in the library researching these drugs. While this is something I had experience with, the focus of the research was different from what I had done previously. I focused on policy issues rather than experimental results. Writing these case studies was also a new experience. Previously, everything I had written was for publication in a scientific journal but I wrote these studies for a more general audience. This gave me some insight into writing science for the general public."

"I worked on three projects this summer. First, I synthesized some literature on teacher preparation in the United States. Specifically, I collected evidence that a well-prepared teacher is the best and most cost effective way to achieve high-level student performance. Second, I compiled a list of possible reviewers for the ITEM Technology Education Standards Review Committee. Third, I created a bibliographic database for the Mathematics Learning Study Committee. I also went to two congressional hearings on issues related to education, attended a committee meeting, and took part in some seminars and workshops at the NRC and elsewhere in Washington."

"I was working with Space Studies Board on the issues of Commercial Applications of Remote Sensing (satellite data) by local and state governments. I was doing reviews of recent reports on commercial remote sensing and creating an overview of state prospectives on NASA remote sensing programs. I also helped create the candidate lists for the future committees."

"I spent this summer working, but for a change really enjoyed the experience!

Helped prepare a figure and supporting material for a report on "Genetically Modified Pest Protected plants" which should be coming out shortly. I did a lot of literature review on the topic. I have prepared a glossary and acronym list for the report as well. I attended their last committee meeting that met to decide on how to finalize what goes into the report. During the 3-day period I learnt the process by which they go about coming to consensus on various issues in the report. Got a chance to interact with the scientists. (Jennifer Kuzma’s project) Wrote the introduction to "National Security Implications of Advances in Biotechnology: Threats to Plants and Animals" to be held on Aug.5, ’99. Did a whole lot of literature search and review for this topic. (Jennifer Kuzma’s project) I am in the process of planning a Marine Biotechnology Workshop to be held on Sep16-17 in DC. Again got familiar with the literature and the names of the top scientists who are involved in various fields of Marine Biotechnology Research. Since then I have been inviting the chosen scientists, economists and regulatory agency people to the workshop. (Tania Williams project) Have been involved with a project on developing a workshop on "Improving minority enrollment in Biological Sciences". A workshop for the same will be held in Nov ’99. I have been talking to people from other agencies that are involved in the project at their agencies and reading about the topic. (Tania Williams Project) Helped get a speaker as well as topics for an intern hosted seminar on "Genetic Testing and Privacy Issues". With the aim of improving undergrad Biology education, Dr. Dell took me to a couple of meetings he was having with folks at NSF and NIH. I was able to see first hand how sponsors are approached with ideas and how they can be made to commit physically and financially to a project. Of course I was watching the Master i.e. Dr. Dell, and I think, one of the best at work! Attended other committee and General Body meetings around the complex to get a flavor for the variety of subjects being tackled and to learn something about the process of the meetings as well. I am in the process of updating a GBEC proposal list that will be used in future to decide which of the projects listed can or will be future BB projects or collaborations. This unfortunately will remain unfinished."

"I researched about the experiences of other countries regarding the supply of human resources in Information Technology. Currently the Academy is doing the study "Workforce needs in Information Technology" where four different boards and offices are involved, CSTB, OSEP, BOTA and STEP that is concentrated in the U.S. I studied the case of three very different countries, Finland, Singapore and India that also share the need for more skilful labor in IT and can offer other perspectives to the problem. The final document includes information about government policy and programs aim to increase the computer literacy level of population and the amount of human resources with skills in IT available. It also includes general information about the country in terms of resources in infrastructure, participation of IT in the economy, workforce and education in IT."

"This summer, I attended my group’s council meeting early in the internship, which was an invaluable experience, during which I was exposed to many exciting ideas and people. I have since done follow-up work related to that meeting. I have drafted summaries of the meeting, including follow-up suggestions, based upon comments and feedback received from the meeting attendees. I have conferred with meeting attendees and council members on potential follow-up points and possible future dialogue for the group to carry out, and have also transmitted relevant information from the meeting to other Academy groups. These summaries and follow-up points have also been passed on to colleagues as input for a brochure related to this council meeting."

"I have also worked on another project in which I have investigated trans- and inter-disciplinary university programs, compiling a list of model programs, for a potential future project that may be undertaken. As part of this project, I have also conducted a literature search and summary of work on trans- and inter-disciplinary programs."

"A smaller scale project that I worked on involved beta testing a computer application that simulates decision making in university administration. I reported my assessment of this application, both in terms of the interface, as well as limitations and potential uses of this application, to my mentors as well as a council member who had been asked to investigate this application."

"I have been assigned to the Board on Radiation Effects Research (BRER) in the Commission on Life Sciences. I have two major project areas, food irradiation and low level radioactive waste. My primary project this summer is to draft a proposal to the governing board and potential external sponsors for a study on food irradiation. I am working with a BANR intern on this project. The second project this summer involves developing, and potentially analyzing, a survey, which is sent to research facilities around the nation. The purpose of this survey is to assess whether there is an actual problem associated with low level radioactive waste produced by biomedical or pharmaceutical research facilities."

"I worked with the Board on Radioactive Waste Management, which was my first choice of possible positions to work in the Academies. There are two main projects in which I participated. The first is an ongoing (and nearing completion) study of the remediation problems faced by the Department of Energy for the Hanford Nuclear Reservation (in Washington state) "tank farms." These tanks hold a considerable amount of radioactive waste that is a legacy of the Cold War nuclear weapons program, with varying levels of toxicity (and therefore danger) from tank to tank. Of special interest in this study is the problem of how to plan "long term care" for those tanks for which there is no current technology available to clean them up. The second project I am working on deals with a proposed (as yet funded) study of the current obstacles facing the siting of new facilities for the disposal of "low-level" radioactive waste. Similar to the Hanford tanks study - and true to a great extent of all radioactive waste concerns -- is the issue of long-term monitoring of the waste, whether it is stored on-site (at the place where it is created) or stored or buried at a more centralized facility. The longevity of certain radioactive wastes is a social concern in that we are faced with having to trust that our current governments and institutions will be intact for hundreds if not thousands of years in order for society to be assured that this waste will not become a safety or health hazard not only for us but for many future generations."

"This summer I am working on creating a task force, EASTI, Equitable Access to Scientific and Technical Information. The goal of this project is to setup a steering committee and create a series of international workshops to discuss possible and feasible international cooperation to help developing countries access Internet, thus decrease the "digit divide" between developed countries and developing countries. Currently I am correcting information of the Internet use in developing countries, writing background materials for tentative topics (such as wireless communication technologies, Digital Libraries, Digital Object Identifier, etc.), creating homepage for the EASTI task force, and contacting with other countries academies."

  

1998 Interns

"As an intern for the National Academy of Engineering (NAE), I was involved in developing a workshop on Engineering and Public Television. The mission of the workshop was to identify needs and unique requirements of those in the public television community as they bring engineering concepts to the public via public television. The NAE is bringing together members of the public television community, engineering community, and programming sponsors to fulfill this mission."

"As an intern for the Board on Agriculture (BA), I supported the Welfare of Agricultural Animals During Handling, Transportation, and Slaughter project. This project is in its beginning stages, so I performed research on the topic, identified potential committee members, and worked on an agenda for a workshop on the same topic. I was also involved with the final stages of a report due to Congress entitled Ensuring Food Safety from Production to Consumption. In addition, I worked on the following projects: Animal Nutrition for the Next Century: A Symposium; Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle; Nutrient Requirements of Nonhuman Primates; and Impacts of Livestock Production on the Environment and Public Health."

"While an intern for the Policy Division's Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy (COSEPUP) and the Office of Special Projects (OSP), I worked two major projects: The Government Performance and Results Act (GPRA) and the Science, Technology, and Law program. The GPRA is a law that requires each agency that receives money from congress to a) develop a performance plan, and b) measure their success. The trick with research is, of course, the latter. Congress doesn't want to hear that I wrote 4 papers, each of which was cited 5 times. They want to hear I developed x which produced y dollars, or saved "n" lives. I'm being a bit facetious, but basically there is a dichotomy between basic research and describable outcomes (as opposed to outputs). Anyway, I basically helped to ensure that all runs smoothly: collecting faxes, collating notebooks, and developing summaries of meetings. "My other project was involved with the Science, Technology, and Law program. This program is really in its nascent stages, only one "testing the waters" meeting, in which the question was aired "What kind of studies should we do?". Well, about 70 ideas seemed to flow out like a raging river. My job was to assess, research, and analyze as many of these ideas as I could. Then at the next meeting, the panel looked over each more detailed topic and saw what they really want to study. An incredibly broad range of topics is under investigation, including: the effect of the Y2K glitch (millennium bug) on the economy; copyright protection of databases; the validity of lie detector tests; how to present risk to the courts; have FDA regulations hurt industrial research; is a person criminally liable if they are genetically pre-disposed towards violence; and if a student comes up with an idea that their professor didn't ask them to investigate, legally, whose idea is it? "Anyway, lots to do!"

"As an intern for the Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources (CGER) and the Ocean Studies Board (OSB), I was involved in the Evaluation, Design, and Monitoring of Marine Reserves and Protected Areas in the United States. This study will make recommendations about the general utility of marine reserves, areas in the marine environment set aside for special protection, relative to other management options. The study also will identify the scientific basis and adequacy of methods used to implement marine reserves. I was also involved with the Improving the Collection and Use of Fisheries Data project. This study will evaluate the use of data in fish stock assessments and fishery management, including a variety of issues that range from those specific to summer flounder to more generic topics of data use for assessments of marine fish stocks. These issues will include methods of commercial data collection; accuracy and precision of fishery-independent surveys; institutional arrangements for data collection, analysis, and sharing among state and federal agencies; and appropriateness of data quality control procedures."

"I was in the Office on Public Understanding of Science (OPUS) whose mission is "to foster the mutual responsibility of scientists and the media to communicate to the public, with accuracy and balance, the nature of science and its processes as well as its results." OPUS is different from the other Academy boards and commissions because its primary focus is an ongoing project called Beyond Discovery rather than a series of studies. Beyond Discovery is a series of publications, and a website, tracing the role of basic scientific research in technological and medical advances. (You can tell I was still in the learning phase as I wrote this). Anyway I helped OPUS with some marine initiatives in light of 1998 being designated as the International Year of the Oceans. I worked on underwater acoustics, global climate modeling, and seafloor spreading/plate tectonics. For each field I compiled a list of web links to add to the Beyond Discovery site; a list of nonelected policy makers and the agencies they represent to learn how they disseminate information about research and to add to an OPUS mailing list; a list of research consortia or joint research groups to study their structure (financial, decision-making, resource-sharing) and finally I compiled and reviewed surveys and academic studies on the public understanding of science. So, basically, I think I'm laying a lot of groundwork for OPUS to deal with when I leave!"

"I worked in the Office of Congressional and Government Affairs (OCGA) and followed two information systems issues last summer. The first was the year 2000 (y2k) problem. In a nutshell the y2k problem is an information systems problem stemming from the fact that many computer programs only store the last two digits of the year (e.g., 98 for 1998). The century is assumed to be 1900. This obviously won't work come January 1, 2000. While this problem seems, on the surface, to be only a nuisance it, in fact, is predicted to cause major problems in nearly every sector of our economy. This problem is expected to affect everything from power plants and air traffic control systems to thermostats and microwave ovens, the y2k problem has crept into nearly every facet of our infrastructure and every piece of technology. Government agencies and industry are working hard on the problem but nobody knows whether all the critical systems we depend upon will be y2k ready by January 1, 2000. I followed congressional activity on this issue and wrote a report outlining the academies' role in addressing it. "The second issue I followed relates to a database bill that is quietly working it's way through Congress. This bill extends copyright-like protection for computer databases, including those used for academic research. This is an issue of obvious interest to the Academies since it could have a chilling effect on research. (Imagine if a major research university decided to protect its climate data. Climatologists, such as those studying global warming, would suddenly lose the right to access that data or would have to pay a large fee to gain access.) At the time of this writing it remains unclear as to whether this bill will come to a vote this summer. Nevertheless, the Academies need to keep a close eye on this issue."

"At the Office of News and Public Information (ONPI), I worked a variety of projects. I co-edited the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences tip-sheet, which is a service for reporters to get access to newsworthy articles coming out in the next issue. A science writer composes a short summary of the article and we edit it to make sure it is understandable for reporters. I have also written several blurbs for "Science in the Headlines", which is a web site linking the day's news to the work of the Academy. You can find it at www.nas.edu/headlines. "I also assisted with the news conference for the release of a report by the Institute of Medicine regarding National Institute of Health (NIH) priorities in research funding. I was also involved in writing a News Report article on a National Research Council report on the use of drugs in food animals. News Report is a quarterly magazine highlighting newsworthy events of the academy that is sent to members, reporters, congress, etc. "Lastly, I am also working on my own project looking at how ONPI can reach college campuses and student newspapers."

"I was an intern with the Studies Unit of the Office of Scientific and Engineering Personnel (OSEP). This office is concerned with monitoring and illuminating major national issues in the recruitment, education, and employment of scientific and engineering talent. Additionally, OSEP offers fellowships for graduate students and post-doctoral research experiences. I was involved in initiating a project and developing a research plan designed to evaluate different funding mechanisms (i.e., teaching assistantship, fellowships, loans) for graduate students in terms of the skills learned and career outcomes. Therefore, I reviewed previous studies which evaluated different funding mechanisms; interviewing deans about the funding packages offered by their respective universities; and talking with representatives from national fellowship organizations, and the NIH traineeship programs. My final report contained a summary of the available information, and a plan for how to address these important questions."

"I worked on two committees within the Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education (CBSEE). The Committee on Law and Justice is working on a project entitled "Juvenile Crime, Prevention, Treatment, and Control". Recent legislation has imposed harsher punishment for juvenile delinquents, often making them accountable as adults. These hardcore measures are a response to the trend of increasing violent juvenile crime. The question then is, what can be done to prevent, treat, and control juvenile crime? I helped prepare for as well as attended the first panel meeting for the Committee on Law and Justice's workshop on Transnational Organized Crime. The Committee on Human Factors is another group that I worked with. I conducted research on training in the military. With a lot of new technology available, the military is looking for ways to optimize their training strategies. The issue is, however, whether this new technology actually produces the best training capability, or whether it is not supported by the evidence. Writing the report entails establishing contacts and communicating with military research and development folks, and becoming familiar with the Library of Congress."

"As an intern for the Space Studies Board (SSB) under the Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications (CPSMA), I was involved in three projects titled "Advanced Engineering Environments", "Aeronautics and Space Transportation Technology" and "Space Shuttle Ungrades", all for NASA. The studies are each at different phases of development and I was mostly involved in research work about committee members, literature search and logistics."

"I am working in the Health Care Services Division of the Institute of Medicine (HCS). I prepared a testimony dealing with issues of privacy and confidentiality of data for the National Immunization Registry Plan of Action. I attended a Capital Hill briefing and press release for the much anticipated Children's Health Insurance and Access report and the System of Accountability report. I was also involved with the Safety of Silicon Breast Implant study with the Health Care Services Division and the Division of Health Promotion Disease Prevention. I was primarily responsible for summarizing the written and oral statements presented to the Committee at the Public Meeting for the report."

"As an intern for the Computer Science and Telecommunications Board (CSTB) under the Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications (CPSMA), I was involved with the project entitled "Intellectual Property Rights and the Emerging Information Infrastructure". The report that will be the product of this project is expected to influence policy concerning: content transferred over communications networks (such as the Internet) and what activities are considered intellectual property right violations (such as Copyright violations). For example, policy in this arena can influence what we can copy over the Internet and use in our homepages; what music we can transfer and listen to over the Internet; etc.... without violating someone else's Copyright, of course. "My focus was on the technological aspects of the project. I was studying the capabilities, limitations, trends, tradeoffs, etc. of technologies that can be used to protect content transferred over the Internet. The immediate task was to investigate the various technological innovations that exist for controlling, monitoring, and securing access to information available over networks; and to develop the next level of detail, which involves identifying and contacting individual companies that make these products. Other tasks included developing a taxonomy for the different types of copies that exist (e.g., those that reside in network or computer caches, on disk, on display, or on paper). Overall, my goal was to contribute to the technology portion of the project report."

"I worked for the Center for Science, Mathematics, and Engineering Education (CSMEE). I was involved in two separate projects related to implementing the National Science Education Standards in schools. The aim of the first project is to write an addendum to the Standards describing inquiry based teaching (with the use of specific examples and counter examples). The addendum is intended bridge the Standards with the actual curriculum designed by teachers. I was involved in editing drafts of this report. The goal of the second project was to design an evaluation procedures which school districts can use to select teaching materials (such as textbooks) aligned with the Standards. I was responsible for writing the first draft of the report that will accompany the evaluation instrument. Finally, I participated in a teacher-development program at the Carnegie Institute of Washington. As part of a science book-club, I moderated a discussion of Lee Silver's book, "Remaking Eden". Remaking Eden is about the implications of genetic technology on human reproduction. I had a fantastic Summer!"

"I worked on a piece of a study titled "Ensuring Quality Cancer Care", for the Institute of Medicine (IOM)/National Cancer Policy Board (NCPB). The purpose of this study is to define quality cancer care and to recommend policies to overcome barriers to early detection, accurate diagnosis, optimal treatment, and responsive supportive care. The part that I was responsible for is collecting information on barriers to quality care for individuals dying of cancer and recommendations for strategies to address these barriers. To this end, I conducted a series of telephone interviews with health care professionals (nurses, physicians, social workers, health care researchers, etc.) who are experts in end-of-life care for cancer patients. These taped interviews will then be summarized and submitted as part of the report."

"I focused on two main projects while working with the Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education (CBSSE). The first involved helping the Forum on Adolescence prepare for a planning meeting centered on youth development. This task included reviewing articles for the proposed agenda book, and collaborating with the Forum Program Director on developing the prospectus for the meeting. The second main project was more elusive. I worked with Forum staff on developing an international initiative regarding adolescent health and well-being. Basically, the aim of this project is to identify what are cross-cutting areas of concern for youth, what research has been conducted on youth development, who are the key players involved with research on youth internationally, where are the gaps in the research base, what intervention strategies have been successful in different contexts, and, most importantly, what role should the Forum play in the international arena. This last issue mainly refers to questions about the ability of the Forum to facilitate coordination and collaboration between researchers and those capable of using this research to develop programs on a global scale."

"I was an intern for the Transportation Review Board (TRB). I worked on the project titled "Study of Freight Capacity for the Next Century". I reviewed projections of commercial freight demand over the next two to three decades and compared these results with estimates of available infrastructure capacity. This effort will also identify possible shortfalls in capacity for efficient freight movement on highways, railroads, waterways, airports and port landside facilities.

"I worked at the Center for Science, Mathematics and Engineering Education (CSMEE) on a project entitled, "Teaching About Climate Change and the Nature of Science." This is a proposal for a book modeled on last year's publication "Teaching About Evolution and the Nature of Science." These publications clarify the science content of controversial issues and explain the nature of the enterprise that is science in the context of those issues. My responsibilities included outlining some of the books' chapters, drafting other documents pertaining to the project, and looking for Web sources and no or low cost resources for teachers on the subject of climate change. I looked for funding sources for the project, as well. At the beginning of my internship, I attended a week long Leadership Institute on Science Education Reform forum sponsored by the National Science Resources Center (NSRC). While at NSRC I was able to familiarize myself with high quality, hands-on science curriculum materials. This helped me to frame the major themes in climate change research in a way that I think will be useful for middle and high school students and their teachers. I have enjoyed the opportunity to research this topic and to think about science in this manner."

  

1997 Interns

"This summer has been a great learning experience. I have written prospectuses for two studies that will be done in the near future for the Department of Energy. In this way, I have helped to develop $600,000 worth of projects for the board and learned quite a bit about the project development and approval process. I attended the GBEC meetings when my projects were discussed and participated in meetings and communication with the sponsors. I was also able to attend a number of committee meetings including a number of meetings at Woods Hole. This insight into the committee process was very informative and answered a lot of questions about how things really work behind the scenes and how reports are actually written. Of course, I had to pay my dues and write the minutes for two of these committees, the Decontamination and Decommissioning Subcommittee and the Committee on Environmental Management Technologies. Though this was not my favorite project, it was substantive in some ways because I had never taken minutes before, and as a result was probably the most attentive participant in all of the meetings. I have also been involved in developing background regulatory information on the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The WIPP committee needs a lot of information about the method behind the madness of all the regulations and rules governing this radioactive waste disposal site (WIPP) that is scheduled to open within the next year or so. Whether or when it does open depends on many factors, perhaps including the next WIPP report from the NRC, which I will have had a small hand in bringing to fruition. I am told that my work will merit some mention in the report."

"This summer I worked in the Division of Military Science and Technology within the NRC's Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems. Principally, I participated in two projects: 1) The Review and Evaluation of the Army Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program and 2) The Program and Technical Review of the U.S. Army Chemical and Biological Defense Command. For the first project I did background research for a report that is in preparation and helped during the review process of the report (Making sure reviewers inquiries were answered). For the second project I helped develop a set of questions to be used in an Army research lab quality assessment program. I also attended the first committee meeting (in Dayton, OH) for the Assessment of the Air Force Program on Hypersonic Technology."

"I have enjoyed a very broad experience this summer at the National Research Council. Coincident with my arrival in the Commission of Life Sciences, a CLS board outside my area of scientific expertise hosted a work shop focused on costs of animal based research (ILAR, Institute for Laboratory Animal Research). I summarized the results of the workshop and presented my summary to a meeting of the ILAR Council at Woods Hole. The Council agreed with the recommendations of the workshop steering committee, that the problem deserved a full-fledged study, and working with members of the steering committee I wrote the proposal for this study. In the last week of my internship the director for ILAR and I will meet with a director of the NIH Institute most likely to fund this study for direct feedback on the proposal prior to submission for peer review. In addition to gaining practical experience in the way studies are initiated, I worked on several other ILAR projects, researched issues which were of general interest to Board Directors of the CLS, attended a variety of Congressional hearings which pertinent to the NRC, and participated in the briefing of one Congressman."

"I worked on a new project dealing with how the risks and benefits of medical interventions are weighed to come up with recommendations, and how these recommendations are communicated to the public. It used case studies, and the one I was responsible for learning about was the issue of screening mammography for women aged 40-49 which has been very controversial for a long time, but especially in the last 6 months or so. It involved a lot of research into newspaper and journal articles and some searching into the Congressional Record and reading NRC reports on Risk Communication and Clinical Practice Guidelines."

"Half of my time was spent conducting extensive legislative history research on the origins of FACA, on proposed amendments to and exemptions from FACA, and on Congressionally mandated NAS studies. The other half of my time, I attended Congressional hearings and floor sessions, observed my mentor in action, and went to intern lunches."

"I worked on two adolescent development projects for the Board on Children, Youth, and Families. First, I helped to plan their Youth Development Workshop, which is scheduled to take place in the fall. Broadly, the workshop will bring together researchers and program developers to discuss what is known about how neighborhoods impact adolescent development. More specifically, the workshop will examine how structural aspects of neighborhoods effect youth, how youth interact with formal settings in their communities (like the Boys and Girls clubs, community development organizations, etc.), how youth interact with non-family adults (like neighbors and family friends) in informal community settings, how those interactions affect youth development, and how such interactions are best measured. The workshop is also supposed to be a means for showing researchers and practitioners how much they have to learn from each other on an ongoing basis, as well as to show funders that financing such an ongoing dialogue is crucial to the continued well-informed design of community interventions. I spent time collecting and reviewing background materials for the workshop, selecting the best documents to include in an agenda book, surveying committee members and other researchers about well-respected and relevant ethnographers who could present their research at a session, creating a table of current longitudinal research investigating the impact of neighborhoods on youth, and creating a table of intervention programs demonstrating the various levels of intervention at which programs operate.

"The second project I did some work for this summer was the Forum on Adolescence. I identified and gathered CBASSE and IOM reports related to adolescent development to be used in the preparation of a monograph of NRC work in the field.

"Finally, I attended Youth Policy Forum meetings every week or two, helped to organize the CBASSE / TRG intern luncheon, arranged a series of social science brownbag lunches for interns, attended a variety of committee meetings the Board had scheduled for the summer, attended a few congressional meetings, and, of course, attended the official intern luncheon presentation series."

"My work at CSMEE this summer included participation in two projects. In project RISE, I participated as a reviewer of a new web site which was undergoing a beta test. This web site is targeted to scientists interested in becoming more involved in K-12 science education. In addition to the review, I did research for a portion of the web site which will provide information for scientists who may be interested in becoming K-12 school teachers as an alternative career path. The information included discussions of alternative certification and specific training programs in education as well as other helpful web links.

"The second project involved work on a recently initiated study which will be the first of eight addenda to the National Science Education Standards (NSES). This addendum will focus on scientific inquiry. One goal of this addendum is to provide a summary of the pertinent research literature in science education which supports the implementation of a scientific inquiry-based approach to teaching K-12 science. I investigated this research literature and provided abstracts from hundreds of citations which will be used by the committee member charged with writing the summary.

"I also attended several in-house meetings on new initiatives including the inquiry addendum, dissemination of the NSES, curriculum development and professional development of teachers.

"In addition to my work at CSMEE, I was fortunate to have been given the flexibility to attend a week-long Leadership Institute at the National Science Resources Center where I learned about the process of creating strategic plans for implementing state and school district level changes in K-12 science education. I was also given the opportunity to participate in a Washington, D.C. elementary school teacher professional development workshop where I gave a lecture on my research at Rockefeller University on the molecular genetic basis of obesity and type II diabetes. I attended a hearing of the House Committee on Science which focused on the state of mathematics and science education. I attended several brown bag lunches sponsored by different commissions of the Academy, and a Town Meeting on Clinical Research in the Public Interest sponsored by the IOM."

"I was assigned a number of projects to work on:

Prepared an in depth talking document presented to both EPA and FDA regarding the environmental implications associated with livestock feeding. The talking document is to be used as the framework for a proposal outlining a 3 phase study to include: 1) nutrition and integration of animal feeding considerations with farm system management needs; 2) manure management and the impact of manure on the environment; and 3) social, economic, and public health issues associated livestock production. The document has been viewed favorably and with enthusiasm by BA members, EPA, and FDA. Evaluating and debugging a computer modeling software program for predicting nutrient requirements of swine through 3 life stages. The software is scheduled to be released in conjunction with the next revised edition of Nutrient Requirements of Swine publication. Assisted in editing a manuscript, soon to be released, on the role of chromium in animal nutrition. Began writing of a users guide for the software program for predicting the nutrient requirements of swine. The initial progress on the users guide has been favorably received by members of the CAN swine subcommittee."

"I had two internship work-related experiences:

The first one, on which I spent the bulk of my time, was to assist ONPI with ideas of how to market NAS material more widely on radio, especially on talk radio. In practice this meant identifying public affairs programs that would be potential outlets to use in exposing the public to NAS reports, scientists, and science in general.

For one week only, I assisted an NRC staffer with a part of the CBASSE project on international conflict resolution. The unit wanted to develop a workshop in the fall on international mediation without leverage as a companion to a workshop and paper that was already commissioned on international mediator leverage. In practice this meant compiling a series of documents from the United Nations, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, the Organization for African Unity, and the Organization for American States. Secondly, I wrote a short response to the original paper which included ideas of how to approach the fall workshop."

"Learning about NAS's unique approach to research, especially the way in which projects get funded, shepherded through the research process, and eventually applied to policy making, was a novel experience."

"My main project in the policy division was a potential post-doctoral study for the Committee on Science Engineering and Public Policy (COSEPUP) under the direction of the associate director. My task was to set up a panel discussion on industrial and government usage of post-docs for the July COSEPUP meeting where board members discuss potential and ongoing projects. A previous meeting dealt with the university post-doc experience while I was setting up a panel on industrial and government usage of post-docs. This required contacting people from different sectors of industry (computer, electronic, pharmaceutical) and government laboratories), explaining the proposed study and asking people to speak at the meeting. I created a number of policy questions to be address during the talks and a series of additional questions of potential interest for the discussion. During this time, I wrote a proposal for the postdoctoral report. The panel meet in July and an informative discussion ensued. I also worked on an immunology benchmarking study and attended a meeting at the NIH, gathered information about this field (important meetings, prominent award recipients, the latest exciting discoveries and field directions), and observed the workings of the virtual guidance group."

"I was also interested in industry and venture capital and had the opportunity to work with other NRC staff on writing a chapter of a workshop report which dealt with people, processes and infrastructure of financing new technology start-up companies. This included how entrepreneurs find sources of start-up funds, the people who invest in these companies, and the culture and infrastructure which allow new technology ventures to thrive."

"The project I worked on with one other staffer was in the beginning stages during my internship and my available time was limited. I did have the opportunity to accompany him to a meeting on Capitol Hill where we met with a congressional staff member to discuss the impact of managed care on medical technologies."

"I spent this summer largely helping with the beginning of a new TRB project on the National Automated Highway System Consortium. This involved doing background research on potential candidates, researching the basic history of AHS and the consortium, assembling a starting bibliography for the project, writing the background paper for the first committee meeting, and helping to organize and run the first committee meeting."

"I also spent time exploring the NRC and the Washington D.C. area."