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 Comparative National Innovation Strategies: Best Practice for the 21st Century



Project Scope

The global economy is characterized by increasing locational competition to attract the resources necessary to develop leading-edge technologies as drivers of regional and national growth. One means of facilitating such growth and improving national competitiveness is to improve the operation of the national innovation system. This involves national technology development and innovation programs designed to support research on new technologies, enhance the commercial return on national research, and facilitate the production of globally competitive products.

This report examines selected foreign innovation programs and compare them with major U.S. programs. The analysis will include a review of the goals, concept, structure, operation, funding levels, and evaluation of foreign programs similar to major U.S. programs, e.g., innovation awards, S&T parks, and consortia. It will focus on key areas of future growth, such as renewable energy, among others, to generate case-specific recommendations where appropriate. The report will also assess foreign programs using a standard template, convene a series of meetings to gather data from responsible officials and program managers, and encourage a systematic dissemination of information and analysis as a means of better understanding the transition of research into products and of improving the operation of U.S. programs.

Meetings & Events

 Meeting 17 - 09/19/2011
 Meeting 16 - 06/30/2011
 Meeting 15 - 06/28/2011
 Meeting 14 - 05/24/2011
 Meeting 13 - 11/01/2010
 Meeting 12 - 05/18/2010
 Meeting 11 - 12/03/2009
 Meeting 10 - 10/08/2008
 Meeting 9 - 03/12/2008
 Meeting 8 - 09/20/2006
 Meeting 7 - 06/16/2006
 Meeting 6 - 01/13/2006
 Meeting 5 - 01/10/2006
 Meeting 4 - 01/05/2006
 Meeting 3 - 10/18/2005
 Meeting 2 - 04/15/2005
 Meeting 1 - 04/14/2005


The following reports have been published as part of this study:

 Innovation Policies for the 21st Century 
 India's Changing Innovation System: Achievements, Challenges, and Opportunities for Cooperation
 Innovative Flanders: Innovation Policies for the 21st Century
 21st Century Innovation Systems for Japan and the United States: Lessons from a Decade of Change
 Understanding Research, Science and Technology Parks: Global Best Practices
 Building the 21st Century: U.S.-China Cooperation on Science, Technology, and Innovation 



 Mr. Alan Wm. Wolff - (Chair)
Dewey & LeBoeuf, LLP

Alan Wm. Wolff

Ambassador Alan Wm. Wolff leads Dewey & LeBoeuf's International Trade Practice Group.
He served as United States Deputy Special Representative for Trade Negotiations (1977 - 1979) in the Carter Administration, holding the rank of ambassador, after having served as General Counsel of the agency from 1974 - 1977. As Deputy Trade Representative, he played a key role in the formulation of American trade policy and its implementation. From 1968 to 1973, Ambassador Wolff was an attorney dealing with international monetary, trade and development issues at the Treasury Department.

Ambassador Wolff is a member of The National Academies Board on Science, Technology and Economic Policy (STEP Board) from 1997 - present. He is a lifetime “National Associate” of the National Academies. Ambassador Wolff chairs the Academies’ Committee on Comparative Innovation Policy; Best Practice in National Technology Programs. Ambassador Wolff is Chairman of the Advisory Board of the International Commercial Diplomacy Project; and is a member of the U.S. Department of State's Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy; the Advisory Committee of the Institute for International Economics; the Board of National Foreign Trade Council (NFTC); the Board of Trustees of the United States Council for International Business; the Council on Foreign Relations, the American Society of International Law; and the American Bar Association.

Ambassador Wolff was recognized in Chambers USA - America's Leading Lawyers for Business 2007 as a leader in the field of International Trade and is recognized in Best Lawyers in America 2006 and 2007 as a leader in the field of International Trade and Finance Law. He was also included in The Lawdragon 500 Leading Lawyers in America 2006.

Ambassador Wolff has co-authored books and published numerous papers on trade and U.S. trade law, many of which are listed on the International Trade Group's website (
Ambassador Wolff received an LL.B. from Columbia University and an A. B. from Harvard College. He is a member of the bar in Massachusetts, New York, the District of Columbia, the U.S. Court of International Trade, the Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit, and the Supreme Court of the United States.

Dr. Mary L. Good - (Co-Vice Chair)
University of Arkansas at Little Rock

Dr. Mary L. Good is the Donaghey University Professor at the University of Arkansas Little Rock and serves as Dean for the College of Information Science and Systems Engineering. She is a managing member for Venture Capital Investors, LLC, a group of Arkansas business leaders who expect to foster economic growth in the area through the opportunistic support of technology-based enterprises. Dr. Good also presently serves on the Board of Biogen IDEC, a successful biotech company in Cambridge, Massachusetts; and The Acxiom Corp and Delta Bank and Trust of Little Rock, Arkansas.

Previously Dr. Good served four years as the Under Secretary for Technology for the Technology Administration in the Department of Commerce, a Presidentially appointed, Senate confirmed, position.

The Technology Administration is the focal point in the federal government for assisting U. S. Industry to improve its productivity, technology and innovation in order to compete more effectively in global markets. In particular, the Administration works with industry to eliminate legislative and regulatory barriers to technology commercialization and to encourage adoption of modern technology management practices. The Technology Administration is comprised of the National Institute of Standards and Technology, the National Technical Information Service, the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Technology Policy, and the Office of Air and Space Commercialization.

In addition to her role as Under Secretary for Technology, Dr. Good chaired the National Science and Technology Council's Committee on Technological Innovation (NSTC/CTI), and served on the NSTC Committee on National Security.

Before joining the Administration, Dr. Good was the senior vice-president of technology at Allied Signal, Inc., where she was responsible for the centralized research and technology organizations with facilities in Morristown, NJ; Buffalo, NY; and Des Plaines, IL. She was a member of the Management Committee and responsible for technology transfer and commercialization support for new technologies. This position followed assignments as President of Allied Signal's Engineered Material Research Center, Director of the UOP Research Center, and President of the Signal Research Center. Dr. Good's accomplishments in industrial research management are the achievements of a second career, having moved to an industrial position after more than 25 years of teaching and research in the Louisiana State University system. Before joining Allied Signal, she was professor of chemistry at the University of New Orleans and professor of materials science at Louisiana State University, where she achieved the university's highest professional rank, Boyd Professor.

Dr. Good was appointed to the National Science Board by President Carter in 1980 and again by President Reagan in 1986. She was the Chairman of that Board from 1988 until 1991, when she received an appointment from President Bush to become a member of the President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST). Dr. Good also served on the boards of Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Cincinnati Milacron, and Ameritech. She was also a member of the National Advisory Board for the State of Arkansas.

Dr. Good is an elected member of the National Academy of Engineering, a past president of the American Chemical Society, a Fellow and Past President of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and a member of the American Institute of Chemists and the Royal Society of Chemistry. She has been active on the boards of directors of such groups as the Industrial Research Institute, Oak Ridge Associated Universities, and the National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research. She has also served on advisory panels for the National Research Council, the National Bureau of Standards, the National Science Foundation Chemistry Section, the National Institute of Health, and NASA, and on the executive committee for the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry.

Dr. Good received the National Science Foundation's Distinguished Public Service Award and the Vannevar Bush Award, the Albert Fox Demers Medal Award from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, the American Association for the Advancement of Science Award, the American Institute of Chemists' Gold Medal, and was chosen Scientist of the Year by Industrial Research and Development magazine. She was elected as a Foreign Member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Engineering Sciences in 1990, became a member of the Tau Beta Pi Association (the Engineering Honor Society), was awarded the Charles Lathrop Parsons Award of the America Chemical Society and received the Industrial Research Institute Medallist Award. In 1997, she received the Priestly medal from the American Chemical Society, the highest award given by the association. She has published over 100 articles in reference journals and is the author of a book, Integrated Laboratory Sequence, published by Barnes and Noble.

Dr. Good received her B.S. in chemistry from the University of Central Arkansas and her M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in inorganic chemistry from the University of Arkansas. She has also received numerous awards and honorary degrees from many colleges and universities, including most recently the College of William and Mary, Polytechnic University of New York, Louisiana State University, and Michigan State University.

Dr. Gail H. Cassell
Eli Lilly and Company

Gail Cassell is currently Vice President of Infectious Diseases, Eli Lilly and Company. She was previously the Charles H. McCauley Professor and Chairman of the Department of Microbiology at the University of Alabama Schools of Medicine and Dentistry at Birmingham, a department that ranked first in research funding from the National Institutes of Health under her leadership.

She is a current member of the Director's Advisory Committee of the National Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. She is a past President of the American Society for Microbiology, a former member of the National Institutes of Health Director's Advisory Committee, and a former member of the Advisory Council of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases of NIH. Dr. Cassell served eight years on the Bacteriology-Mycology 2 Study Section and as Chair for 3 years. She also was previously chair of the Board of Scientific Councilors of the Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control.

Dr. Cassell has been intimately involved in establishment of science policy and legislation related to biomedical research and public health. She is the chairman of the Public and Scientific Affairs Board of the American Society for Microbiology; a member of the Institute of Medicine; has served as an advisor on infectious diseases and indirect costs of research to the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy, and has been an invited participant in numerous Congressional hearings and briefings related to infectious diseases, antimicrobial resistance, and biomedical research. She has served on several editorial boards of scientific journals and has authored over 250 articles and book chapters. Dr. Cassell has received several national and international awards and an honorary degree for her research in infectious diseases.

Dr. Carl J. Dahlman
Georgetown University

Carl Dahlman

Carl J. Dahlman is the Luce Professor of International Relations and Information Technology at the Edmund A. Walsh School of Foreign Service at Georgetown University. He joined Georgetown in January 2005 after more than 25 years of distinguished service at the World Bank.

At Georgetown, Dr. Dahlman’s research and teaching explore how rapid advances in science, technology and information are affecting the growth prospects of nations and influencing trade, investment, innovation, education and economic relations in an increasingly globalizing world.

At the World Bank Dr. Dahlman served as Senior Advisor to the World Bank Institute and managed the Knowledge for Development (K4D) since 1999. Prior to that he served as Staff Director of the 1998-1999 World Development Report, Knowledge for Development, was the Bank’s Resident Representative and Financial Sector Leader in Mexico, and led divisions in the Bank’s Private Sector Development, and Industry and Energy Departments. He has conducted extensive analytical work in major developing countries including Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico, Russia, Turkey, India, Pakistan, China, Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam.

Dr. Dahlman’s recent books include: Enhancing China’s Competitiveness through Life Long Learning (2007), Finland and the Knowledge Economy: Accomplishments and Lessons Learned (2006), India and the Knowledge Economy: Leveraging Strengths and Opportunities (2005), China and the Knowledge Economy: Seizing the 21st Century (2001), Korea and the Knowledge-Based Economy: Making the Transition (2000). His recent book chapters include: “Improving, Technology, Skills and Innovation in South Asia, in Ejaz Ghani, editor, South Asia’s Growth and Economic Integration (Macmillan, 2007). “Technology, Globalization and Competitiveness: Challenges for Developing Countries,” in David O’Connor, editor. Industrial Development in the 21rst Century: Sustainable Development Perspectives (United Nations, 2007). “The Innovation Challenge: Drivers of Growth in China and India." In National Research Council. Innovation Policies for the 21st Century. Charles W. Wessner, ed. Washington, D.C., the National Academies Press, 2007. “India’s Knowledge Economy in the Global Context." In National Research Council. India's Changing Innovation System: Achievements, Challenges, and Opportunities for Cooperation. Charles W. Wessner and Sujai J. Shivakumar, eds. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press, 2007. His most recent article is “China and India: Emerging Technological Powers” in National Academy of Sciences, Issues in Science and Technology (Spring 2007).

Dr. Dahlman earned a B.A. magna cum laude in international relations from Princeton University and a Ph.D. in economics from Yale University. He has also taught at Columbia University’s School of International and Public Affairs.



Dr. Bronwyn H. Hall
University of California, Berkeley

Bronwyn H. Hall is Professor of Economics at the University of California at Berkeley, and a Research Associate of the National Bureau of Economic Research, and the Institute for Fiscal Studies, London. She is also the founder and partner of TSP International, an econometric software firm. She received a B.A. in physics from Wellesley College in 1966 and a Ph.D. in economics from Stanford University in 1988. She is currently a member of the Science, Technology, and Economic Policy (STEP) Board of the National Research Council, where she has served on the Intellectual Property and R&D statistics committees. In the past she has visited and taught at several European institutions such as Oxford University; Scuola Superiore Sant?anna, Pisa; European University Institute, Florence; and the New Economic School, Moscow.

Professor Hall has published articles on the economics and econometrics of technical change in journals such as Econometrica, the American Economic Review, the Rand Journal of Economics, and Research Policy. Her current research includes comparative analysis of the U.S. and European patent systems, the use of patent citation data for the valuation of intangible (knowledge) assets, comparative firm-level investment and innovation studies (the G-7 economies), measuring the returns to R&D and innovation at the firm level, analysis of technology policies such as R&D subsidies and tax incentives, and of recent changes in patenting behavior in the semiconductor and computer industries. She has also made substantial contributions to applied economic research via the creation of software for econometric estimation and of firm-level datasets for the study of innovation, including the widely used NBER dataset for U.S. patents.

Dr. Kent H. Hughes
Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars

Kent Hughes has an exceptional background which includes leading the Council on Competitiveness, followed by senior positions in the U.S. Department of Commerce during the Clinton Administration. He now runs an active program at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, where he serves as the Director of the Program on Science, Technology, America, and the Global Economy (STAGE). He is also the consulting director of the Center's Global Energy Initiative.

Prior to joining the Center, Dr. Hughes served as the Associate Deputy Secretary at the U.S. Department of Commerce. At Commerce, he worked to define and implement a long-term competitiveness strategy emphasizing the close links among trade, technology and training. He also worked to create an ongoing dialogue with industry and was particularly active on problems challenging the aerospace and electronics industries. Beyond his regular assignments, he led a number of overseas trade promotion missions, played a lead role in the Department's initiative on information technology workers, and coordinated the Department's outreach to industry on Year 2000 Conversion.

Before joining the Clinton Administration, Dr. Hughes served as President of the Council on Competitiveness, an action-oriented leadership organization composed of chief executives from America's business, labor and academic communities. Under Dr. Hughes' leadership, the Council took the lead in putting technology policy on the national agenda.

Previously, Dr. Hughes held a number of senior positions with the U.S. Congress, where he focused on international economic issues and the question of long-term American economic strength. Among other positions, Dr. Hughes has served as Chief Economist to U.S. Senate Majority Leader Robert Byrd, Senior Economist of the Congressional Joint Economic Committee, and Legislative and Policy Director in the office of U.S. Senator Gary Hart during the Senator's first presidential campaign.

Prior to his Congressional service, Dr. Hughes served as a staff attorney for the Urban Law Institute, a poverty law firm established to provide counsel to national and local groups. He was also an International Legal Center Fellow and Latin American Teaching Fellow in Brazil where he worked on a reform of Brazilian legal education.

Dr. Hughes has spoken and written widely on a variety of economic topics including his 1979 book, Trade, Taxes, and Transnationals: International Economic Decision Making in the Congress.

Dr. Hughes holds a Ph.D. in economics from Washington University, an LL.B. from Harvard Law School, and a B.A in political and economic institutions from Yale University.

Mr. Michael G. Borrus
X/Seed Capital Management

Michael Borrus is the founding General Partner of X/Seed Capital Management. Prior to founding X/Seed, Michael was an EIR at Mohr Davidow Ventures.

From 1999 to 2004, Michael led the technology banking unit at The Petkevich Group, a financial services start-up. Before that, Michael was Adjunct Professor in UC Berkeley’s College of Engineering and a partner in the business consulting firm Industry and Trade Strategies. While at Berkeley, he co-founded the Berkeley Roundtable on the International Economy.

He has authored three books and more than 70 chapters, articles and monographs on topics such as management of technology, high technology competition, international trade and investment and financial strategies for technology companies. Much of his academic and consulting work focused on how business models need to adjust to exploit new market opportunities or adapt to new competitors.

Michael serves on several National Academy of Science/National Research Council steering committees including serving as Vice-Chairman of the Committee on Competing in the 21st Century. He also serves on the board of trustees for the National Center for Women and Information Technology (NCWIT) and is on The UC Berkeley School of Mechanical Engineering External Advisory Board.

He holds a BA degree from Princeton University, MA from UC Berkeley and JD from Harvard Law School.

Dr. Charles K. Ebinger
The Brookings Institution

Charles Ebinger is the Director of the Energy Security Initiative at the Brookings Institution. Prior to joining Brookings, he was a Senior Energy Advisor at the International Resources Group. Ebinger was an Adjunct Professor at Georgetown University's School of Foreign Service from 1979-2003 and is currently an Adjunct Professor at Johns Hopkins University's Nitze School of Advanced International Studies. He also currently serves on the Board of Directors of the Washington Chapter of the International Association of Energy Economists. Dr. Ebinger has 30 years of experience addressing the security, political, economic, environmental, and foreign policy interrelationships surrounding domestic and international energy issues.

In 1975, he helped to establish the International Energy Agency and its oil-sharing mechanism. From 1976 to 1979, Dr. Ebinger served as Vice President of Conant and Associates, an international oil, gas and electricity political risk consulting company. In 1979, he became the founding Director of CSIS's Energy and Strategic Resources Program and served as Director until 1987. From 1987-1988, he was a Senior Consultant at Putnam Hayes & Bartlett. From 1988-1999, he served as Executive Vice President at the International Resources Group. In 1999, he joined Stone & Webster Management Consultants as the Director of International Energy Practice. From 2000-2004 he held several positions at Bechtel Consulting, including Vice President and Director of International Utility Services, Senior Vice President for Middle East, Central Asia, and Africa, and Senior Vice President for Global Privatization/ Restructuring/Regulation. He received his B.A. from Williams College and his Ph.D. from the Fletcher School of International Law and Diplomacy at Tufts University. 



Department of Commerce, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Sandia National Laboratories, Office of Naval Research, National Cancer Institute, Department of Energy, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, National Science Foundation, Intel Corporation, International Business Machines, Google, Palo Alto Research Center, M Square, Association of the University Research Parks, Volkswagen Group of America, Inc.